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1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 631, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethiopia is among the 14 high TB, TB/HIV and MDR-TB burden countries globally. Prior studies indicate students attending universities in Ethiopia may be at increased risk for active tuberculosis (TB) relative to the general population, mainly due to the dramatic increase in expansion of the enrollment scale of universities.This study sought to gain insight about non-health science university students' TB knowledge and attitudes to help develop a strategy for TB education in this population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from October to December 2018 among non-health science university students at three eastern Ethiopia public universities. Participants were considered having 'good' knowledge on TB when they correctly mentioned the communicability, means of transmission and prevention methods of TB and recognized modern medicine as the best treatment for TB. Participants were considered as having 'acceptable' attitude towards TB when they indicated they would seek immediate care for TB diagnosis, not hide a TB diagnosis and feel compassion to help people with TB. RESULTS: A total of 1720 non-health science university students participated. Only 614 (35.7%) of the students had 'good' knowledge on TB. This differed significantly between universities, with students from Haramaya and Dire Dawa universities more likely to have 'good' TB knowledge than their counterparts from Jigjiga University [COR (Crude Odds Ratio):1.62 and 1.94, respectively; and 95% Confidence Interval (CI): (1.236, 2.079) and (1.511, 2.483), respectively]. Only a third of students, 555 (32.3%) mentioned 'bacteria' as causing TB, and 836 students (48.6%) had ever heard of Multi Drug Resistant-TB (MDR-TB). An 'acceptable' attitude towards people with TB was observed in 666 students (38.7%). Even though 739 students (43%) felt compassion and desire to help TB patients, 213 (12%) and 382 (22%) mentioned they fear and tend to stay away from TB patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed that non-health science university students lack important TB knowledge and have misconceptions about TB in eastern Ethiopia. University administrators and other stakeholders striving against TB should provide due attention to university settings and consider development of student education programs to improve awareness and knowledge of TB disease.

2.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 43, December 2019
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51754

RESUMO

[EXTRACT]. Tuberculosis (TB) is a major source of ill health, one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide and the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent, ranking above HIV/AIDS. TB is preventable, treatable, and curable. Timely diagnosis and treatment can cure most people who develop TB and curtail onward transmission (1). Treatment requires multiple drugs and requires from 6 months to 2 years depending on the type of TB (drug susceptible or resistant). These long, drug-treatment regimens are challenging for both patients and health care systems. The Sustainable Development Goals propose ending the TB epidemic by 2030 (2). The World Health Organization’s (WHO) End TB Strategy provides a framework for reaching this goal with a patient-centered approach and inter-programmatic and intersectoral interventions (3). These interventions involve affected communities and address the social determinants of TB, which have a greater impact on vulnerable populations. They are also aligned with the Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage Strategy (4). The Declaration of the United Nations High-Level Meeting on TB held in September 2018 renewed the commitment of WHO Member States to strengthen their national TB efforts, fighting against this disease by leveraging the existing global frameworks (5, 6).


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Pesquisa , América
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 88: 34-40, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a critical global public threat, and limited epidemiology studies have been performed to explore the efficacy of active TB screening. METHODS: Three sites located in eastern China were chosen in 2013, and three rounds of systematic screenings were performed in permanent residents aged older than 15 years. RESULTS: The TB incidence showed a downtrend after several rounds of active screening at the three sites, and a significant change was observed at site A in the overall population. In the target population at sites A and B, both the elderly and people with a history of TB had a remarkable decline through the first or second round of screening. The implementation of active case-finding identified 2.36 [1.47,3.81] (2013 vs. 2012) and 1.49 [1.1,2.03] (2013-2015 vs. 2010-2012) more potential cases than the passive case-finding by the surveillance system at site A. CONCLUSIONS: Active case-finding of tuberculosis might be effective in high prevalence area with a low economic level, particularly among the elderly and people with a history of TB. Additionally, new rapid diagnosis technology should be considered to decrease the prevalence among people with a history of TB. Ultimately, active screening identified more active TB cases than passive case-finding, particularly in high prevalence area with underdeveloped economics.


Assuntos
Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Pesquisa , Adulto Jovem
5.
Lancet ; 394(10195): 300-301, 2019 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354140
6.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 17(1): 68, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although enhanced priority-setting for investments in health research for development is essential to tackling inequalities in global health, there is a lack of consensus on an optimal priority-setting process. In light of the current surge in tuberculosis (TB) research investment, we use TB as a case study. METHODS: We investigated two critical aspects of a research prioritisation process, namely the criteria that should be used to rank alternative research options and which stakeholders should be involved in priority-setting. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 key informants purposively selected from four distinct groups - academia, funding bodies, international policy or technical agencies, and national disease control programmes. Interview transcripts were analysed verbatim using a framework approach. We also performed a systematic analysis of seven diverse TB research prioritisation processes. RESULTS: There was consensus that well-defined and transparent criteria for assessing research options need to be agreed at the outset of any prioritisation process. It was recommended that criteria should select for research that is likely to have the greatest public health impact in affected countries rather than research that mainly fills scientific knowledge gaps. Some interviewees expressed strong views about the need - and reluctance - to make politically challenging decisions that place some research areas at a lower priority for funding. The importance of taking input from stakeholders from countries with high disease burden was emphasised; such stakeholders were notably absent from the majority of prioritisation processes we analysed. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated two critical areas for improvement of research prioritisation processes such that inequalities in health are better addressed - the need to deprioritise some research areas to generate a specific and meaningful list for investment, and greater involvement of experts working in high disease-burden countries.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Prioridades em Saúde/organização & administração , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Saúde Global , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Entrevistas como Assunto , Política , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/organização & administração , Universidades/organização & administração
7.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 262: 101-104, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349276

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) represents a global challenge in terms of prevention, care and control. Decision support systems (DSS) can supply the necessary knowledge basis to underpin investigators, policy makers and health personnel actions and to provide crucial elements that can help reducing TB burden. Thus, the objectives of this work are to present the protocol to be followed for carrying out a scoping review to identify topics where DSSs are used, to define appropriate categories and to clarify main outcomes and research gaps. As part of the protocol, five electronic bibliographic databases will be searched for articles from 2006 to 2019 and two investigators will independently screen each work using the study inclusion criteria. Data extraction will be performed, and findings will be reported. The results will be used to provide a broad understanding of how DSSs for TB are being used.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Tuberculose , Assistência à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Pesquisadores , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Tuberculose/terapia
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 86: 94-101, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to understand how tuberculosis (TB) control institutes raise awareness of TB among domestic migrants in China, specifically whether migrants have received TB information and how they received it. METHODS: This multi-level analysis included both county-level data and individual-level data covering 31 provinces in mainland China. Multi-level logistic models were used to explore the factors associated with receiving TB information. RESULTS: This analysis included 205 990 migrants from 31 provinces and municipalities. Only 77 460 (37.60%) migrants reportedly received any TB information in mainland China. The center for disease control and prevention (CDC), the center for tuberculosis control (CTC), and the center for prevention and treatment of chronic diseases (CPTCD) were the most likely to provide TB information for migrants in comparison to other types of TB control institutes, such as general hospitals, specialized hospitals, and community healthcare centers. The odds ratios were calculated as: 1.563 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.246-1.959) for CDCs, 1.385 (95% CI 1.063-1.804) for CTCs, and 1.723 (95% CI 1.424-2.085) for CPTCDs. CONCLUSIONS: China has not achieved universal coverage of TB awareness. TB awareness levels are higher in regions with CDC, CTC, and CPTCD institutes. Domestic migrants who have moved to western areas are more likely to have received TB information.


Assuntos
Comunicação em Saúde , Migrantes , Academias e Institutos , Adulto , China , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
11.
Eur Respir Rev ; 28(152)2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142549

RESUMO

Over the past few decades, treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR)/extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) has been challenging because of its prolonged duration (up to 20-24 months), toxicity, costs and sub-optimal outcomes.After over 40 years of neglect, two new drugs (bedaquiline and delamanid) have been made available to manage difficult-to-treat MDR-/XDR-TB cases. World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines published in March 2019 endorsed the possibility of treating MDR-TB patients with a full oral regimen, following previous guidelines published in 2016 which launched a shorter regimen lasting 9-10 months.The objectives of this article are to review the main achievements in MDR-TB treatment through the description of the existing WHO strategies, to discuss the main ongoing trials and to shed light on potential future scenarios and revised definitions necessary to manage drug-resistant TB.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Antituberculosos/história , Difusão de Inovações , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/história , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/microbiologia , Previsões , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/história , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia
13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(11): e95, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914906

RESUMO

Background: The prevalence, incidence, and mortality rates of tuberculosis (TB) have declined steadily in Korea since 1965. This study aimed to identify the characteristics and provide quantitative analysis of published medical literatures on TB written by researchers based in Korea. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search via the Web of Science database for articles in Science Citation Index (Expanded) journals, on TB, and published by researchers based in Korea, from inception to 2017. All articles were analyzed by publication year, publishing journal, article type, study design, research institutes, and research funds. Results: During the study period, we identified 1,101 articles and included them for analysis. The first was published in 1979, while 105 were published in 2017. Between 1979 and 2017, the compound annual growth rate of TB articles by researchers based in Korea was 13.0%. Among 1,101 articles, 682 (61.9%) were clinical research and 383 (34.8%) were basic research. Studies with cross-sectional design were the most common type among the clinical research, while biochemistry was the most common field among the basic research. The number of articles dealing with diagnostics or treatment has increased significantly, although the number of articles on vaccines, and on operational and public health, has only a slight increase. The Ministry of Health and Welfare of Korea funded studies yielding 178 (20.1%) articles. Conclusion: Articles on TB, especially those on clinical aspects, and published by researchers based in Korea have been increasing rapidly since 1979.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Tuberculose/patologia , Pesquisa Biomédica , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Editoração , República da Coreia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/metabolismo
16.
Lancet ; 393(10178): 1331-1384, 2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904263
19.
S Afr Med J ; 109(11b): 45-52, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252868

RESUMO

The South African Medical Research Council Centre for Tuberculosis Research has a rich history of high-impact research that has influenced our understating of this hyper-epidemic which is further exacerbated by the emergence and spread of drug-resistant forms of the disease. This review aims to summarise the past 30 years of research conducted in the Centre which has influenced the way that tuberculosis (TB) is diagnosed and treated. The review includes the development of new technologies for rapid screening of people with probable TB and the repurposing of human diagnostics for wildlife conservation.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Academias e Institutos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Pesquisa Biomédica , Bovinos , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Gado , Programas de Rastreamento , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , África do Sul , Tuberculose Bovina/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Bovina/terapia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46341

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading infectious cause of death worldwide, killing roughly 1.6 million people in 2017. In the past 200 years, TB claimed the lives of more than 1 billion people — more deaths than from malaria, influenza, smallpox, HIV/AIDS, cholera and plague combined.


Assuntos
Gestão de Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação em Saúde
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