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3.
Nursing ; 50(1): 39-43, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855986

RESUMO

Measles has re-emerged in the US for a variety of reasons, including misinformation spread by antivaccination advocates and imported cases from countries where infected children may be too young for immunization. Prompt diagnosis and isolation can help reduce measles transmission.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/enfermagem , Sarampo/enfermagem , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Humanos , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/fisiopatologia , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/administração & dosagem , Diagnóstico de Enfermagem , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46933

RESUMO

Mais de 140 mil pessoas no mundo morreram em decorrência do sarampo em 2018, de acordo com novas estimativas da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) e dos Centros para Controle e Prevenção de Doenças (CDC) dos Estados Unidos. Essas mortes ocorreram em um momento em que os casos de sarampo aumentaram globalmente, com surtos devastadores em todas as regiões.


Assuntos
Sarampo , Sarampo/mortalidade
5.
Am J Infect Control ; 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with measles can precipitate outbreaks in health care facilities where they seek care. Rural critical-access hospitals (CAHs) may be at higher risk of outbreaks given their size and potentially limited infection prevention resources. METHODS: We surveyed CAHs in Idaho to ascertain their levels of preparedness for managing measles cases. A 25-item questionnaire was sent to infection preventionists at all 27 Idaho CAHs. The questionnaire covered organizational structure, resources for managing measles cases, and hospital policies for ensuring immunity among health care workers. RESULTS: A total of 22 (82%) CAHs responded, reporting varying availability of facilities and resources for managing measles cases and disparate procedures for testing clinical samples and providing vaccines to nonimmune, exposed staff. DISCUSSION: With measles incidence on the rise in the United States, our survey found that most of the responding hospitals had the basic organizational structure for facility-wide prevention and management efforts in case a patient with suspected or confirmed measles presented to that facility. Most of the hospitals also had at least some available resources to manage measles cases, as well as policies for ensuring immunity to measles among at least some groups of health care workers. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides initial perspectives on measles preparedness among Idaho CAHs, despite limited generalizability. Future studies should explore whether self-reported preparedness measures reflect the ability of the CAHs to control measles spread when cases present for care.

6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(48): 1105-1111, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805033

RESUMO

In 2010, the World Health Assembly (WHA) set the following three milestones for measles control to be achieved by 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) among children aged 1 year to ≥90% at the national level and to ≥80% in every district, 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to less than five cases per 1 million population, and 3) reduce global measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate* (1). In 2012, WHA endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan,† with the objective of eliminating measles§ in five of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2020. This report updates a previous report (2) and describes progress toward WHA milestones and regional measles elimination during 2000-2018. During 2000-2018, estimated MCV1 coverage increased globally from 72% to 86%; annual reported measles incidence decreased 66%, from 145 to 49 cases per 1 million population; and annual estimated measles deaths decreased 73%, from 535,600 to 142,300. During 2000-2018, measles vaccination averted an estimated 23.2 million deaths. However, the number of measles cases in 2018 increased 167% globally compared with 2016, and estimated global measles mortality has increased since 2017. To continue progress toward the regional measles elimination targets, resource commitments are needed to strengthen routine immunization systems, close historical immunity gaps, and improve surveillance. To achieve measles elimination, all communities and countries need coordinated efforts aiming to reach ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles vaccine (3).

7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(48): 1112-1116, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805034

RESUMO

In 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region countries, including China, resolved to eliminate measles by 2012 or as soon as feasible thereafter (1). As of 2018, nine* of the 37 Western Pacific Region countries or areas† had eliminated§ measles. China's Measles Elimination Action Plan 2006-2012 included strengthening routine immunization; conducting measles risk assessments, followed by supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) with measles-containing vaccine (MCV) at national and subnational levels; strengthening surveillance and laboratory capacity; and investigating and responding to measles outbreaks. Most recently, progress toward measles elimination in China was described in a 2014 report documenting measles elimination efforts in China during 2008-2012 and a resurgence in 2013 (2). This report describes progress toward measles elimination in China during January 2013-June 2019.¶ Measles incidence per million persons decreased from 20.4 in 2013 to 2.8 in 2018; reported measles-related deaths decreased from 32 in 2015 to one in 2018 and no deaths in 2019 through June. Measles elimination in China can be achieved through strengthening the immunization program's existing strategy by ensuring sufficient vaccine supply; continuing to improve laboratory-supported surveillance, outbreak investigation and response; strengthening school entry vaccination record checks; vaccinating students who do not have documentation of receipt of 2 doses of measles-rubella vaccine; and vaccinating health care professionals and other adults at risk for measles.

8.
Vaccine ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831219

RESUMO

During the elimination stage of measles, the development of such disease in individuals who received measles-containing vaccine (MCV) is a concern from an epidemiological standpoint. A few cases in which measles was transmitted from a patient who received two doses of MCV have been reported. However, whether such transmissions were caused by primary vaccine failure (PVF) or secondary vaccine failure (SVF) remains unclear. All patients suspected of measles in Osaka Prefecture between November and December 2018 were enrolled. Data about age, gender, immunization record, and clinical signs were obtained. Laboratory examinations were performed, which included virus isolation in tissue culture, a nucleic acid test based on virus-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction and humoral responses to the measles virus measuring immunoglobulin (Ig) M, IgG, avidity of IgG, and neutralizing antibody concentration. The measles outbreak comprised 10 laboratory confirmed cases, including three secondary and six tertiary patients. Among them, three secondary patients were unvaccinated. The index case had received two MCV doses, and the six tertiary patients were vaccinated. Both the index and tertiary patients had high specific IgG concentration with high avidity. In particular, the index patient had a markedly high neutralization antibody concentration of 425,590 mIU/mL, which indicated immunological SVF. This study first reported about measles transmission from an individual with SVF who received two vaccination doses. To prevent measles transmission and outbreak particularly in countries where measles was almost eliminated, patients with SVF for measles should be cautiously monitored.

9.
J Clin Virol ; 122: 104230, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measles is highly contagious and cause significant morbidity and mortality. Sri-Lanka has the goal to eliminate endogenous measles by 2020 in par with WHO. OBJECTIVE: To describe laboratory confirmation and genotype distribution of measles cases during the outbreak occurred from mid-March to May 2019, Sri-Lanka STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective study was conducted at National Measles Reference Laboratory (NMRL), Sri-Lanka. All samples received were tested according to the testing flow chart at NMRL with WHO recommended kits. Blood samples were tested for anti-measles IgM and IgG with IgG avidity for IgG positives. Samples within 5days post-onset rash were tested with measles real-time RT-PCR. Products of genotyping PCR were sent to Regional Reference Laboratory, Thailand for sequencing. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis was done at NMRL. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. RESULTS: A total of 182 blood and 46 throat/nasopharyngeal swabs were received from 195 suspected cases and 37(19 %) were positive for measles by anti-measles IgM, rRT-PCR or both. Majority was females, with mean age of 20 years. Cases represented three main geographical areas; Western-35 %, Central-32 % and Southern-27 %. High avidity IgG was detected in 27/37(73 %). Sequencing data of six cases (4 from Western and 2 from Central province) revealed genotype D8. CONCLUSION: Nineteen percent of the suspected patients were measles positive with 73 % having re-infections. Majority were 22 years or over. Measles genotype was D8 in two provinces, suggesting the spread of virus within the country. Laboratory confirmation with measles PCR; IgG avidity and sequencing/genetic analysis is critical in the verge of measles elimination.

10.
Epidemiol Infect ; 147: e319, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822310

RESUMO

A large-scale measles outbreak (11 495 reported cases, 60% aged ≥15 years) occurred in Georgia during 2013-2015. A nationwide, multistage, stratified cluster serosurvey for hepatitis B and C among persons aged ≥18 years conducted in Georgia in late 2015 provided an opportunity to assess measles and rubella (MR) susceptibility after the outbreak. Residual specimens from 3125 participants aged 18-50 years were tested for Immunoglobulin G antibodies against MR using ELISA. Nationwide, 6.3% (95% CI 4.9%-7.6%) of the surveyed population were seronegative for measles and 8.6% (95% CI 7.1%-10.1%) were seronegative for rubella. Measles susceptibility was highest among 18-24 year-olds (10.1%) and declined with age to 1.2% among 45-50 year-olds (P < 0.01). Susceptibility to rubella was highest among 25-29 year-olds (15.3%), followed by 18-24 year-olds (11.6%) and 30-34 year-olds (10.2%), and declined to <5% among persons aged ≥35 years (P < 0.001). The susceptibility profiles in the present serosurvey were consistent with the epidemiology of recent MR cases and the history of the immunization programme. Measles susceptibility levels >10% among 18-24 year-olds in Georgia revealed continued risk for outbreaks among young adults. High susceptibility to rubella among 18-34 year-olds indicates a continuing risk for congenital rubella cases.

11.
Inquiry ; 56: 46958019894098, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823676

RESUMO

Since 2018 and currently in 2019, the United States and Canada experienced a rapidly spreading measles virus outbreak. The developing outbreak may be due to a lack of vaccination, an inadequate dosage of measles (MMR) vaccine, clusters of intentionally under-vaccinated children, imported measles from global travel, and from those who are immunocompromised or have other life-threatening diseases. The infection originated mainly from travelers who acquired measles abroad and has thus led to a major outbreak and health concern not only in the United States and Canada but also in other parts of the world. According to World Health Organization, from January 2019 through September 2019, 1234 cases of measles have been reported in the United States and 91 reported cases in Canada, while in 2018, 372 and 28 cases were reported in the United States and Canada, respectively. A potential driving factor to the increased cases maybe because fewer children have been vaccinated over the last number of years in both countries. This article is a narrative review of cases discussing the measles outbreak among partially vaccinated and unvaccinated children and adults in the United States and Canada in 2018 and 2019.

12.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; : 101542, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786281

RESUMO

Importation and transmission of measles via air travel is a public health concern to countries, which are close to or have achieved elimination, i.e., to the majority of countries in Europe. In 2018, two measles cases occurred in Berlin residents, who flew within Europe while being infectious. In addition to contact tracing through passenger manifests, we contacted national authorities in flight destination countries or embarking countries and inquired about epidemiologically linked measles cases to the two Berlin index cases. We identified eight epidemiologically linked cases (six males, median age: 32 years) from three countries associated with three air-travels. Consequently measles was imported to Germany (Bavaria), Denmark and possibly Sweden. Our investigations revealed impediments to an effective public health response indicating the need to revisit current guidelines and methods to better control transmission of measles related to air travel.

13.
Vaccine ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787412

RESUMO

After many decades of vaccination, measles epidemiology varies greatly between and within countries. National immunization programs are therefore encouraged to conduct regular situation analyses and to leverage models to adapt interventions to local needs. Here, we review applications of models to develop locally tailored interventions to support control and elimination efforts. In general, statistical and semi-mechanistic transmission models can be used to synthesize information from vaccination coverage, measles incidence, demographic, and/or serological data, offering a means to estimate the spatial and age-specific distribution of measles susceptibility. These estimates complete the picture provided by vaccination coverage alone, by accounting for natural immunity. Dynamic transmission models can then be used to evaluate the relative impact of candidate interventions for measles control and elimination and the expected future epidemiology. In most countries, models predict substantial numbers of susceptible individuals outside the age range of routine vaccination, which affects outbreak risk and necessitates additional intervention to achieve elimination. More effective use of models to inform both vaccination program planning and evaluation requires the development of training to enhance broader understanding of models and where feasible, building capacity for modelling in-country, pipelines for rapid evaluation of model predictions using surveillance data, and clear protocols for incorporating model results into decision-making.

14.
J Med Primatol ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789460

RESUMO

A 16-year-old rhesus macaque presented with progressive, ascending quadriparesis following measles vaccination. He was diagnosed with transverse myelitis following MRI, gross necropsy, and histopathology. This is the first report of transverse myelitis in a rhesus macaque following measles vaccination.

15.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790030

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In September 2019, the United States was at risk of losing measles elimination status due to several large-scale outbreaks resulting in more than 1200 confirmed cases across 31 states. This resurgence caps approximately 10 years of increasing incidence, marked by a highly publicized outbreak in 2015 associated with Disneyland when an infected traveler from the Philippines unknowingly spread the virus to susceptible park visitors and the recently ended large outbreak in undervaccinated Orthodox Jewish communities in New York City and Rockland counties. This review highlights current literature elucidating factors associated with current trends in measles epidemiology in the United States, the public health implications of current measles outbreaks and a path forward for addressing challenges contributing to the resurgence of measles in the United States and globally. RECENT FINDINGS AND SUMMARY: As the most highly transmissible vaccine preventable disease, measles is especially sensitive to changes in herd immunity, the impact of vaccine refusal and globalization. Results highlight the confluence of these factors in current outbreaks, provide tools to predict outbreak risk, demonstrate the growing impact of misinformation and evaluate the impact of policy approaches for outbreak control and prevention.

16.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 7(4)2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795157

RESUMO

Despite efforts to improve surveillance and vaccination coverage, measles virus (MeV) continues to cause outbreaks also in high-income countries. As the reference laboratory of the Veneto Region, Italy, we analyzed changes in population immunity, described measles outbreaks, investigated MeV genetic diversity, and evaluated cross-protection of measles vaccination against MeV epidemic strains. Like most European areas, the Veneto Region has suboptimal measles vaccination coverage and is facing a growing public mistrust of vaccination. A progressive decline of measles vaccine uptake was observed during the last decade in the Veneto Region, leading to immunity gaps in children and young adults. Measles outbreaks were caused by the same MeV genotype B3, D4, and D8 strains that were circulating in other European countries. Eleven cases of measles were observed in immunized subjects. These cases were not associated with particular MeV genotypes nor with mutations in epitopes recognized by neutralizing antibodies. Accordingly, sera from fully vaccinated subjects cross-neutralized epidemic MeV strains, including the genotypes B3, D4, and D8, with the same high efficiency demonstrated against the vaccine strain. In fully vaccinated subjects, high MeV IgG antibody titers persisted up to 30 years following vaccination. These results support the use of the current measles-containing vaccines and strategies to strengthen vaccination.

17.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(12)2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796443

RESUMO

A 40-year-old British man presented to the emergency department for the second time in 10 days following a 2-week holiday in Thailand with malaise, bilateral conjunctivitis and a morbilliform rash. He had previously seen his general practitioner and ophthalmology and was diagnosed with conjunctivitis. We confirmed measles following RNA detection on a mouth swab. Four days after admission he developed abdominal pain and a CT abdomen demonstrated acute appendicitis with large appendicoliths. A perforated appendix was identified intraoperatively. Measles RNA was detected in the resected appendix. Preoperatively he developed hypoxia with right upper lobe changes seen on a CT pulmonary angiogram. Bronchoalveolar lavage performed in theatre isolated measles RNA at high level, consistent with measles pneumonitis. He required ventilatory support in the intensive care unit and was also treated with intravenous antibiotics. He made a complete recovery.

18.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 9245-9254, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Measles morbidity and mortality were significantly reduced after the measles vaccine was introduced in China in 1965. However, measles outbreaks easily occur in densely populated areas, especially where there is no universal vaccination. The outbreak that occurred in Shenzhen, the Chinese city with the largest internal immigration, provides a lesson in measles virus mutation and measles prevention. The present study is a phylogenetic analysis of measles viruses and comparison of clinical signs between individuals with and without vaccination. MATERIAL AND METHODS We performed phylogenetic analysis of the nucleoprotein (N) genes of measles virus from 129 measles patients in Shenzhen from January 2015 to July 2019. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the neighbor-joining method. RESULTS The phylogenetic analysis showed all viruses were classified into genotype H1. In addition, there is often a seasonal measles outbreak in July each year. The clinical data showed that patients who were unvaccinated were more likely to have coughing, chronic bronchitis, conjunctivitis, catarrh, Koplik spots, and diarrhea. Children of migrant workers and those living in mountainous and rural districts accounted for most measles cases. CONCLUSIONS Our results showed there was a seasonal measles outbreak in Shenzhen Children's Hospital. All the measles virus from 129 measles patients were H1 viruses. The clinical signs also showed a difference between unvaccinated and vaccinated patients. Moreover, most of the unvaccinated patients came from migrant worker families. We suggest there is a need for increased health promotion and vaccination programs for migrant workers and people living in remote villages.

19.
Acta Paediatr ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803948

RESUMO

Since its publication in 2016, the Swedish systematic literature review of traumatic shaking (1) has attracted a number of critical comments (2-5). In one of the more comprehensive criticisms, parallels were drawn regarding the consequences, between the Swedish report and a study by Dr Andrew Wakefield published in The Lancet in 1998 (6,7). Wakefield and his 12 coauthors suggested that in eight out of twelve cases the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination caused chronic enterocolitis, leading in turn to regressive autism (6,7). The Lancet retracted the Wakefield paper twelve years later when it became clear that the study cases were highly selected, that the observations of signs and symptoms were severely biased - if not fabricated - and finally that the study had violated research ethical standards (7,8).

20.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-9, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810408

RESUMO

Simultaneous administration of different vaccines is a strategy to increase the possibility to receive vaccines at appropriate age, safely and effectively, reducing the number of sessions and allowing a more acceptable integration of new vaccines into National Immunization Programs (NIPs). Co-administration can be performed when there are specific indications in the Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) of the vaccines; but, in absence of these indications, the practice is possible if there are no specific contraindications nor scientific evidence to discourage simultaneous administration.The aim of this work is to review the safety and efficacy of co-administration of the tetravalent measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (MMRV) and the meningococcal C (Men C) conjugate vaccines after 12 months of age.Several studies demonstrated that MMRV and Men C conjugate vaccines can be administered concomitantly without a negative impact on the safety and immunogenicity of either vaccines, inducing highly immunogenic responses.

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