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1.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(9): 1724-1726, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467405

RESUMO

The annual meeting of the Society for Epidemiologic Research is a prominent showcase for epidemiologists to present their research and share their expertise with peers. There are multiple paths to being on a podium at the meeting, and that role has implications for not only the speaker but also the audience. The article by Nobles et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2021;190(9):1710-1720) represents an innovative investigation of representation among speakers at 3 recent SER annual meetings, with a primary focus on gender. Women were significantly under-represented as symposium speakers, which is an important role at the meeting. Symposium talks are invited talks and thus recognition of stature in the field. However, women were not under-represented as speakers in the concurrent contributed sessions, which are not invited talks and undergo blinded peer review. This gender contrast between the speakers at concurrent contributed sessions and the symposia is likely due to the different submission processes for the 2 types of presentations, but it could also reflect the review processes. Although the symposia are highly informative and enjoyable components of the meetings, some modifications in the submission and evaluation processes may be beneficial.


Assuntos
Equidade de Gênero , Médicas , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Sociedades Médicas
2.
Psychiatry Res ; 305: 114173, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469804

RESUMO

Using daily vital statistics data from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, we provide the first weekly and age-group-specific estimates of the additional suicide burden during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan by gender, from January through November 2020. Our results indicate that compared with the previous five years, suicide cases in 2020 in Japan have increased from late July to November for women in all age groups and for men in the 20-29 and 80+ years age group. Targeted interventions based on age and gender might be more effective in reducing suicide during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan.

3.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(10): 663-670, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased mortality in transgender people has been described in earlier studies. Whether this increased mortality is still present over the past decades is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate trends in mortality over five decades in a large cohort of adult transgender people in addition to cause-specific mortality. METHODS: We did a retrospective cohort study of adult transgender people who visited the gender identity clinic of Amsterdam University Medical Centre in the Netherlands. Data of transgender people who received hormone treatment between 1972 and 2018 were linked to Statistics Netherlands. People were excluded if they used alternating testosterone and oestradiol treatment, if they started treatment younger than age 17 years, or if they had ever used puberty-blockers before gender-affirming hormone treatment. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated using general population mortality rates stratified by age, calendar period, and sex. Cause-specific mortality was also calculated. FINDINGS: Between 1972 and 2018, 8831 people visited the gender identity clinic. 4263 were excluded from the study for a variety of reasons, and 2927 transgender women and 1641 transgender men were included in the study, with a total follow-up time of 40 232 person-years for transgender women and 17 285 person-years for transgender men. During follow-up, 317 (10·8%) transgender women died, which was higher than expected compared with general population men (SMR 1·8, 95% CI 1·6-2·0) and general population women (SMR 2·8, 2·5-3·1). Cause-specific mortality in transgender women was high for cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, HIV-related disease, and suicide. In transgender men, 44 people (2·7%) died, which was higher than expected compared with general population women (SMR 1·8, 95% CI 1·3-2·4) but not general population men (SMR 1·2, 95% CI 0·9-1·6). Cause-specific death in transgender men was high for non-natural causes of death. No decreasing trend in mortality risk was observed over the five decades studied. INTERPRETATION: This observational study showed an increased mortality risk in transgender people using hormone treatment, regardless of treatment type. This increased mortality risk did not decrease over time. The cause-specific mortality risk because of lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, HIV-related disease, and suicide gives no indication to a specific effect of hormone treatment, but indicates that monitoring, optimising, and, if necessary, treating medical morbidities and lifestyle factors remain important in transgender health care. FUNDING: None.

4.
Prev Med ; 153: 106779, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487748

RESUMO

Ensuring healthcare access is critical to maintain health and prevent illness. Studies demonstrate gender disparities in healthcare access. Less is known about how these vary with age, race/ethnicity, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We utilized cross-sectional data from 2016 to 2019 CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a U.S. telephone-based survey of adults (≥18 years). Measures of difficulty accessing healthcare included absence of healthcare coverage, delay in healthcare access, absence of primary care physician, >1-year since last checkup, inability to see doctor due to cost, and cost-related medication non-adherence. We studied the association between gender and these variables using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, stratifying by age, race/ethnicity, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease status. Our population consisted of 1,737,397 individuals; 54% were older (≥45 years), 51% women, 63% non-Hispanic White, 12% non-Hispanic Black,17% Hispanic, 9% reported atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In multivariable-adjusted models, women were more likely to report delay in healthcare access: odds ratio (OR) and (95% confidence interval): 1.26 (1.11, 1.43) [p < 0.001], inability to see doctor due to cost: 1.29 (1.22, 1.36) [p < 0.001], cost-related medication non-adherence: 1.24 (1.01, 1.50) [p = 0.04]. Women were less likely to report lack of healthcare coverage: 0.71 (0.66, 0.75) [p < 0.001] and not having a primary care physician: 0.50 (0.48, 0.52) [p < 0.001]. Disparities were pronounced in younger (<45 years) and Black women. Identifying these barriers, particularly among younger women and Black women, is crucial to ensure equitable healthcare access to all individuals.

5.
Pharmacol Ther ; : 107978, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492236

RESUMO

Probiotics are live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, present a health benefit for the host. While the beneficial effects of probiotics on gastrointestinal function are generally well recognized, new animal research and clinical studies have found that alterations in gut microbial communities can have a broad range of effects throughout the body. Non-intestinal sites impacted include the immune, endocrine, cardiovascular and the central nervous system (CNS). In particular, there has been a growing interest and appreciation about the role that gut microbiota may play in affecting CNS-related function through the 'microbiota-gut-brain axis'. Emerging evidence suggests potential therapeutic benefits of probiotics in several CNS conditions, such as anxiety, depression, autism spectrum disorders and Parkinson's disease. There may also be some gender-specific variances in terms of probiotic mediated effects, with the gut microbiota shaping and being concurrently molded by the hormonal environment governing differences between the sexes. Probiotics may influence the ability of the gut microbiome to affect a variety of biological processes in the host, including neurotransmitter activity, vagal neurotransmission, generation of neuroactive metabolites and inflammatory response mediators. Some of these may engage in cross talk with host sex hormones, such as estrogens, which could be of relevance in relation to their effects on stress response and cognitive health. This raises the possibility of gender-specific variation with regards to the biological action of probiotics, including that on the endocrine and central nervous systems. In this review we aim to describe the current understanding in relation to the role and use of probiotics in microbiota-gut-brain axis-related dysfunction. Furthermore, we will address the conceptualization and classification of probiotics in the context of gender and lifespan as well as how restoring gut microbiota composition by clinical or dietary intervention can help in supporting health outcomes other than those related to the gastrointestinal tract. We also evaluate how these new learnings may impact industrial effort in probiotic research and the discovery and development of novel and more personalized, condition-specific, beneficial probiotic therapeutic agents.

6.
Med Educ ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473373

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recent research suggests that the gender of health care providers may affect their medical performance. This trial investigated (1) the effects of the gender composition of resuscitation teams on leadership behaviour of first responders and (2) the effects of a brief gender-specific instruction on leadership behaviour of female first responders. METHODS: This prospective randomised single-blinded trial, carried out between 2008 and 2016, included 364 fourth-year medical students of two Swiss universities. One hundred and eighty-two teams of two students each were confronted with a simulated cardiac arrest, occurring in the presence of a first responder while a second responder is summoned to help. The effect of gender composition was assessed by comparing all possible gender-combinations of first and second responders. The gender-specific instruction focused on the importance of leadership, gender differences in self-esteem and leadership, acknowledgement of unease while leading, professional role, and mission statement to lead was delivered orally for 10 min by a staff physician and tested by randomising female first responders to the intervention group or the control group. The primary outcome, based on ratings of video-recorded performance, was the first responders' percentage contribution to their teams' leadership statements and critical treatment decision making. RESULTS: Female first responders contributed significantly less to leadership statements (53% vs. 76%; P = 0.001) and critical decisions (57% vs. 76%; P = 0.018) than male first responders. For critical treatment decisions, this effect was more pronounced (P = 0.007) when the second responder was male. The gender-specific intervention significantly increased female first responder's contribution to leadership statements (P = 0.024) and critical treatment decisions (P = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: Female first responders contributed less to their rescue teams' leadership and critical decision making than their male colleagues. A brief gender-specific leadership instruction was effective in improving female medical students' leadership behaviours.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501646

RESUMO

Transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) people experience high rates of minority stress and associated risk for negative health outcomes. However, during the last years, significant positive socio-cultural changes have happened, and younger cohorts of TGNC individuals are having diverse experiences compared to older cohorts. By integrating the minority stress theory and the life course perspective, this cross-sectional, web-based study aimed to explore in 197 Italian TGNC people aged 18 to 54 years (M = 29.82, SD = 9.64) whether the average ages of gender identity milestones (i.e., first insights about being TGNC, self-labeling as a TGNC person, and coming out), minority stress, and mental health vary among three generational cohorts (i.e., Generation Z, Millennials, and Generation X). Compared with older cohorts, younger participants: (a) were more likely to be in the trans-masculine spectrum; (b) self-labeled as TGNC and came out earlier; (c) had more negative expectations and lower levels of disclosure; and (d) had higher levels of mental health problems. No generational differences related to first insights about being TGNC and distal minority stressors were found. Furthermore, compared with binary individuals, participants with a non-binary identity: (a) reported later ages for the gender identity milestones; (b) had higher negative expectations; and (c) had higher levels of mental health problems. Overall, our findings indicated that changes in the social environments have a limited impact on stigmatization processes and mental health of Italian TGNC people.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501714

RESUMO

Many previous studies have indicated that urban adolescents show a higher level of mental health in China compared to rural adolescents. Specifically, girls in rural areas represented a high-risk group prior to the 21st century, demonstrating more suicidal behaviour and ideation than those in the urban areas because of the severe gender inequality in rural China. However, because of the urbanisation process and centralised policy to eliminate gender inequality in recent decades, the regional and gender differences in mental health might decrease. This research aimed to probe the gender and regional differences in depressive traits among adolescent students currently in China. We adopted the national survey dataset Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS) conducted in 2018. Accordingly, 2173 observations from 10-15-year-old subjects were included. CFPS utilised an eight-item questionnaire to screen individuals' depressive traits. Two dimensions of depressive traits were confirmed by CFA, namely depressed affect and anhedonia. The measurement invariance tests suggested that the two-factor model was applicable for both males and females and rural and urban students. Based on the extracted values from the CFA model, MANOVA results revealed that, compared to boys, girls experienced more depressed affect. Moreover, rural students demonstrated more anhedonia symptoms. There was no interaction between gender and region. The results suggest that, even though the gender and regional differences are small, being a female and coming from a rural area are still potential risk factors for developing depressive traits among adolescent students in China.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501809

RESUMO

Transgender and gender diverse (TGD) youth experience health disparities due to stigma and victimization. Gender-affirming healthcare mitigates these challenges; yet, we have limited understanding of TGD youth's healthcare experiences in the U.S. Midwest and South. Using a multiple case study design, we aimed to develop an in-depth and cross-contextual understanding of TGD youth healthcare experiences in one Midwestern state. Families with a TGD child under 18 were recruited with the goal of cross-case diversity by child age, gender, race, and/or region of the state; we obtained diversity in child age and region only. Four white families with TGD boys or non-binary youth (4-16) in rural, suburban, and small towns participated in interviews and observations for one year; public data were collected from each family's community. Thematic analysis was used within and across cases to develop both family-level understanding and identify themes across families. Findings include a summary of each family as it relates to their child's TGD healthcare experiences as well as the themes identified across cases: accessibility and affirming care. Although limited by a small sample with lack of gender and race diversity, this study contributes to our understanding of TGD youth healthcare in understudied regions.

10.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 384, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has supported the utility of the Double ABCX model of family adaptation for parents in various diseases. Nonetheless, it remains unclear how raising a child with rare congenital surgical diseases impacts the mental health of both mothers and fathers. METHODS: The potential predictors of maternal and paternal mental health in a German sample of 210 parents of children with rare congenital surgical diseases were investigated. Parents were investigated cross-sectionally utilizing standardized psychometric questionnaires that assessed factors attributed to parental adaptation within the Double ABCX model. RESULTS: Stressor pile-up, family functioning, perceived stress, and mental health were positively associated with mothers and fathers. However, further analyses revealed that family functioning, social support, and perceived stress fully mediated the positive association between stressor pile-up and mental health in mothers, but not fathers. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that parental adaptation to a rare congenital surgical disease in their children may be improved by increased intra- and extrafamilial resources and decreased perceived family-related stress in mothers, but not fathers. Our results may help to identify gender-specific factors that may guide clinicians and future interventions.

11.
Lancet ; 398(10304): 953-954, 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509225
13.
Int J Aging Hum Dev ; : 914150211040458, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514858

RESUMO

Recent studies have projected an increase in aging informal caregivers who are often dealing with their frailty. However, little is known about their health, caregiving factors, or coping resources that promote health. Informed by lifespan perspective and health behavior models, this study examined the gender differences in health and caregiving profiles of aging informal caregivers and investigated the association between leisure activity and unhealthy days. A sample of 565 informal caregivers (>50 years) was drawn from the Oregon version of the 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Descriptive analyses revealed that the caregivers were mainly women between 60 and 69, White non-Hispanic, married, college graduates, retired and healthinsured. Negative binomial regression showed that leisure activities were related to fewer odds of reporting unhealthy days for most comparison scenarios. Findings emphasize the importance of accounting for group differences and similarities in understanding health and caregiving factors among informal caregivers.

14.
Stem Cells Dev ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514867

RESUMO

Diabetes is a pandemic manifested through glucose dysregulation mediated via inadequate insulin secretion by beta cells. A beta cell replacement strategy would transform the treatment paradigm from pharmacologic glucose modulation to a genuine cure. Stem cells have emerged as a potential source for beta cell (ß-cell) engineering. The detailed generation of functional ß-cells from both embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells has recently been described. Adult stem cells, including adipose derived, may also offer a therapeutic approach but remain ill-defined. In our study, we performed an in-depth assessment of insulin producing beta cells generated from human adipose, irrespective of donor patient age, gender and health status. Cellular transformation was confirmed using flow cytometry and single cell imaging. Insulin secretion was observed with glucose stimulation and abrogated following palmitate exposure; a common free fatty acid implicated in human beta cell dysfunction. We used next generation sequencing to explore gene expression changes prior to and after differentiation of patient matched samples which revealed more than 5000 genes enriched. Adipose derived beta cells displayed comparable gene expression to native ß-cells. Pathway analysis demonstrated relevance to stem cell differentiation and pancreatic developmental processes which are vital to cellular function, structural development and regulation. We conclude that the functions associated with adipose derived beta cells is mediated through relevant changes in the transcriptome which resemble those seen in native ß-cell morphogenesis and maturation. Therefore, they may represent a viable option for the clinical translation of stem cell-based therapies in diabetes.

15.
Respiration ; : 1-12, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence of gender-specific phenotypic differences among patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), which may affect patient outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We present the characteristics of patients with IPF at inclusion in the French Rare Disease Cohort - Interstitial Lung Disease (RaDiCo-ILD) with the aim of characterizing gender-specific phenotypic differences. METHODS: Patients with IPF who were enrolled in the national, multicentre RaDiCo-ILD cohort were included. Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores, pulmonary function, chest imaging, and IPF treatment were collected at inclusion and described by gender. RESULTS: The cohort included 724 patients with IPF (54% of RaDiCo-ILD cohort), of whom 82.9% were male. The proportion of male and female patients with a prior history of smoking was 75.0% and 26.8%, respectively. Emphysema was present in 17.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.0, 24.0) of men and 5.4% (95% CI: 1.2, 9.6) of women. At inclusion, females had poorer HRQoL than males based on St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire scores (48.5 [95% CI: 43.9, 53.0] and 41.5 [39.4, 43.6], respectively). The mean forced vital capacity per cent predicted was 77.7% (95% CI: 76.2, 79.3) and 87.4% (83.4, 91.4) for males and females, respectively. Honeycombing on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was present in 70.8% (95% CI: 61.0, 80.6) of males and 45.8% (95% CI: 35.1, 56.5) of females. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis of patients with IPF at inclusion in the RaDiCo-ILD cohort provides evidence that comorbid emphysema, lung volume reduction, and honeycombing on HRCT are more common characteristics of males than females.

16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 433, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The system of secure care for young people in England and Wales comprises youth justice, welfare and mental health facilities. Empirical studies have failed to investigate the system as a whole. The National Adolescent Study in 2016 was the first to provide comprehensive system wide information. This paper, derived from that data set, addresses equity of service provision for young men and women in secure care who have mental health problems. METHODS: The detained census population of English young people in 2016 was 1322 and detailed data were available on 93% of this population, including 983 young men and 290 young women. The descriptive census data were interrogated to identify associations between gender, other sociodemographic and clinical variables, using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: Numerically more young men in secure care than young women in secure care warrant a psychiatric diagnosis but young women had a 9 fold increase in the odds of having a diagnosis compared with the young men. The pattern of mental health diagnoses differed significantly by gender as did the legislative framework under which females and males were placed. This different pattern of secure care placement continued to differ by gender when the nature of the mental health diagnosis was taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: No definitive explanation is evident for the significantly different placement patterns of young men and young women with the same mental health diagnoses, but the anticipated consequences for some, young men and some young women are important. Proper explanation demands an examination of process variables outwith the remit of this study. The lack of routine scrutiny and transparent processes across secure settings could be responsible for the development of these differential placement practices; these practices seem at odds with the duty placed on public services by the Equality Act.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Feminino , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 227: 108978, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Gender differences in the prevalence of opioid misuse continue to evolve and have not been well characterized in recent years. Our objective was to investigate gender differences in the prevalence of opioid misuse and use disorder in the US over the 5-year period from 2015 to 2019. METHODS: We used annual survey data from the 2015-2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health to estimate gender differences in the prevalence of opioid misuse. We examined past-year opioid analgesic misuse initiation, opioid analgesic misuse, heroin use, opioid analgesic use disorder and heroin use disorder. Logistic regression models were used to test gender differences, adjusting for sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: In adjusted analyses, women had higher odds of having initiated opioid analgesic misuse in the past year compared to men. In contrast, men had higher odds of misuse of opioid analgesics, heroin use, and an opioid analgesic or heroin use disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Although opioid misuse has historically been more prevalent in men, the gender difference in opioid analgesic misuse continues to narrow, with more women initiating misuse than men including higher rates of misuse in adolescent girls. Heroin use continues to be approximately twice as common in men as women.

18.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 227: 109015, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Problematic substance use (SU) has increased substantially during the COVID-19 pandemic. While studies have identified risk factors for problematic SU during the pandemic (e.g., anxiety, depression, using substances to cope), these studies have been predominately cross-sectional, rarely examined changes in SU contexts during the pandemic as potential risk factors, and neglected sexual and gender minorities (SGM) - a health disparity population disproportionately impacted by substance use disorders and the pandemic. METHOD: We utilized two waves of data collected one month apart from a sample of 212 SGM assigned female at birth who used alcohol and/or cannabis (18-25 years old) collected between August 2020-February 2021. We examined associations between potential risk factors (i.e., retrospectively reported changes in anxiety/depression and in using substances in different contexts since before the pandemic): and 1) retrospectively reported changes in alcohol and cannabis consumption; 2) coping motives for use and SU consequences; and 3) subsequent changes in coping motives and consequences. RESULTS: An increase in solitary SU was a robust risk factor for concurrent and prospective increases in SU, coping motives, and consequences. Increases in SU with romantic partners were associated with concurrent increases in alcohol/cannabis consumption and consequences. Increases in anxiety and depression were associated with concurrent increases in SU and higher coping motives and consequences. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that solitary SU and increases in SU with romantic partners are robust risk factors for increases in SU and consequences in the context of the pandemic. Further, findings provide support for the self-medication theory of substance use.

19.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e050887, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To systematically document measurement approaches used in the monitoring and evaluation of gender-based violence (GBV) risk mitigation activities, categorise the types of available literature produced by sector, identify existing tools and measures and identify knowledge gaps within the humanitarian sector. DESIGN: Systematic mapping and in-depth review. DATA SOURCES: Pubmed, Global Health, PsychInfo, ReliefWeb, OpenGrey (grey literature), Google Scholar, Web of Science (Social Science Index)Eligibility criteria: a structured search strategy was systematically applied to 17 databases as well as registers, websites and other resources to identify materials published between 1 January 2005 and 15 May 2019. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Those resources that met the inclusion criteria underwent a comprehensive full-text review. A detailed matrix was developed and key data from each resource were extracted to allow for the assessment of patterns in thematic areas. RESULTS: A total of 2108 documents were screened. Overall, 145 documents and 112 tools were reviewed, representing 10 different humanitarian sectors. While numerous resources exist, many lack sufficient information on how to monitor outputs or outcomes of GBV risk mitigation activities. There is also limited guidance on how to integrate the measurement of GBV risk mitigation into existing monitoring and evaluation frameworks. Those reports that aimed to measure GBV risk mitigation activities mostly employed qualitative methods and few measured the impact of a GBV risk mitigation with robust research designs. CONCLUSIONS: Recent efforts to adapt humanitarian response to COVID-19 have highlighted new and existing challenges for GBV risk mitigation. There is a significant gap in the evidence base around the effectiveness of GBV risk mitigation across all sectors. Understanding and strengthening measurement approaches in GBV risk mitigation remains a critical task for humanitarian response.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Violência de Gênero , Atenção à Saúde , Violência de Gênero/prevenção & controle , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Front Public Health ; 9: 688811, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513782

RESUMO

Background: Perfectionism in adolescence has received increased attention, but few studies have examined this in non-clinical samples. This study investigated perfectionism among adolescents from the general population in relation to demographic factors. Methods: The present study is cross-sectional and draws on the epidemiological youth@hordaland study. The sample consisted of 10.217 adolescents aged 16-19 years (52.9% girls). Self-reported perfectionism was assessed by the EDI-P scale from the Eating Disorder Inventory with two dimensions of perfectionism, namely self-oriented (SOP) and socially prescribed (SPP) perfectionism, and a total score. Perfectionism was analyzed in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) by perceived economic well-being and parental education level. Chi-squared tests, t-tests, and regression analyses were performed. Results: There were few gender differences on the mean scores on perfectionism, with similar levels on the total score of EDI-P and SOP, while girls scored slightly higher on SPP (p < 0.001). The latter gender difference represented a small effect size (Cohen's d = 0.053). Chi-square analyses with perfectionism split at the 90th percentile across gender showed that there were significantly more girls than boys among the high scorers both for EDI-P, EDI-SOP, and EDI-SPP. There were no significant differences between levels of perfectionism between the three age groups. The logistic regression analyses adjusted by age and gender showed that adolescents with a better perceived economic well-being had increased odds of high perfectionism. This was evident for overall EDI-P (OR = 1.760, 95% CI = 1.493-2.076), SOP (OR = 1.543, 95% CI = 1.292-1.843), and SPP (OR = 1.836, 95% CI = 1.559-2.163). Parental education was not significantly associated with perfectionism scores among the adolescents. Conclusions: The levels of perfectionism were relatively similar between the genders in the present study, besides slightly higher SPP among girls than boys. There were also significantly more girls than boys among the high scorers on overall perfectionism, SOP, and SPP, respectively. High perfectionism was related to SES for perceived economic well-being, but not for parental education level. Implications for further research and clinical interventions were suggested.

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