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1.
J Glob Health ; 10(1): 010502, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32257157

RESUMO

Background: The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for antenatal care (ANC) shift the recommended minimum number of ANC contacts from four to eight, specifying the first contact to occur within the first trimester of pregnancy. We quantify the likelihood of meeting this recommendation in 54 Countdown to 2030 priority countries and identify the characteristics of women being left behind. Methods: Using 54 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) since 2012, we reported the proportion of women with timely ANC initiation and those who received 8-10 contacts by coverage levels of ANC4+ and by Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) regions. We identified demographic, socio-economic and health systems characteristics of timely ANC initiation and achievement of ANC8+. We ran four multiple regression models to quantify the associations between timing of first ANC and the number and content of ANC received. Results: Overall, 49.9% of women with ANC1+ and 44.3% of all women had timely ANC initiation; 11.3% achieved ANC8+ and 11.2% received no ANC. Women with timely ANC initiation had 5.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.0-5.5) and 4.7 (95% CI = 4.4-5.0) times higher odds of receiving four and eight ANC contacts, respectively (P < 0.001), and were more likely to receive a higher content of ANC than women with delayed ANC initiation. Regionally, women in Central and Southern Asia had the best performance of timely ANC initiation; Latin America and Caribbean had the highest proportion of women achieving ANC8+. Women who did not initiate ANC in the first trimester or did not achieve 8 contacts were generally poor, single women, with low education, living in rural areas, larger households, having short birth intervals, higher parity, and not giving birth in a health facility nor with a skilled attendant. Conclusions: Timely ANC initiation is likely to be a major driving force towards meeting the 2016 WHO guidelines for a positive pregnancy experience.


Assuntos
Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ásia , Região do Caribe , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
2.
Health Policy Plan ; 35(5): 567-576, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150273

RESUMO

This study examines the level and distribution of service costs-and their association with functional impairment at baseline and over time-for persons with mental disorder receiving integrated primary mental health care. The study was conducted over a 12-month follow-up period in five low- and middle-income countries participating in the Programme for Improving Mental health carE study (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, South Africa and Uganda). Data were drawn from a multi-country intervention cohort study, made up of adults identified by primary care providers as having alcohol use disorders, depression, psychosis and, in the three low-income countries, epilepsy. Health service, travel and time costs, including any out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditures by households, were calculated (in US dollars for the year 2015) and assessed at baseline as well as prospectively using linear regression for their association with functional impairment. Cohort samples were characterized by low levels of educational attainment (Ethiopia and Uganda) and/or high levels of unemployment (Nepal, South Africa and Uganda). Total health service costs per case for the 3 months preceding baseline assessment averaged more than US$20 in South Africa, $10 in Nepal and US$3-7 in Ethiopia, India and Uganda; OOP expenditures ranged from $2 per case in India to $16 in Ethiopia. Higher service costs and OOP expenditure were found to be associated with greater functional impairment in all five sites, but differences only reached statistical significance in Ethiopia and India for service costs and India and Uganda for OOP expenditure. At the 12-month assessment, following initiation of treatment, service costs and OOP expenditure were found to be lower in Ethiopia, South Africa and Uganda, but higher in India and Nepal. There was a pattern of greater reduction in service costs and OOP spending for those whose functional status had improved in all five sites, but this was only statistically significant in Nepal.

3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 182, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Competing priorities in health systems necessitate difficult choices on which health actions and investments to fund: decisions that are complex, value-based, and highly political. In light of the centrality of universal health coverage (UHC) in driving current health policy, we sought to examine the value interests that influence agenda setting in the country's health financing space. Given the plurality of Kenya's health policy levers, we aimed to examine how the perspectives of stakeholders involved in policy decision-making and implementation shape discussions on health financing within the UHC framework. METHODS: A series of in-depth key informant interviews were conducted at national and county level (n = 13) between April and May 2018. Final thematic analysis using the Framework Method was conducted to identify similarities and differences amongst stakeholders on the challenges hindering Kenya's achievement of UHC in terms of its the optimisation of health service coverage; expansion of the population that benefits from essential healthcare services; and the minimisation of out-of-pocket costs associated with health-seeking behaviour. RESULTS: Our findings indicate that the perceived lack of strategic leadership from Kenya's national government has led to a lack of agreement on stakeholders' interpretation of what is to be understood by UHC, its contextual values and priorities. We observe material differences between and within policy networks on the country's priorities for population coverage, healthcare service provision, and cost-sharing under the UHC dispensation. In spite of this, we note that progressive universalism is considered as the preferred approach towards UHC in Kenya, with most interviewees prioritising an equity-based approach that prioritises better access to healthcare services and financial risk protection. However, the conflicting priorities of key stakeholders risk derailing progress towards the expansion of access to health services and financial risk protection. CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to existing knowledge of UHC in Kenya by contextualising the competing and evolving priorities that should be taken into consideration as the country strategises over its UHC process. We suggest that clear policy action is required from national government and county governments in order to develop a logical and consistent approach towards UHC in Kenya.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As performance-based financing (PBF) is increasingly implemented across sub-Saharan Africa, some authors have suggested that it could be a 'stepping stone' for health-system strengthening and broad health-financing reforms. However, so far, few studies have looked at whether and how PBF is aligned to and integrated with national health-financing strategies, particularly in fragile and conflict-affected settings. OBJECTIVE: This study attempts to address the existing research gap by exploring the role of PBF with reference to: (1) user fees/exemption policies and (2) basic packages of health services and benefit packages in the Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo and Nigeria. METHODS: The comparative case study is based on document review, key informant interviews and focus-group discussions with stakeholders at national and subnational levels. RESULTS: The findings highlight different experiences in terms of PBF's integration. Although (formal or informal) fee exemption or reduction practices exist in all settings, their implementation is not uniform and they are often introduced by external programmes, including PBF, in an uncoordinated and vertical fashion. Additionally, the degree to which PBF indicators lists are aligned to the national basic packages of health services varies across cases, and is influenced by factors such as funders' priorities and budgetary concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we find that where national leadership is stronger, PBF is better integrated and more in line with the health-financing regulations and, during phases of acute crisis, can provide structure and organisation to the system. Where governmental stewardship is weaker, PBF may result in another parallel programme, potentially increasing fragmentation in health financing and inequalities between areas supported by different donors.

5.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 38(Suppl 1): 25, 2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems lay the foundation for good governance by increasing the effectiveness and delivery of public services, providing vital statistics for the planning and monitoring of national development, and protecting fundamental human rights. Birth registration provides legal rights and facilitates access to essential public services such as health care and education. However, more than 110 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have deficient CRVS systems, and national birth registration rates continue to fall behind childhood immunization rates. Using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) data in 72 LMICs, the objectives are to (a) explore the status of birth registration, routine childhood immunization, and maternal health services utilization; (b) analyze indicators of birth registration, routine childhood immunization, and maternal health services utilization; and (c) identify missed opportunities for strengthening birth registration systems in countries with strong childhood immunization and maternal health services by measuring the absolute differences between the birth registration rates and these childhood and maternal health service indicators. METHODS: We constructed a database using DHS and MICS data from 2000 to 2017, containing information on birth registration, immunization coverage, and maternal health service indicators. Seventy-three countries including 34 low-income countries and 38 lower middle-income countries were included in this exploratory analysis. RESULTS: Among the 14 countries with disparity between birth registration and BCG vaccination of more than 50%, nine were from sub-Saharan Africa (Tanzania, Uganda, Gambia, Mozambique, Djibouti, Eswatini, Zambia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana), two were from South Asia (Bangladesh, Nepal), one from East Asia and the Pacific (Vanuatu) one from Latin America and the Caribbean (Bolivia), and one from Europe and Central Asia (Moldova). Countries with a 50% or above absolute difference between birth registration and antenatal care coverage include Democratic Republic of Congo, Gambia, Mozambique, Nepal, Tanzania, and Uganda, in low-income countries. Among lower middle-income countries, this includes Eswatini, Ghana, Moldova, Timor-Leste, Vanuatu, and Zambia. Countries with a 50% or above absolute difference between birth registration and facility delivery care coverage include Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Moldova, and Zambia. CONCLUSION: The gap between birth registration and immunization coverage in low- and lower middle-income countries suggests the potential for leveraging immunization programs to increase birth registration rates. Engaging health providers during the antenatal, delivery, and postpartum periods to increase birth registration may be a useful strategy in countries with access to skilled providers.

6.
AIDS Behav ; 23(9): 2498-2513, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377893

RESUMO

The purpose of this systematic review was twofold. First, we sought to summarize the literature on barriers and facilitators to successful healthcare transition for adolescents living with HIV from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Next, we assessed healthcare transition-related policies in countries from which we identified barriers and facilitators to determine the extent to which practice and policy meet to address the country-specific needs of adolescents living with HIV during healthcare transition. Ten studies met inclusion criteria. We identified four sub-themes of barriers to healthcare transition: emotional and psychological burden, effects of HIV disease, logistical and systemic impediments, and HIV stigma. We also identified five sub-themes of facilitators of healthcare transition: social support, skills development for adolescents and the adult treatment team, transition readiness, multidisciplinary teams, and transition coordination. Of the 12 countries from which we identified barriers and facilitators to healthcare transition among adolescents living with HIV, only five (Uganda, Kenya, Thailand, Brazil, and Cambodia) had healthcare transition-specific guidelines. Moreover, there was substantial variation across country-specific guidelines regarding the existence of protocols to monitor and enforce guidelines, and whether there were allocated funds to assist healthcare clinics with implementation. Our review has led to several recommendations to facilitate successful healthcare transition, including the development of surveillance systems to monitor and evaluate efforts to address adolescents' needs during healthcare transition, the development of guidelines specific to healthcare transition and based upon barrier and facilitators identified within target countries, and the incorporation of caregivers and training for the adult treatment team pre- and post-healthcare transition.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Política de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Estigma Social , Apoio Social , Transição para Assistência do Adulto , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Países em Desenvolvimento , Guias como Assunto , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Pobreza
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 258, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In many low and low-middle income countries, the incidence of polyhydramnios is unknown, in part because ultrasound technology is not routinely used. Our objective was to report the incidence of polyhydramnios in five low and low-middle income countries, to determine maternal characteristics associated with polyhydramnios, and report pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of the First Look Study, a multi-national, cluster-randomized trial of ultrasound during prenatal care. We evaluated all women enrolled from Guatemala, Pakistan, Zambia, Kenya and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) who received an examination by prenatal ultrasound. We used pairwise site comparisons with Tukey-Kramer adjustment and multivariable logistic models with general estimating equations to control for cluster-level effects. The diagnosis of polyhydramnios was confrimed by an U.S. based radiologist in a majority of cases (62%). RESULTS: We identified 305/18,640 (1.6%) cases of polyhydramnios. 229 (75%) cases were from the DRC, with an incidence of 10%. A higher percentage of women with polyhydramnios experienced obstructed labor (7% vs 4%) and fetal malposition (4% vs 2%). Neonatal death was more common when polyhydramnios was present (OR 2.43; CI 1.15, 5.13). CONCLUSIONS: Polyhydramnios occured in these low and low-middle income countries at a rate similar to high-income contries except in the DRC where the incidence was 10%. Polyhydramnios was associated with obstructed labor, fetal malposition, and neonatal death. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01990625 , November 21, 2013.


Assuntos
Apresentação no Trabalho de Parto , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Poli-Hidrâmnios , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Adulto , Líquido Amniótico , Análise por Conglomerados , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Poli-Hidrâmnios/diagnóstico , Poli-Hidrâmnios/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336947

RESUMO

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major social and public health problem in China. The "China-Gates TB Project" started in 2012, and one of its objectives was to reduce the financial burden on TB patients and to improve access to quality TB care. The aims of this study were to determine if the project had positive impacts on improving health service utilization. Methods: The 'China-Gates TB Project' was launched in Yichang City (YC), Hubei Province in April 2014 and ended in March 2015, lasting for one year. A series of questionnaire surveys of 540 patients were conducted in three counties of YC at baseline and final evaluations. Inpatient and outpatient service utilization were assessed before and after the program, with descriptive statistics. Propensity score matching was used to evaluate the impact of the China-Gates TB Project on health service utilization by minimizing the differences in the other characteristics of baseline and final stage groups. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were held to further enrich the results. Results: A total of 530 patients were included in this study. Inpatient rates significantly increased from 33.5% to 75.9% overall (p < 0.001), with the largest increase occurring for low income patients. Outpatient visits increased from 4.6 to 5.6 (p < 0.001), and this increase was also greatest for the poorest patients. Compared with those who lived in developed counties, the overall increase in outpatient visits for illness in the remote Wufeng county was higher. Conclusions: The China-Gates TB Project has effectively improved health service utilization in YC, and poor patients benefited more from it. TB patients in remote underdeveloped counties are more likely to increase the use of outpatient services rather than inpatient services. There is a need to tilt policy towards the poor, and various measures need to be in place in order to ensure health services utilization in undeveloped areas.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Antituberculosos/economia , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tuberculose/economia
9.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218100, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194781

RESUMO

As millions of children continue to live without parental care in under-resourced societies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), it is important for policymakers and practitioners to understand the specific characteristics within different care settings and the extent to which they are associated with outcomes of orphan and separated children (OSC). This study was designed to (1) examine if the psychosocial well-being of OSC in under-resourced societies in LMICs is more dependent on the availability of certain components of quality of care rather than the care setting itself (i.e. the residential care-based or community family-based setting), and (2) identify the relative significance of certain components of quality of care that are associated with a child's psychosocial well-being across different OSC care settings. This study drew from 36-month follow-up data from the Positive Outcomes for Orphans (POFO) Study and used a sample population of 2,013 (923 institution- and 1,090 community-based) OSC among six diverse study sites across five LMICs: Cambodia, India (Hyderabad and Nagaland), Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. Analyses showed that all four components of quality of care significantly predicted child psychosocial well-being. Child psychosocial well-being across "high" and "low" levels of quality of care showed negligible differences between residential- and community-based care settings, suggesting the important factor in child well-being is quality of care rather than setting of care. Practical and policy implications and future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Cuidado da Criança/normas , Bem-Estar da Criança/psicologia , Crianças Órfãs/psicologia , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Adaptação Psicológica , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Problemas Sociais
10.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 7(2): 329-339, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249026

RESUMO

Recognition is growing that development programs need to be guided by rights as well as to promote, protect, and fulfill them. Drawing from a content analysis of performance-based financing (PBF) implementation manuals, we quantify the extent to which these manuals use a rights perspective to frame family planning services. PBF is an adaptable service purchasing strategy that aims to improve equity and quality of health service provision. PBF can contribute toward achieving global family planning goals and has institutional support from multiple development partners including the Global Financing Facility in support of Every Woman Every Child. A review of 23 PBF implementation manuals finds that all documents are focused largely on the implementation of quality and accountability mechanisms, but few address issues of accessibility, availability, informed choice, acceptability, and/or nondiscrimination and equity. Notably, operational inclusion of agency, autonomy, empowerment, and/or voluntarism of health care clients is absent. Based on these findings, we argue that current PBF programs incorporate some mention of rights but are not systematically aligned with a rights-based approach. If PBF programs better reflected the importance of client-centered, rights-based programming, program performance could be improved and risk of infringing rights could be reduced. Given the mixed evidence for PBF benefits and the risk of perverse incentives in earlier PBF programs that were not aligned with rights-based approaches, we argue that greater attention to the rights principles of acceptability, accessibility, availability, and quality; accountability; agency and empowerment; equity and nondiscrimination; informed choice and decision making; participation; and privacy and confidentiality would improve health service delivery and health system performance for all stakeholders with clients at the center. Based on this review, we recommend making the rights-based approach explicit in PBF; progressively operationalizing rights, drawing from local experience; validating rights-based metrics to address measurement gaps; and recognizing the economic value of aligning PBF with rights principles. Such recommendations anchor an aspirational rights agenda with a practical PBF strategy on the need and opportunity for validated metrics.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Guias como Assunto , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Direitos Humanos , Motivação , Reembolso de Incentivo , Adulto , Criança , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Saúde Global , Governo , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 682, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is increasing globally, with the highest burden in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs) such as the Philippines. Developing effective interventions could improve detection, prevention, and treatment of diabetes. The Cardiovascular Health Awareness Program (CHAP), an evidence-based Canadian intervention, may be an appropriate model for LMICs due to its low cost, ease of implementation, and focus on health promotion and disease prevention. The primary aim of this study is to adapt the CHAP model to a Philippine context as the Community Health Assessment Program in the Philippines (CHAP-P) and evaluate the effect of CHAP-P on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) compared to a random sample of community residents in control communities. METHODS: Six-month, 26-community (13 intervention, 13 control) parallel cluster randomized controlled trial in Zamboanga Peninsula, an Administrative Region in the southern Philippines. Criteria for community selection include: adequate political stability, connection with local champions, travel feasibility, and refrigerated space for materials. The community-based intervention, CHAP-P sessions, are volunteer-led group sessions with chronic condition assessment, blood pressure monitoring, and health education. Three participant groups will be involved: 1) Random sample of community participants aged 40 or older, 100 per community (1300 control, 1300 intervention participants total); 2) Community members aged 40 years or older who attended at least one CHAP-P session; 3) Community health workers and staff facilitating sessions. PRIMARY OUTCOME: mean difference in HbA1c at 6 months in intervention group individuals compared to control. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: modifiable risk factors, health utilization and access (individual); diabetes detection and management (cluster). Evaluation also includes community process evaluation and cost-effectiveness analysis. DISCUSSION: CHAP has been shown to be effective in a Canadian setting. Individual components of CHAP-P have been piloted locally and shown to be acceptable and feasible. This study will improve understanding of how best to adapt this model to an LMIC setting, in order to maximize prevention, detection, and management of diabetes. Results may inform policy and practice in the Philippines and have the potential to be applied to other LMICs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT03481335 ), registered March 29, 2018.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Países em Desenvolvimento , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Adulto , Idoso , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Canadá , Sistema Cardiovascular , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Análise Custo-Benefício , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filipinas , Pobreza , Projetos de Pesquisa
12.
Sex Health ; 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213225

RESUMO

Although men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV and other sexually transmissible infections, sexual health services for MSM in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) remain under-resourced and are poorly understood. A scoping review of literature on MSM sexual health in LMIC was conducted in order to identify key clinical services and gaps in knowledge. Three databases were searched, in addition to hand-reviewing key journals and bulletins, to identify literature with a focus on MSM sexual health. Key services related to providing care to MSM in LMIC that emerged from our review are described. These services include creation of safe and confidential clinic environments, HIV testing services, behavioural interventions, HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), rapid antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and STI services. Compared with high-income settings, major differences in LMIC include lack of diagnostic technology, unfavourable legal environments and lack of funding for MSM health. Innovative approaches to healthcare delivery, such as harnessing mobile technology, self-testing and crowdsourcing interventions, can improve health services among MSM in LMIC. There are gaps in the evidence about how best to provide sexual health services for MSM in LMIC settings. Implementation research and scale-up of existing biomedical and behavioural interventions, such as HIV/STI testing services, PrEP and early antiretroviral initiation are urgently needed in LMIC.

13.
J Surg Res ; 242: 193-199, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to understand the challenges in accessing pediatric surgical care in the context of the "three delays" model at the Pediatric Surgery Outpatient Clinic (PSOPC) at a tertiary hospital in Kampala, Uganda. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An outpatient database was established at the weekly PSOPC. A survey regarding prior healthcare visits and barriers to care was additionally administered to clinic patients and inpatients. RESULTS: Patients first sought healthcare a median of 56 d before the current visit to the PSOPC. A majority (52%) of patients first sought care at another health facility, and 17% of those surveyed had presented to the PSOPC three or more times for their current medical issue. Of 240 patients with a new issue or due for their next surgery, 10% were admitted to the ward, with only 54% receiving definitive care. Included in the most commonly needed surgeries for PSOPC patients were herniotomy (16% inguinal; 14.9% umbilical), orchiopexy (6.3%), posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (6.3%), and colostomy closure (4.4%), with the range of patient ages at the time of presentation reflecting delays in care. Patient expenditures associated with travel to the hospital showed inpatients coming from significantly further away, with higher costs of travel and need to borrow or sell assets to cover travel costs, when compared with PSOPC patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients face significant delays in accessing and receiving definitive surgical care. Associated burdens associated with these delays place patients at risk for catastrophic health expenditures. Infrastructure and capacity development are necessary for improvement in pediatric surgical care.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Ambulatório Hospitalar/organização & administração , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento/organização & administração , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Pediátricos/economia , Hospitais Pediátricos/organização & administração , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Ambulatório Hospitalar/economia , Ambulatório Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/economia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/economia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento/economia , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Uganda
14.
Int J Public Health ; 64(5): 743-754, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between unintended pregnancy and maternal healthcare services utilization in low- and lower-middle-income countries. METHODS: A systematic literature search of Medline, Cinahl, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Popline, Maternity and Infant Care, and Scopus databases published since the beginning of the Millennium Development Goals (i.e. January 2000) to June 2018 was performed. We estimated the pooled odds ratios using random effect models and performed subgroup analysis by participants and study characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 38 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Our study found the occurrence of unintended pregnancy was associated with a 25-39% reduction in the use of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal healthcare services. Stratified analysis found the differences of healthcare services utilization across types of pregnancy unintendedness (e.g. mistimed, unwanted). CONCLUSIONS: Integrating family planning and maternal healthcare services should be considered to encourage women with unintended pregnancies to access maternal healthcare services.


Assuntos
Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Perinatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez não Planejada/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD007646, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recommended management for neonates with a possible serious bacterial infection (PSBI) is hospitalisation and treatment with intravenous antibiotics, such as ampicillin plus gentamicin. However, hospitalisation is often not feasible for neonates in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Therefore, alternative options for the management of neonatal PSBI in LMICs needs to be evaluated. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of community-based antibiotics for neonatal PSBI in LMICs on neonatal mortality and to assess whether the effects of community-based antibiotics for neonatal PSBI differ according to the antibiotic regimen administered. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2018, Issue 3), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 16 April 2018), Embase (1980 to 16 April 2018), and CINAHL (1982 to 16 April 2018). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised, quasi-randomised and cluster-randomised trials. For the first comparison, we included trials that compared antibiotics which were initiated and completed in the community to the standard hospital referral for neonatal PSBI in LMICs. For the second comparison, we included trials that compared simplified antibiotic regimens which relied more on oral antibiotics than intravenous antibiotics to the standard regimen of seven to 10 days of injectable penicillin/ampicillin with an injectable aminoglycoside delivered in the community to treat neonatal PSBI. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Group. The primary outcomes were all-cause neonatal mortality and sepsis-specific neonatal mortality. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: For the first comparison, five studies met the inclusion criteria. Community-based antibiotic delivery for neonatal PSBI reduced neonatal mortality when compared to hospital referral only (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 0.99; 5 studies, n = 125,134; low-quality evidence). There was, however, a high level of statistical heterogeneity (I² = 87%) likely, due to the heterogenous nature of the study settings as well as the fact that four of the studies provided various co-interventions in conjunction with community-based antibiotics. Community-based antibiotic delivery for neonatal PSBI showed a possible effect on reducing sepsis-specific neonatal mortality (typical RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.00; 2 studies, n = 40,233; low-quality evidence).For the second comparison, five studies met the inclusion criteria. Using a simplified antibiotic approach resulted in similar rates of neonatal mortality when compared to the standard regimen of seven days of injectable procaine benzylpenicillin and injectable procaine benzylpenicillin and injectable gentamicin delivered in community-settings for neonatal PSBI (typical RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.50; 3 studies, n = 3476; moderate-quality evidence). In subgroup analysis, the simplified antibiotic regimen of seven days of oral amoxicillin and injectable gentamicin showed no difference in neonatal mortality (typical RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.51; 3 studies, n = 2001; moderate-quality evidence). Two days of injectable benzylpenicillin and injectable gentamicin followed by five days of oral amoxicillin showed no difference in neonatal mortality (typical RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.29 to 2.65; 3 studies, n = 2036; low-quality evidence). Two days of injectable gentamicin and oral amoxicillin followed by five days of oral amoxicillin showed no difference in neonatal mortality (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.24 to 1.85; 1 study, n = 893; moderate-quality evidence). For fast breathing alone, seven days of oral amoxicillin resulted in no difference in neonatal mortality (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.20 to 4.91; 1 study, n = 1406; low-quality evidence). None of the studies in the second comparison reported the effect of a simplified antibiotic regimen on sepsis-specific neonatal mortality. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Low-quality data demonstrated that community-based antibiotics reduced neonatal mortality when compared to the standard hospital referral for neonatal PSBI in resource-limited settings. The use of co-interventions, however, prevent disentanglement of the contribution from community-based antibiotics. Moderate-quality evidence showed that simplified, community-based treatment of PSBI using regimens which rely on the combination of oral and injectable antibiotics did not result in increased neonatal mortality when compared to the standard treatment of using only injectable antibiotics. Overall, the evidence suggests that simplified, community-based antibiotics may be efficacious to treat neonatal PSBI when hospitalisation is not feasible. However, implementation research is recommended to study the effectiveness and scale-up of simplified, community-based antibiotics in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
Health Policy Plan ; 34(2): 141-150, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891591

RESUMO

Health system responsiveness (HSR) has been identified as one of the intrinsic goals of health systems for improvement in health and well-being of population. The HSR deals with the non-medical, legitimate expectations of a population in its interaction with the health system. It becomes essential in case of vulnerable groups like older adults with disability, who are more sensitive and risk-prone to the adversities of healthcare challenges. This paper uses data from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health conducted in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa during 2007-10 and examines the disability-based disparity in outpatient HSR among the older adults in the above-mentioned countries. Disability and HSR scores have been constructed using Item Response Theory Partial Credit Model. Also, the paper uses bivariate and multivariate analysis and finds that the HSR is significantly and substantially lower among the disabled and severely disabled older adults in all the study countries (except Ghana) as compared with those older adults who are not (or mildly) suffering from any form of disability. The policy efforts in the studied countries should focus on monitoring and reducing these disparities for improving HSR in order to make it inclusive.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/normas , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia
19.
Pediatrics ; 143(4)2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: School health programs are frequently attempted in low- and/or middle-income countries; however, programmatic scope and reach is limited by human resource constraints. We sought to determine if trained community members could implement a school health program that improved outcomes in rural primary schools in India. METHODS: This was a mixed-methods, stepped-wedge, cluster-controlled study of schools pragmatically assigned to receive a multicomponent, comprehensive school health program delivered by lay field-workers. RESULTS: All students in 22 primary schools (9 government schools and 13 low-cost private schools) participated in this study. A total of 3033 student-years were included in the analysis (2100 student-years in the intervention period and 933 student-years in the control period). Qualitative feedback was collected from 38 teachers, 49 parents, and 4 field-workers. In low-cost private schools, the diarrhea incidence was lower in students receiving the intervention (incidence rate ratio 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47 to 0.71; P < .001). There was no difference in diarrhea incidence for students in government schools (incidence rate ratio 0.87; 95% CI 0.68 to 1.12; P = .29). Health-knowledge acquisition was higher in intervention schools (mean difference 12.6%; 95% CI 8.8 to 16.4; P < .001) and similar in both school types. Intervention coverage rates were high (mean 93.9%; SD 2.0%), and performance assessment scores indicated fidelity (mean 3.45; SD 0.69). Stakeholders revealed favorable perceptions of the field-workers and high levels of perceived impact. CONCLUSIONS: Lay field-worker-led school health programs offer a promising alternative for improving school health delivery in resource-constrained settings.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Renda , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Adolescente , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pobreza , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875876

RESUMO

Medical facility birth with skilled birth attendance is essential to reduce maternal mortality. The purpose of this study was to assess the demographic characteristics, socio-economic factors, and varied health information sources that may influence the uptake of birth services in Pakistan. We used pooled data from Maternal-Child Health Program Indicator Survey 2013 and 2014. Study population was 9719 women. Generalized linear model with log link and a Poisson distribution was used to identify factors associated with place of birth. 3403 (35%) women gave birth at home, and 6316 (65%) women gave birth at a medical facility. After controlling for all covariates, women's age, number of children, education, wealth, and mother and child health information source (doctors and nurses/midwives) were associated with facility births. Women were significantly less likely to give birth at a medical facility if they received maternal-child health information from low-level health workers or relatives/friends. The findings suggest that interventions should target disadvantaged and vulnerable groups of women after considering rural-urban differences. Training non-health professionals may help improve facility birth. Further research is needed to examine the effect of individual information sources on facility birth, both in urban and rural areas in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tocologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/educação , Paquistão , Adulto Jovem
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