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1.
Pers Individ Dif ; 170: 110417, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052155

RESUMO

Recent popular press authors have proposed that men are less likely to wear face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigate this notion in the current article by analyzing three extant datasets. We also assess the mediating effect of eight different face mask perceptions in the relation between gender and face mask wearing via the Face Mask Perceptions Scale. Across the three datasets, the sample-size weighted meta-analytic correlation between gender and face mask wearing was not statistically significant, and no face mask perception was a consistent mediator of this effect. Gender did have significant relations with two face mask perceptions, however. Men were more likely to perceive face masks as infringing on their independence, whereas women were more likely to perceive face masks as uncomfortable. Therefore, although gender does not relate to whether a person wears a face mask, it does relate to face mask perceptions. We offer several suggestions for research and practice from these results, such as the positioning of face mask wearing alongside passive health behaviors, the broader study of face mask perceptions' outcomes beyond face mask wearing, as well as the creation of interventions to target differing face mask perceptions across genders.

2.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 31(2): 713-723, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999583

RESUMO

Background: Efforts in the prevention and treatment of depression among Hispanic immigrant women require studies to identify modifiable factors of depression. Some factors that may merit investigation are gender roles such as egalitarian gender attitudes, marianismo, and self-silencing. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 231 Hispanic immigrant women living in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Logistic regression was used to examine associations of covariates, egalitarian gender attitudes, marianismo, and self-silencing in relation to depression. Results: Egalitarian gender attitudes were not associated with depression. For marianismo domains, higher scores on the spiritual pillar scale were associated with lower odds of depression. With regard to self-silencing, higher scores on externalizing self-perception and divided self were associated with higher odds of depression. Conclusions: Findings add to the limited literature on depression among Hispanic immigrants and provides some insight on sociocultural factors that may be considered in depression interventions for Hispanic immigrant women.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239708, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002042

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence against women is one of the most common forms of violence. Different research fields are trying to understand the cycle of violence, such as the psychological field, to understand how these women's relational patterns and intrapsychic conflict function in the cycle of violence. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the operationalized psychodynamic diagnosis of women victims of domestic violence, exploring the severity and experience of violence, structural functions, dysfunctional interpersonal patterns, and intrapsychic conflicts. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional quantitative study using the OPD-2 Clinical Interviews, which were recorded and transcribed. The sample was composed by 56 women victims of domestic violence, mean age 30.07 (SD = ±9.65). Reliability was satisfactory for judges interviews(k>0,6). RESULTS: According to the OPD-2 evaluation, we found that the severity of the violence was associated with the intensity of women's subjective suffering. In the relational pattern, they stay in the relationship, leaving themselves vulnerable; perceive the partner as controlling, aggressive, offensive, and fear abandonment. As a defensive mechanism to relational discomfort and suffering victims anticipate the aggressor's desire, resulting in submissive behavior. The main psychic conflict was the "need for care versus self-sufficiency" (78.6%). And medium was the predominant structure level, in which they presented insecure internal objects, presenting difficulties in emotional regulation and perceiving reality in a distorted way. Hence, they do not recognize their limitations and needs. We found that 78.6% of the cases had some psychiatric disorder: MDD, PTSD. CONCLUSION: This study provides empirical evidence on clinical observations on the psychological functioning of this population and the issues that make up the maintenance of domestic violence against women. The understanding of internalized patterns, structural functions, and motivational tensions are fundamental for the prevention of re-victimization and improving coping mechanisms, as well as promoting greater adherence to treatment.

4.
Acad Med ; 95(10): 1529-1538, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006870

RESUMO

Though overt sexism is decreasing, women now experience subtle, often unconscious, gender bias as microaggressions. The authors sought to explore the prevalence and impact of the sexist microaggressions female surgeons experience, using a sequential exploratory mixed methods approach (January 2018-April 2018), to identify opportunities for education and prevention. First, all resident, fellow, and attending female surgeons at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center (UNM HSC) were invited to participate in focus groups conducted by experienced moderators using a semistructured interview guide based on the 7 Sexist Microaggressions Experiences and Stress Scale (Sexist MESS) domains. Qualitative analysis was performed using line-by-line manual coding to identify themes aligned with the Sexist MESS domains as well as other gender bias experiences of female surgeons. Next, a survey was sent to all resident, fellow, and attending female surgeons at the UNM HSC, which included the Sexist MESS questionnaire and questions related to surgeon-specific experiences of gender bias that the authors developed based on major thematic categories from the focus groups.Four focus groups of 23 female surgeons were conducted, revealing 4 themes: exclusion, increased effort, adaptation, and resilience to workplace slights. The survey response rate was 64% (65/101 surgeons). Across Sexist MESS domains, the frequency and severity of microaggressions was higher for trainees than attendings. The variables of non-White race/ethnicity, having children under 18, and fellowship training generally did not demonstrate statistical significance. This exploratory study adds to the growing body of evidence that gender bias in surgery continues and frequently manifests as microaggressions. Trainees reported the highest rates and severity of microaggressions and bias experiences. Further research should investigate how to address microaggressions, the experiences of male surgeons, the perspectives of medical students and groups who were reported as often perpetuating gender bias, and the efficacy of possible interventions.

5.
Ann Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010416

RESUMO

PURPOSE: HIV research among transgender and gender nonbinary (TGNB) people is limited by lack of gender identity data collection. We designed an EHR-based algorithm to identify TGNB people among patients living with HIV (PLWH) when gender identity was not systematically collected. METHODS: We applied EHR-based search criteria to all PLWH receiving care at a large urban health system between 1997-2017, then confirmed gender identity by chart review. We compared patient characteristics by gender identity and screening criteria, then calculated positive predictive values (PPVs) for each criterion. RESULTS: Among 18,086 PLWH, 213 (1.2%) met criteria as potential TGNB patients and 178/213 were confirmed. PPVs were highest for free-text keywords (91.7%) and diagnosis codes (77.4%). Verified TGNB patients were younger (median 32.5 vs. 42.5 years, p<0.001) and less likely to be Hispanic (37.1% vs. 60.0%, p=0.031) than unverified patients. Among verified patients, 15% met criteria only for prospective gender identity data collection and were significantly older. CONCLUSION: EHR-based criteria can identify TGNB PLWH, but success may differ by ethnicity and age. Retrospective vs. intentional, prospective gender identity data collection may capture different patients. To reduce misclassification in epidemiologic studies, gender identity data collection should incorporate an intersectional framework and be systematic and prospective.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011822

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine (i) reciprocal longitudinal associations between social connectedness and mental health, and (ii) how these associations vary by age and gender. METHODS: Three waves of nationally representative data were drawn from the HILDA survey (n = 11,523; 46% men). The five-item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5) assessed symptoms of depression and anxiety. The Australian Community Participation Questionnaire provided measures of informal social connectedness, civic engagement and political participation. Multivariable adjusted cross-lagged panel regression models with random intercepts estimated bidirectional within-person associations between mental health and each of the three types of social connectedness. Multi-group analyses were used to quantify differences between men and women, and between three broad age groups (ages: 15-30; 31-50; 51+). RESULTS: Reliable cross-lagged associations between prior informal social connections and future mental health were only evident among adults aged 50 years and older (B = 0.101, 95% CI 0.04, 0.16). Overall, there was no significant association between prior civic engagement and improvements in mental health (p = 0.213) though there was weak evidence of an association for men (B = 0.051, 95% CI 0.01, 0.09). Similarly, there was no significant association in the overall sample between political participation and improvements for mental health (p = 0.337), though there was weak evidence that political participation was associated with a decline in mental health for women (B = - 0.045, CI - 0.09, 0.00) and those aged 31-50 (B = - 0.057, CI - 0.10, - 0.01). Conversely, prior mental health was associated with future informal social connectedness, civic engagement, and political participation. CONCLUSION: Interventions promoting social connectedness to improve community mental health need to account for age- and gender-specific patterns, and recognise that poor mental health is a barrier to social participation.

7.
Health (London) ; : 1363459320961429, 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012195

RESUMO

This paper engages with new materialist theory to reimagine transdisciplinary health research. In particular, we draw upon Karen Barad's theory of agential realism and concept of apparatus to rethink the processes of doing transdisciplinary research. A Baradian inspired approach to transdisciplinarity encourages us to not only explore ways of knowing health phenomena differently by working across disciplines, but also to pay close attention to the politics and practices in such research. We offer a case study based on a two-year transdisciplinary research project focused on the health condition known as Low Energy Availability (LEA) in sportswomen. Through this case we highlight three key ways that Barad's concept of apparatus helped us know transdisciplinarity differently: (1) Reading disciplines through each other, (2) Intra-actions and the everyday performativity of disciplinary boundaries, and (3) Troubling the boundaries of the apparatus. Ultimately this paper illustrates the value in feminist new materialist conceptual tools for encouraging different questions of transdisciplinary research as ethico-onto-epistemological practices, processes, and politics of knowledge production.

10.
Gend Work Organ ; 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041540

RESUMO

This article explores the gendered realities of work-life balance in Iceland during the Covid-19 pandemic, in particular how these societal changes reflect and affect the gendered division of unpaid labor, such as childcare and household chores. The study draws on open ended real-time diary entries, collected for two weeks during the peak of the pandemic in Iceland. The entries represent the voices of 37 mothers in heteronormative relationships. The findings imply that, during the pandemic, the mothers took on greater mental work than before. They also described intense emotional labor, as they tried to keep everyone calm and safe. The division of tasks at home lay on their shoulders, causing them stress and frustration. The findings suggest that, even in a country that has been at the top of the Gender Gap Index for several years, an unprecedented situation like Covid-19 can reveal and exaggerate strong gender norms and expectations towards mothers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11.
Violence Against Women ; : 1077801220949705, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044127

RESUMO

The Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) is frequently questioned about its success, especially during times of its reauthorization. While federal, state, local, and private organizations have funded a significant amount of research through VAWA since its inception, questions remain as to whether the field has the evidence to make a concrete judgment about its success. The purpose of this article is twofold. First, we review the Act and its subsequent reauthorizations. Second, the article addresses issues related to VAWA's success. We consider whether it is possible to answer Moore Parmley's question posed in 2004, p. 1,428: " . . . on the anniversary of the VAWA, will we be able to say with any confidence that the Act helped to prevent violence against women?"

12.
Biol Sex Differ ; 11(1): 55, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current understanding about health care in the gender diverse population is limited by the lack of community-based, longitudinal data, especially in the USA. We sought to characterize a community-based cohort of transgender individuals including demographics, gender identities, social characteristics, psychiatric and medical conditions, and medical therapy for gender dysphoria/incongruence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of gender diverse residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, who sought gender-specific healthcare from January 1, 1974, through December 31, 2015, using an infrastructure that links medical records of Olmsted County residents from multiple institutions. RESULTS: The number of patients seeking gender-specific healthcare increased from 1 to 2 per 5-year interval during the 1970s-1990s to 41 from 2011 to 2015 (n = 82). Forty-nine (59.8%) were assigned male sex at birth (AMAB), 31 (37.8%) were assigned female (AFAB), and 2 (2.4%) were intersex. Gender identities evolved over time in 16.3% and 16.1% of patients AMAB and AFAB, respectively, and at most recent follow-up, 8.2% and 12.9% of patients AMAB and AFAB, respectively, were non-binary. Depression affected 78%, followed by anxiety (62.2%), personality disorder (22%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (14.6%). 58.5% experienced suicidal ideation, 22% attempted suicide, and 36.6% were victims of abuse. The most prevalent medical conditions and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors included obesity (42.7%), tobacco use (40.2%), fracture [34.1% (86.2% traumatic)], hypertension (25.6%), hyperlipidemia (25.6%), and hypertriglyceridemia (15.9%). 67.3% of patients AMAB used feminizing and 48.4% of patients AFAB used masculinizing hormone therapy. When compared to US CDC National Health Statistics, there was a significantly greater prevalence of depression and anxiety but no difference in the prevalence of obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, or stroke. CONCLUSION: Transgender and gender diverse individuals represent a population who express various gender identities and are seeking gender-specific healthcare at increasing rates. Psychiatric illness is highly prevalent compared to the US population but there is no difference in the prevalence of CV risk factors including obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia.

13.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 34(5): 398-404, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032765

RESUMO

Violence against women is a major public health issue and women with mental illness (WMI) are at a double disadvantage. While nurses play a key role in identifying and responding to abused women, research is limited on this issue from India. This qualitative study was aimed to explore nurses' knowledge, confidence, and learning needs in the identification and responding to disclosure of abuse in women with mental illness. The focus group discussions were conducted among nurses (N = 21) working in psychiatry units at a tertiary care center. An interview guide with semi-structured questions was used to collect the data. Five dominant themes and fifteen sub-themes have emerged from qualitative analysis. The dominant themes include; Awareness of abuse among women with mental illness (AWMI), Experiences of recognizing and responding to abuse, Barriers for routine screening for abuse, Educational preparedness, and learning needs, and Prevention of abuse in women with mental illness. The identified barriers include personal related (personal discomfort, lack of knowledge, etc.), job related (Time consuming, not a nurse's job, lack of time, etc.) and organizational (lack of policies and administrative support, etc.). Most of the participants expressed that they lack confidence in the routine screening of women for abuse due to inadequate training. Therefore, it is critical to include a topic on domestic violence in the nursing curriculum and provide ongoing learning opportunities to the nurses through CNE programs, workshops, and conferences.

14.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 34(5): 421-426, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032768

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Violence against women (VAM) is still considered a global health problem and is highly prevalent in Turkey. This study aimed to determine the relationship between women's exposure to spousal/partner violence and their attitudes towards honor, social gender roles, and beating in Turkey. METHODS: The study was designed as descriptive and completed with 847 women in Turkey. Data were collected with a questionnaire, the Attitudes towards Honor Scale (AHS), the Attitudes towards Wife-beating Scale (ATWB), and the Gender Roles Attitudes Scale (GRA). RESULTS: The median age of the women was 34 (18-67) years. It was found that 23% of the women were exposed to physical violence, 46.8% to verbal violence, 33.6% to emotional violence, 21.1% to sexual abuse, and 13% to economic violence. There was a negative relationship between GRA score and ATWB and AHS scores. It was determined that the attitude of an individual towards social gender posed a risk for physical (p = 0.037) and sexual violence (p = 0.037), the attitude towards honor posed a risk for sexual violence (p = 0.002), and that the attitude towards wife-beating posed a risk for all types of violence including physical, verbal, emotional, sexual, and economic violence (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: As women's egalitarian attitudes towards social gender increased, their approving attitudes towards wife-beating, supervision of women by their family members, and their association with family honor decreased. Community-based interventions that promote egalitarian social gender roles could reduce VAM in this community.

15.
Yale J Biol Med ; 93(4): 579-585, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005122

RESUMO

Not only do epidemics such as HIV/AIDS, Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), and the current Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) cause the loss of millions of lives, but they also cost the global economy billions of dollars. Consequently, there is an urgent need to formulate interventions that will help control their spread and impact when they emerge. The education of young girls and women is one such historical approach. They are usually the vulnerable targets of disease outbreaks - they are most likely to be vehicles for the spread of epidemics due to their assigned traditional roles in resource-limited countries. Based on our work and the work of others on educational interventions, we propose six critical components of a cost-effective and sustainable response to promote girl-child education in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Infecções por Coronavirus , Identidade de Gênero , Saúde Global , Educação em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Saúde Global/economia , Saúde Global/educação , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
16.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(709): 1877-1880, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026731

RESUMO

This article is the result of the joint work of psychiatrists-psychotherapists working with patients with gender dysphoria (children, adolescents and adults) in Lausanne and Geneva university hospitals. It emphasizes the importance of their clinical interventions when hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery are requested.


Assuntos
Disforia de Gênero/diagnóstico , Disforia de Gênero/terapia , Papel do Médico , Psiquiatria , Psicoterapia , Disforia de Gênero/psicologia , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Cirurgia de Readequação Sexual
17.
LGBT Health ; 7(7): i, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048010
18.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-9, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048648

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The growing prevalence of obesity among college students is a major public health issue, as over one-third are overweight or obese. This study used gender-stratified multivariate analyses to examine psychological distress and social contextual factors as key determinants of obesity. Participants: Students of a large public university in Southern California (N = 2392). Methods: In-class survey administered across various departments and general education courses. Results: Among females, distress (OR = 1.02) and sophomores (OR = 1.87) were associated with increased odds of obesity; Greek life (OR = 0.53) was associated with decreased odds of obesity. Among males, distress was not associated with obesity (OR = 1.00); financial strain (OR = 1.16) was associated with increased odds of obesity. Conclusions: There are gendered patterns in obesity risk with social context having potentially protective effects among women. Enhancing psychological wellbeing as well as creating gender- and context-specific interventions may be an effective strategy to address the rising rates of obesity among the college population.

19.
J AAPOS ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049372

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate gender disparitie among pediatric ophthalmologists in academic rank, publication productivity, and National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis of pediatric ophthalmologists at 113 US academic programs, data on gender, residency graduation year, and academic rank were obtained from institutional websites between January 2019 and March 2019. The Scopus database was used to calculate h-indices and m-quotients. The NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool was used to determine NIH funding. RESULTS: We identified 389 pediatric ophthalmologists: 194 women (49.9%) and 195 men (50.1%). A binomial logistic regression model, which included career length as an independent variable, showed proportions of women to men were similar across all academic ranks (assistant professor, 64.4% vs 46.2% [P = 0.738]; associate professor, 21.7% vs 19.0% [P = 0.357]; full professor, 13.9 vs 34.9% [P = 0.119]). Women had a lower median h-index (5.0 vs 8.0 [P = 0.008]) and a shorter median career duration (12.5 vs 25.0 years [P < 0.001]), but a similar median m-quotient (0.5 vs. 0.5; P = 0.525). Among pediatric ophthalmologists who received NIH funding (20 women vs. 27 men; P = 0.826), the overall median grant-funding total for women was $804K (interquartile range (IQR) 5.0M, mean $3.8M) compared to men, $2.2M (IQR, 4.0M; mean, $3.7M; P = 0.328). CONCLUSIONS: The shorter career duration for women likely contributes to the difference in overall h-indices between genders, as m-quotients were similar. The m-quotient should be used over the h-index when comparing academic productivity across genders when disparities in career length exist.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050370

RESUMO

Some men who have sex with men (MSM) were assigned female at birth (AFB) and/or identify as trans men. Little is known about how these men differ from other MSM. We compared sexual and mental health indicators from the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS-2017), comparing men AFB and/or currently identifying as trans men with those assigned male at birth (AMB) who identified as men. EMIS-2017 was an opportunistic 33-language online sexual health survey for MSM recruiting throughout Europe. We used regression models adjusting for age, country of residence and employment status to examine differences across groups. An analytic sample of 125,720 men living in 45 countries was used, of which 674 (0.5%) were AFB and 871 (0.7%) identified as trans men. The two sub-groups were not coterminous, forming three minority groups: AFB men, AFB trans men and AMB trans men. Minority groups were younger and more likely unemployed. Anxiety, depression, alcohol dependence and sexual unhappiness were more prevalent in sex/gender minority men. Conversely HIV and STI diagnoses were less common. AMB trans men were most likely to have sexual risk behavior with steady partners and to have unmet health promotion needs, and were least likely to be reached by interventions. Sex assigned at birth and trans identification were associated with different sexual and mental health needs. To facilitate service planning and to foster inclusion, sex-assigned-at-birth and current gender identity should be routinely collected in health surveys.

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