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1.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 8(4): 359-365, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793506

RESUMO

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a preventable and treatable chronic disease. Afghanistan is among the high-TB-burden countries. The aim of this study is to find the determinants of treatment failure among TB patients in Kandahar City, Afghanistan. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted in Kandahar City during a period of 5 years (August 2014-July 2019). For data analysis; descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and logistic regression were used. Results: Among 1416 TB patients, 894/1416 (63.1%) had pulmonary TB (PTB), whereas 522/1416 (36.9%) had extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). Mean age in these patients was 34.7 years while most of them were females in PTB (530/894 [59.3%]) and EPTB (340/522 [65.1%]) patients. Sputum smear was positive in 618/860 (71.9%) and 16/404 (4%) of PTB and EPTB patients, respectively. TB treatment failure was more in PTB (56/894 [6.3%]) than EPTB (4/522 [0.8%]). Chi-square test of TB cases showed that statistically significant determinants that may cause the treatment failure were re-treatment cases (crude odds ratio [COR] 7.7, P < 0.001), absence of fever (COR 5.2, P < 0.001), absence of cough (COR 1.7, P = 0.004), living in rural areas (COR 1.4, P = 0.035), and no weight loss (COR 1.3, P = 0.033). Binary logistic regression of the statistically significant variables revealed only absence of fever (adjusted odds ratio 6.0, P < 0.001) as the risk factor for treatment failure in TB patients. Conclusion: TB is still a major threat for Kandahar City. Low treatment success rate and increased number of defaulted cases are the major threats.

2.
Telemed J E Health ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794684

RESUMO

Background: Since 1990s, directly observed therapy (DOT) has been the standard-of-care for tuberculosis (TB), although it is cumbersome for patients as well as service providers. For raising implementation, an alternative delivery method with good potential is telehealth. The current study assessed the clinical and cost benefit of video directly observed therapy (VDOT), compared with DOT service. Methods: This prospective randomized controlled trial randomized adults with bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB to the intervention (VDOT) or control (DOT) group. The observation data for DOT and VDOT were updated by observers until the end of treatment or until the study concluded. The primary outcome was the TB treatment result defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as used in some other studies conducted in North India and England as follows: good (cured and treatment completed), poor (death and failure), relocation, and lost to follow-up and others (refused, adverse reaction, not a TB case). Other secondary measures were treatment adherence, patient satisfaction, time and cost spent on DOT or VDOT. Results: On analyzing the results from 405 participants from each study arm, we found very high rates of treatment completion (96.1% with VDOT vs. 94.6% with DOT). The two observed treatment methods had no statistical differences, and all could accomplish their tasks well. Average time per dose observed was 16.5 min (standard deviation [SD] 12.1) for VDOT, while 44.1 min (SD 3.7) for DOT (including travel time), p < 0.01. And the cost incurred on VDOT was ï¿¥34.3 (SD 3.8) manmo, which was statistically lower compared with ï¿¥71.6 (SD 49.7) manmo in the DOT group, p < 0.01. Most of the patients in both groups believed that observed treatment (VDOT/DOT) helped them not to miss doses (185 [93.0%] vs. 171 [86.7%], p = 0.057). Patients in the VDOT group had a better experience compared with those in DOT group. They thought the way was convenient and comfortable (191 [96.0%] vs. 111 [56.6%], p < 0.001), would choose the original way if necessary (191 [96.0%] vs. 113 [57.7%], p < 0.001), and would recommend the method to other patients (191 [96.0%] vs. 113 [57.7%], p < 0.001). Conclusion: The study showed that VDOT enabled meaningful direct observation for TB patients through mobile devices, which was highly acceptable to patients and health care providers. It also saved time and is a cost-effective method, enabling the use of the saved money to other much-needed areas for TB.

3.
Trop Med Int Health ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802572

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tuberculosis (TB) treatment success rates are high in China, but there are still a considerable number of cases who have unfavourable treatment outcomes (UTO). We aimed to determine the proportion of TB patients with UTO and to assess whether baseline characteristics that included glycaemic status [normal fasting blood glucose (FBG), transient hyperglycaemia and diabetes mellitus (DM)] and vitamin D status were associated with UTO. METHOD: Prospective cohort study conducted between November 2015 and July 2016 at six clinics within routine TB services in Jilin province, where persons with TB were consecutively recruited. Data analysis was performed using the chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 306 recruited TB patients, 96 (31.4%) had smear-positive pulmonary TB, 187 (61.1%) had smear-negative pulmonary TB and 23 (7.5%) had extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). Of these, 95 (31.1%) had normal blood glucose, 83 (27.1%) had transient hyperglycaemia and 128 (41.8%) had DM. 227 (74.2%) patients had vitamin D deficiency/severe deficiency. There were 125 (40.8%) patients with UTO of whom the majority were lost to follow-up (57.6%) or not evaluated (28.8%). UTO was significantly associated with smear-negative pulmonary TB (P = 0.009), EPTB (P < 0.001) and DM (P = 0.007). CONCLUSION: The proportion of TB patients with UTO increased with smear-negative pulmonary TB, EPTB and DM. TB programmes need to pay more attention to these issues and ensure intensive patient support to those at risk and early detection of DM.

4.
Public Health Action ; 9(3): 84-89, 2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803578

RESUMO

Setting: One national and two regional tuberculosis (TB) hospitals in Georgia. Objectives: To define the factors associated with private primary health care (PPHC) provider delay in TB diagnosis and treatment. Design: This was a cross-sectional study of data collected from consecutive patients with pulmonary TB from July 2015 to August 2016, complemented by qualitative data collected among PPHC providers/managers, TB patients and policy makers. Results: PPHC provider delay (>2 weeks from the first medical consultation for TB symptoms to the initiation of TB treatment) occurred in 43.8% of 320 TB patients. Modifiable factors significantly associated with PPHC provider delay included receiving any non-specific treatment before diagnosis of TB (adjusted OR [aOR] 9.45, 95%CI 5.10-17.51), adequate knowledge of TB (aOR 0.35, 95%CI 0.12-0.99) and lower TB-related stigma (aOR 0.47, 95%CI 0.28-0.81). Inappropriate referral of presumptive TB patients to general health facilities for chest X-ray examination, often followed by misinterpretation of X-ray results in these facilities, might mislead PPHC providers to initiate presumptive TB patients on non-specific treatment. Conclusion: PPHC provider delay in TB diagnosis and treatment is common in Georgia, highlighting a need for targeted interventions to improve identification and referral of presumptive TB patients to specialised TB services and Xpert testing.

5.
Public Health Action ; 9(3): 96-101, 2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803580

RESUMO

Setting: Fifteen purposively selected districts in Zimbabwe in which targeted active screening for tuberculosis (Tas4TB) was conducted among TB high-risk groups (HRGs). There were 230 patients started on TB treatment on the basis of chest X-ray (CXR) results without corresponding bacteriological confirmation. Objectives: To determine 1) the percentage of agreements in digital CXR ratings by medical officers against final ratings by radiologist(s), 2) inter-rater agreement in CXR ratings between medical officers and radiologists, and 3) number (and proportion) of patients belonging to HRGs who were over-treated during Tas4TB. Design: This was a cross-sectional study using programme data. Results: A total of 168 patients had their CXRs rated by two independent radiologists. Discordances among the radiologists were resolved by a third index radiologist, who provided the final rating. κ scores were 0.01 (field ratings vs. Radiologist A); 0.02 (field ratings vs. Radiologist B); 0.74 (Radiologists A vs. B). The percentage agreement for field and final radiologist rating was 70% (95%CI 64-78). Around 29% (95%CI 23-36) of the patients were potentially over-treated during Tas4TB. Conclusion: Over a quarter of patients with presumptive TB are potentially over-treated during Tas4TB. Over-treatment is highest among those with previous contact with TB patients. Trainings of radiographers and medical officers may improve CXR ratings.

6.
J Clin Tuberc Other Mycobact Dis ; 17: 100126, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788568

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of BCG vaccination on the severity of clinical symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis symptoms (PTb) in patients from the northwest and west of Iran. Materials and methods: In a cross sectional study of 358 patients with a diagnosis of PTb, 11 clinical symptoms, including cough, chest pain, dyspnea, sputum, fever, hemoptysis, weight loss, loss of appetite, wheezing, weakness, and fatigue were checked and patients with a score of six or more were placed in the severe clinical symptoms group. BCG vaccination scar and clinical symptoms were examined and recorded. Results: Of the subjects included in this study, 264 cases (73.7%) had no BCG vaccination scar. Comparison of the severity of clinical symptoms of PTb in patients with BCG vaccine history to those lacking vaccination history revealed lower symptom severity in patients who had been vaccinated (vaccine effectiveness = 95.5%; p < 0.00001). Conclusion: The results of this study may imply that Adjusting for age sex and smoking status, BCG vaccination decreases the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with PTb. We suggest performing a retrospective cohort study on a larger population.

7.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 786, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evidence on treatment outcomes and their trend analysis through a register based retrospective study have significant contributions in the improvement of a national tuberculosis program. This study was aimed at determining tuberculosis treatment outcomes and their trend analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3445 patient records were included. More than half (58%) were males and the mean age was 33.88 ± 16.91 years (range 0-90). From the total TB patients, 18.8% were HIV co infected. The treatment outcome of TB patients were 371 (10.8%) cured, 2234 (64.8) treatment completed, 119 (3.5%) died, 9 (0.3%) failed, 178 (5.1%) defaulted and 534 (15.5%) were transferred out. The overall treatment success rate was 89.5%. When assessed on yearly basis, treatment success rate was 87% in year 2009-2010 to 92.8% in 2013-2014 with 6.67% change in the outcome indicator over the 5 years period. Among pulmonary TB, pulmonary negative TB and extra pulmonary TB, the rate of successful treatment outcome was 83.1% to 89%, 85.1% to 89.4%, and 87.4% to 92%, respectively in the year 2009-2010 to 2013-2014. The percentage of the overall successful treatment outcomes were significantly associated with the year of treatment (p = 0.014).

8.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 18(12): 1219-1227, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826664

RESUMO

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the world. Current vaccination with BCG can prevent meningeal and disseminated TB in children. However, success against latent pulmonary TB infection (LTBI) or its reactivation is limited. Evidence suggests that there may be means to improve the efficacy of BCG raising the possibility of developing new vaccine candidates against LTBI.Areas covered: BCG improvements include the use of purified mycobacterial immunogenic proteins, either from an active or dormant state, as well as expressing those proteins from recombinant BCG strains that harvor those specific genes. It also includes boost protein mixtures with synthetic adjuvants or within liposomes, as a way to increase a protective immune response during chronic TB produced in laboratory animal models. References cited were chosen from PubMed searches.Expertopinion: Strategies aiming to improve or boost BCG have been receiving increased attention. With the advent of -omics, it has been possible to dissect several specific stages during mycobacterial infection. Recent experimental models of disease, diagnostic and immunological data obtained from individual M. tuberculosis antigens could introduce promising developments for more effective TB vaccines that may contribute to eliminating the hidden (latent) form of this infectious disease.

9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD012918, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis causes more deaths than any other infectious disease worldwide, with pulmonary tuberculosis being the most common form. Standard first-line treatment for drug-sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis for six months comprises isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol (HRZE) for two months, followed by HRE (in areas of high TB drug resistance) or HR, given over a four-month continuation phase. Many people do not complete this full course. Shortened treatment regimens that are equally effective and safe could improve treatment success. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of shortened treatment regimens versus the standard six-month treatment regimen for individuals with drug-sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases up to 10 July 2019: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (PubMed); Embase; the Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS); Science Citation Index-Expanded; Indian Medlars Center; and the South Asian Database of Controlled Clinical Trials. We also searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, the Clinical Trials Unit of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, the UK Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit, and the Clinical Trials Registry India for ongoing trials. We checked the reference lists of identified articles to find additional relevant studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs that compared shorter-duration regimens (less than six months) versus the standard six-month regimen for people of all ages, irrespective of HIV status, who were newly diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis by positive sputum culture or GeneXpert, and with presumed or proven drug-sensitive tuberculosis. The primary outcome of interest was relapse within two years of completion of anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected trials, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias for the included trials. For dichotomous outcomes, we used risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). When appropriate, we pooled data from the included trials in meta-analyses. We assessed the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included five randomized trials that compared fluoroquinolone-containing four-month ATT regimens versus standard six-month ATT regimens and recruited 5825 adults with newly diagnosed drug-sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis from 14 countries with high tuberculosis transmission in Asia, Africa, and Latin Ameria. Three were multi-country trials that included a total of 572 HIV-positive people. These trials excluded children, pregnant or lactating women, people with serious comorbid conditions, and those with diabetes mellitus. Four trials had multiple treatment arms. Moxifloxacin replaced ethambutol in standard four-month, daily or thrice-weekly ATT regimens in two trials; moxifloxacin replaced isoniazid in four-month ATT regimens in two trials, was given daily in one trial, and was given with rifapentine instead of rifampicin daily for two months and twice weekly for two months in one trial. Moxifloxacin was added to standard ATT drugs for three to four months in one ongoing trial that reported interim results. Gatifloxacin replaced ethambutol in standard ATT regimens given daily or thrice weekly for four months in two trials. Follow-up ranged from 12 months to 24 months after treatment completion for the majority of participants. Moxifloxacin-containing four-month ATT regimens Moxifloxacin-containing four-month ATT regimens that replaced ethambutol or isoniazid probably increased the proportions who experienced relapse after successful treatment compared to standard ATT regimens (RR 3.56, 95% CI 2.37 to 5.37; 2265 participants, 3 trials; moderate-certainty evidence). For death from any cause, there was probably little or no difference between the two regimens (2760 participants, 3 trials; moderate-certainty evidence). Treatment failure was rare, and there was probably little or no difference in proportions with treatment failure between ATT regimens (2282 participants, 3 trials; moderate-certainty evidence). None of the participants given moxifloxacin-containing regimens developed resistance to rifampicin, and these regimens may not increase the risk of acquired resistance (2282 participants, 3 trials; low-certainty evidence). Severe adverse events were probably little or no different with moxifloxacin-containing four-month regimens that replaced ethambutol or isoniazid, and with three- to four-month regimens that augmented standard ATT with moxifloxacin, when compared to standard six-month ATT regimens (3548 participants, 4 trials; moderate-certainty evidence). Gatifloxacin-containing four-month ATT regimens Gatifloxacin-containing four-month ATT regimens that replaced ethambutol probably increased relapse compared to standard six-month ATT regimens in adults with drug-sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis (RR 2.11, 95% CI 1.56 to 2.84; 1633 participants, 2 trials; moderate-certainty evidence). The four-month regimen probably made little or no difference in death compared to the six-month regimen (1886 participants, 2 trials; moderate-certainty evidence). Treatment failure was uncommon and was probably little or no different between the four-month and six-month regimens (1657 participants, 2 trials; moderate-certainty evidence). Acquired resistance to isoniazid or rifampicin was not detected in those given the gatifloxacin-containing shortened ATT regimen, but we are uncertain whether acquired drug resistance is any different in the four- and six-month regimens (429 participants, 1 trial; very low-certainty evidence). Serious adverse events were probably no different with either regimen (1993 participants, 2 trials; moderate-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Evidence to date does not support the use of shortened ATT regimens in adults with newly diagnosed drug-sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis. Four-month ATT regimens that replace ethambutol with moxifloxacin or gatifloxacin, or isoniazid with moxifloxacin, increase relapse substantially compared to standard six-month ATT regimens, although treatment success and serious adverse events are little or no different. The results of six large ongoing trials will help inform decisions on whether shortened ATT regimens can replace standard six-month ATT regimens. 9 December 2019 Up to date All studies incorporated from most recent search All eligible published studies found in the last search (10 Jul, 2019) were included.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226160, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) is a major health problem in prisons. Multiple studies of TB in regional Ethiopian prisons have assessed prevalence and risk factors but have not examined recently implemented screening programs for TB in prisons. This study compares bacteriologically-confirmed PTB (BC-PTB) prevalence in prison entrants versus residents and identifies risk factors for PTB in Kality prison, a large federal Ethiopian prison located in Addis Ababa, through a study of an enhanced TB screening program. METHODS: Participating prisoners (n = 13,803) consisted of 8,228 entrants screened continuously and 5,575 residents screened in two cross-sectional waves for PTB symptoms, demographics, TB risk factors, and medical history. Participants reporting at least one symptom of PTB were asked to produce sputum which was examined by microscopy for acid-fast bacilli, Xpert MTB/RIF assay and MGIT liquid culture. Prevalence of BC-PTB, defined as evidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in sputum by the above methods, was compared in entrants and residents for the study. Descriptive analysis of prevalence was followed by bivariate and multivariate analyses of risk factors. RESULTS: Prisoners were mainly male (86%), young (median age 26 years) and literate (89%). Prevalence of TB symptoms by screening was 17% (2,334/13,803) with rates in residents >5-fold higher than entrants. Prevalence of BC-PTB detected by screening in participating prisoners was 0.16% (22/13,803). Prevalence in residents increased in the second resident screening compared to the first (R1 = 0.10% and R2 = 0.39%, p = 0.027), but remained higher than in entrants (4.3-fold higher during R1 and 3.1-fold higher during R2). Drug resistance (DR) was found in 38% (5/13) of culture-isolated MTB. Risk factors including being ever diagnosed with TB, history of TB contact and low Body Mass Index (BMI) (<18.5) were significantly associated with BC-PTB (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: BC-PTB prevalence was strikingly lower than previously reported from other Ethiopian prisons. PTB appears to be transmitted within this prison based on its higher prevalence in residents than in entrants. Whether a sustained program of PTB screening of entrants and/or residents reduces prevalence of PTB in prisons is not clear from this study, but our findings suggest that resources should be prioritized to resident, rather than entrant, screening due to higher BC-PTB prevalence. Detection of multi- and mono-DR TB in both entrant and resident prisoners warrants regular screening for active TB and adoption of methods to detect drug resistance.

11.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(24): 2950-2959, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most debilitating diseases worldwide. Current studies have shown that vitamin D plays a significant role in host immune defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but clinical trials reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the literature to investigate whether vitamin D supplementation could improve the effect of anti-TB therapy. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from their inception to February 8th, 2019 for randomized controlled trials on vitamin D supplementation in patients with pulmonary TB receiving anti-TB therapy. The primary outcomes were time to sputum culture and smear conversion and proportion of participants with negative sputum culture. The secondary outcomes were clinical response to treatment and adverse events. A random-effects model was used to pool studies. Data were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: Five studies with a total of 1126 participants were included in our meta-analysis. Vitamin D supplementation did not shorten the time to sputum culture and smear conversion (hazard ratio [HR] 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-1.23, P = 0.60; HR 1.15, 95% CI 0.93-1.41, P = 0.20, respectively) and did not lead to an increase in the proportion of participants with negative sputum culture (relative risk [RR] 1.04, 95% CI 0.97-1.11, P = 0.32). However, it reduced the time to sputum culture conversion in the sub-group of participants with TaqI tt genotype (HR 8.09, 95% CI 1.39-47.09, P = 0.02) and improved the multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB sputum culture conversion rate (RR 2.40, 95% CI 1.11-5.18, P = 0.03). There was no influence on secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation had no beneficial effect on anti-TB treatment, but it reduced the time to sputum culture conversion in participants with tt genotype of the TaqI vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism and improved the MDR TB sputum culture conversion rate.

12.
Respir Investig ; 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Japan, a new anti-tuberculous drug, delamanid, was recognized as the drug of choice to treat multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis in July 2014. METHODS: We treated 28 cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and three cases of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) with delamanid from July 2014 to June 2018 at our hospital. RESULTS: There were 21 men and 10 women, with the mean age of 48 and 37 years, respectively. We used an average of 4.4 sensitive anti-tuberculous drugs for the MDR-TB cases and 4.7 for the XDR-TB cases with delamanid. We used linezolid in 19 of 31 cases, although it has not been recognized as an anti-tuberculous drug in Japan. On electrocardiography, QTc prolongation of more than 450 ms was seen in two cases (6.4%), but they were asymptomatic, thus the treatment with delamanid could be continued. In 10 cases, surgical resection was performed. We completed the treatment in 20 cases and continued the treatment in seven cases; however, the treatment was discontinued in four cases because of side effects. In all cases, the sputum cultures were negative. CONCLUSIONS: Delamanid is a relatively safe drug with few side effects. However, some patients could not continue it because of difficulty of use in combination, therefore delamanid should be prescribed considering the side effects of all therapies in the regimen.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818711

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nigeria ranked 7th among the high TB burden nations globally and second most endemic in Africa. There are several highly effective interventions available for tuberculosis control. Operational challenges have been reported to interfere with the success of these interventions. This review was conducted to ascertain the treatment outcome using the Directly Observed Short Course Strategy implemented in the hospital. METHODS: A retrospective review of the Tuberculosis treatment was conducted in former Ebonyi State Teaching Hospital and Federal Teaching Hospital from 2008 to 2014 as part of the departmental critique of patients' clinical care and tuberculosis control activities. Using the facility's TB treatment register, information on the patient's demography, clinical characteristics and treatment outcome was extracted. The data were analyzed using Epi Info version 7.2. Frequencies and proportions were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 1070 cases were reviewed with majority 491 (45.9%) belonging to 25-44 years age group. There were 585 (54.7%) males and 68 (11.6%) paediatrics. Pulmonary tuberculosis (667, 62.3%) was the most common presentation. Among those that did sputum smear AFB, 53.2% were smear negative. In all, 91.2% of the cases were treatment naïve, 59.1% were HIV negative at beginning of their treatment while 8% had unknown HIV status. Of the treatment outcome, 40.5% were classified as treatment completed, 16.0% cured, 17.4% of the cases defaulted while 14.1% of the cases died on treatment. These patients were often referred from primary and secondary level hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: The cure rate was very poor and treatment default rate high. The high default rate could be due to the referral nature of the hospital. The treatment success rate of 56.5% is still far below the national target of 85% treatment success rate for effective tuberculosis control. An operational research is recommended to elicit the root causes of low treatment success rate and high patient default rate.

14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1658, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The bidirectional relationship between the twin epidemics of Tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes major global health challenges in the twenty-first century. TB-HIV co-infected people are facing multifaceted problems like high lost to follow up rates, poor treatment adherence, high TB recurrence rate, and high mortality risk. Our objective was to assess the outcomes of TB treatment and associated factors among TB-HIV co-infected patients in Harar town, Eastern part of Ethiopia, 2018. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted among systematically selected 349 TB/HIV co-infected patients who registered from 2012 to 2017 in two public hospitals in Harar town. The data were collected through document review by using a pre-tested structured data extraction checklist. The data were analyzed using SPSS Version 21. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were determined at 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Among the 349 TB/HIV co-infected patients included in the study, 30.1% were cured, 56.7% had completed their treatment, 7.7% died, 1.7% were lost to follow up, and 3.7% were treatment failure. Overall, 86.8% of the TB-HIV co-infected patients had successful TB treatment outcomes. The patients who were on re-treatment category (AOR = 2.91, 95% CI: 1.17-7.28), who had a history of opportunistic infection (AOR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.62-8.33), and who did not take co-trimoxazole prophylaxis (AOR = 3.54, 95% CI: 1.59-7.89) had 2.91, 3.68, and 3.54 times higher odds of having unsuccessful TB treatment outcome than their counterparties, respectively. The chance of unsuccessful TB treatment outcome was 4.46 (95% CI: 1.24-16.02), 5.94 (95% CI: 1.87-18.85), and 3.01 (95% CI: 1.15-7.91) times higher among TB/HIV patients in stage 2, 3 and 4 than those in stage 1, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The overall rate of the success of the TB treatment among TB-HIV co-infected patients in this study was higher compared with many previous studies. TB/HIV patients with a history of previous TB treatment, smear-positive pulmonary TB, late HIV stage, history of opportunistic infection and not being on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis therapy were at a high risk of getting poor treatment outcomes.

15.
Horiz. méd. (Impresa) ; 19(4): 20-30, Dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1048789

RESUMO

Objetivo: Determinar los factores de riesgo para tuberculosis pulmonar en trabajadores de salud del Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo. Lima, Perú. Materiales y métodos: Estudio analítico de casos y controles. La población de estudio fueron trabajadores de salud con diagnóstico de tuberculosis pulmonar del Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo. Lima, Perú. Se recolectaron variables epidemiológicas (edad, sexo, comorbilidad, grupo ocupacional), variables ventilatorias (velocidad, dirección y patrón del flujo aéreo, sistema de ventilación cerrada) y ambientales (luz ultravioleta, aire acondicionado). Se utilizó análisis univariado, se determinó el riesgo relativo, estimado por Odds Ratio con su respectivo intervalo de confianza al 95 %. Posteriormente, se utilizó un modelo predictivo de regresión logística multivariado paso a paso para identificar los factores de riesgo. Se consideró el valor de p< de 0,05 como significativo. Resultados: La tasa de incidencia habitual de tuberculosis pulmonar fue de 348 por 100 000. Los factores asociados fueron velocidad del flujo aéreo menor de 0,7m/s, presencia de aire acondicionado en los ambientes hospitalarios, elevado grado de hacinamiento (espacio libre menor de 2 m2/persona), edad menor de 40 años, presencia de al menos una comorbilidad, y el tiempo de trabajo hospitalario menor de 20 años. Conclusiones: La presencia de alto grado de hacinamiento y el tiempo de trabajo hospitalario menor a 20 años constituyen importantes factores de riesgo para tuberculosis pulmonar activa en trabajadores de salud del Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo.


Objective: To determine the risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis in health-care workers of the Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo in Lima, Peru. Materials and methods: A case-control analytical study. The study population consisted of health-care workers of the Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo in Lima, Peru, diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis. Epidemiological variables (age, sex, comorbidity, occupational group), ventilatory variables (airflow velocity, direction and pattern; closed ventilation system) and environmental variables (ultraviolet light, air conditioning) were collected. A univariate analysis was performed, and the relative risk was estimated by odds ratio and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval. Subsequently, a multivariate logistic regression predictive model was used step by step to identify the risk factors. A p value < 0.05 was considered meaningful. Results: The usual incidence rate of pulmonary tuberculosis was 348 per 100,000 health-care workers. The associated factors were airflow velocity less than 0.7 m/s, use of air-conditioning in hospital rooms, high levels of overcrowding (available space less than 2 m2/person), age less than 40 years, presence of at least one comorbidity, and hospital job time less than 20 years. Conclusions: High levels of overcrowding and hospital job time less than 20 years are important risk factors for active pulmonary tuberculosis in health-care workers of the Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais
16.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 283, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data available on whether drug-induced hepatotoxicity (DIH) affects the clinical outcomes of tuberculosis (TB) treatment. We explored the effects of DIH on the clinical course and outcomes of pulmonary TB. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we included patients with culture-proven pulmonary TB treated in a tertiary hospital from 2013 to 2016. DIH was defined as proposed by the official American Thoracic Society statement. We compared the clinical outcomes of DIH and non-DIH patients. RESULTS: Between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2016, a total of 168 TB patients were included, and 20 (11.9%) were diagnosed with DIH. These patients were significantly older, had a higher Charlson Comorbidity Index score, exhibited more chronic liver disease, included more chronic alcoholics, and had a lower body mass index than non-DIH patients. We found no significant differences between DIH and non-DIH patients in the 2-month sputum culture conversion rate, the time to sputum culture conversion, treatment outcomes, or total treatment duration. However, the ratio of treatment interruption time to total treatment duration and the proportion of hepatotonic users were significantly higher among DIH patients. CONCLUSION: DIH development during TB treatment does not significantly affect the clinical outcomes of pulmonary TB. However, treatment interruption caused by DIH may increase the risks of future relapse and acquired resistance. Further study is needed.

17.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226919, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a global public health problem. Bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (BC-PTB) patients require three sputum smear monitoring (SSM) tests to establish cure or treatment success, but few studies have assessed the relationship. We evaluated the effect of completing SSM on treatment success rate (TSR) among adult BC-PTB patients in rural eastern Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis of a retrospective observational cohort data. Participants who completed SSM were matched to those who had not, through nearest neighbor 1:1 caliper matching. Balance of baseline characteristics between the groups was compared before and after PSM using standardized mean differences. Logistic regression analysis was performed in matched and unmatched samples, reported as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Robustness of the results to hidden bias was checked through sensitivity analysis. The primary outcome was TSR (treatment completion or cure), while the secondary was cure rate, measured as an individual outcome. RESULTS: Before PSM, 591 (72.3%) of the 817 participants had incomplete SSM, with statistically significant differences in baseline covariates between completers and non-completers. After PSM, there were 185 participants in either group, balanced on baseline covariates. Before PSM, SSM completion was not associated with TSR, with unadjusted (OR, 0.92; 95%CI, 0.32-2.63) and adjusted analysis (Adjusted OR, 1.32; 95%CI, 0.41-4.22). For cure rate, there was a statistically significant effect before (OR, 93.34; 95%CI, 29.53-295.99) and after adjusted analysis (Adjusted OR, 86.24; 95%CI, 27.05-274.94), although imprecise. In PSM analysis, SSM completion was associated with increased odds of cure (OR, 87.00; 95%CI, 12.12-624.59) but not TSR (OR, 1.67; 95%CI, 0.40-6.97). CONCLUSIONS: Completing SSM increases cure but has no effect on TSR among adult BC-PTB patients in eastern Uganda. Implementation of SSM should be encouraged to ensure improvement in cure rates among tuberculosis patients in rural areas.


Assuntos
Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Razão de Chances , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , População Rural , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226507, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To produce pooled estimates of the global results of tuberculosis (TB) treatment and analyze the predictive factors of successful TB treatment. METHODS: Studies published between 2014 and 2019 that reported the results of the treatment of pulmonary TB and the factors that influenced these results. The quality of the studies was evaluated according to the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. A random effects model was used to calculate the pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). This review was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) in February 2019 under number CRD42019121512. RESULTS: A total of 151 studies met the criteria for inclusion in this review. The success rate for the treatment of drug-sensitive TB in adults was 80.1% (95% CI: 78.4-81.7). America had the lowest treatment success rate, 75.9% (95% CI: 73.8-77.9), and Oceania had the highest, 83.9% (95% CI: 75.2-91.0). In children, the success rate was 84.8% (95% CI: 77.7-90.7); in patients coinfected with HIV, it was 71.0% (95% CI: 63.7-77.8), in patients with multidrug-resistant TB, it was 58.4% (95% CI: 51.4-64.6), in patients with and extensively drug-resistant TB it was 27.1% (12.7-44.5). Patients with negative sputum smears two months after treatment were almost three times more likely to be successfully treated (OR 2.7; 1.5-4.8), whereas patients younger than 65 years (OR 2.0; 1.7-2.4), nondrinkers (OR 2.0; 1.6-2.4) and HIV-negative patients (OR 1.9; 1.6-2.5 3) were two times more likely to be successfully treated. CONCLUSION: The success of TB treatment at the global level was good, but was still below the defined threshold of 85%. Factors such as age, sex, alcohol consumption, smoking, lack of sputum conversion at two months of treatment and HIV affected the success of TB treatment.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776302

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To discuss the necessity of anti-tuberculosis therapy after resection of asymptomatic pulmonary tuberculous nodules: is postoperative anti-tuberculosis therapy is over-treatment? METHODS: This is a single-center retrospective study. Patients with solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) and diagnosed as tuberculosis by pathology were included. Clinical features are collected. The primary end point is tuberculosis relapse and the secondary is adverse drug reactions. Patients are divided into two groups according to the acceptance of anti-tuberculosis treatment after operation (A: treated; B: untreated). Recurrence is diagnosed by multi-disciplinary discussion. The difference of recurrence rate will be compared and the incidence of adverse drug reactions in Group A will be calculated. RESULTS: A total of 98 patients were enrolled, 66 in Group A and 32 in Group B. No significant difference between two groups was found in the past history of tuberculosis, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), T-spot positive rate, and the uptake value of 18F-glucose. No relapse of tuberculosis was found in both groups. The incidence of adverse drug reactions in Group A was 61% (40/66), and the rate of severe adverse reaction was 14% (9/66). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative recurrence of tuberculosis is rare, anti-tuberculosis treatment seems unnecessary for asymptomatic pulmonary tuberculous nodules. Adverse drug reactions should not be ignored.

20.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for solid organ transplant recipients, particularly after lung transplant (LT). Our aim was to determine the impact of TB in LT patients in Spain, considering prevalence, clinical presentation, prevention and therapeutic management. In addition, differences in outcome between rifampicin (RIF) versus non-RIF containing regimens were analyzed. METHODS: Multicenter, observational retrospective study, including all cases of TB diagnosed in recipients after LT, in five pulmonary transplant units in Spain, between January 1990 and December 2017. RESULTS: Among 2962 LT recipients, 45 cases of TB were diagnosed, resulting in a prevalence of 1.52%. Most of them (88.89%) were diagnosed during the first year posttransplantation, 86.67% with pulmonary presentation. Screening for latent TB infection (LTBI) was done in 36 of the 45 patients and LTBI was detected pretransplant in 12 (33.33%). Less than half of the patients with disease (42.22%) received rifampicin (RIF). Lower probability of TB worsening was found in RIF-containing regimens (p=0.049), as well as longer survival (p=0.001). RIF use was not associated with an increased risk in rejection (p=0.99), but doses of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) had to be raised an average of 215%. CONCLUSIONS: Risk of TB after LT was lower in our series than previously reported. TB should be searched during the first year posttransplant in patients with TB risk factors. Pulmonary presentation was predominant. More sensitive algorithms for detecting LTBI before LT are crucial. It is reasonable to use RIF-containing regimens over non-RIF regimens based on the tendency toward better outcome in our series. RIF regimen requires close monitoring of CNI trough level for 2-3 weeks, until stability is achieved.

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