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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1019, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C is a major public health burden. With new interferon-free direct-acting agents (showing sustained viral response rates of more than 98%), elimination of HCV seems feasible for the first time. However, as HCV infection often remains undiagnosed, screening is crucial for improving health outcomes of HCV-patients. Our aim was to assess the long-term cost-effectiveness of a nationwide screening strategy in Germany. METHODS: We used a Markov cohort model to simulate disease progression and examine long-term population outcomes, HCV associated costs and cost-effectiveness of HCV screening. The model divides the total population into three subpopulations: general population (GEP), people who inject drugs (PWID) and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), with total infection numbers being highest in GEP, but new infections occurring only in PWIDs and MSM. The model compares four alternative screening strategies (no/basic/advanced/total screening) differing in participation and treatment rates. RESULTS: Total number of HCV-infected patients declined from 275,000 in 2015 to between 125,000 (no screening) and 14,000 (total screening) in 2040. Similarly, lost quality adjusted life years (QALYs) were 320,000 QALYs lower, while costs were 2.4 billion EUR higher in total screening compared to no screening. While incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) increased sharply in GEP and MSM with more comprehensive strategies (30,000 EUR per QALY for total vs. advanced screening), ICER decreased in PWIDs (30 EUR per QALY for total vs. advanced screening). CONCLUSIONS: Screening is key to have an efficient decline of the HCV-infected population in Germany. Recommendation for an overall population screening is to screen the total PWID subpopulation, and to apply less comprehensive advanced screening for MSM and GEP.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810204

RESUMO

Despite a decline in the prevalence of hepatitis B in China, the disease burden remains high. Large populations unaware of infection risk often fail to meet the ideal treatment window, resulting in poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate models identifying high-risk populations who should be tested for hepatitis B surface antigen. Data came from a large community-based health screening, including 97,173 individuals, with an average age of 54.94. A total of 33 indicators were collected as model predictors, including demographic characteristics, routine blood indicators, and liver function. Borderline-Synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) was conducted to preprocess the data and then four predictive models, namely, the extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), random forest (RF), decision tree (DT), and logistic regression (LR) algorithms, were developed. The positive rate of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was 8.27%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for XGBoost, RF, DT, and LR models were 0.779, 0.752, 0.619, and 0.742, respectively. The Borderline-SMOTE XGBoost combined model outperformed the other models, which correctly predicted 13,637/19,435 cases (sensitivity 70.8%, specificity 70.1%), and the variable importance plot of XGBoost model indicated that age was of high importance. The prediction model can be used to accurately identify populations at high risk of hepatitis B infection that should adopt timely appropriate medical treatment measures.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e18458, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic viral hepatitis b and its related complications have caused serious harm to human health and become a worldwide public health problem. Hepatitis b cirrhosis is one of the most common complications in Asia. Traditional Chinese medicine combined with antiviral therapy has become the first choice for clinical treatment of hepatitis b Cirrhosis. Biejia Pill is an effective prescription of traditional Chinese medicine in treating Compensatory period of cirrhosis, and there are more and more clinical reports about its validity in treating Compensatory period of cirrhosis. Therefore, we designed this study protocol to evaluate the adjuvant role of Biejia Pill in the treatment of Compensatory period of cirrhosis. METHOD: Electronic Databases, PubMed, EMBASE database, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wan Fang, Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP) and China Biology Medicine disc, (CBM), will be systematically searched from inception to July 2019. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on Biejiajian Pill combined with Entecavir and Entecavir alone against Compensatory period of hepatitis b cirrhosis will be included; inclusion and exclusion criteria will be used to screen the trials. liver fibrosis biomarkers including ECM or its metabolites (serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), procollagen type III (PC-III), and type IV collagen (IV-C)) will be measured as primary outcomes. Liver function, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartarte aminotransferase (AST), and improvement of related clinical symptoms will be measured as secondary outcomes. RevMan5 software will be used for literature quality evaluation and data synthesis and analysis. RESULT: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Biejiajian Pill in combination therapy by observing the outcomes of serum liver fibrosis markers, adverse reactions and liver function. CONCLUSION: This study protocol will be used to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Biejia Pill in combination with entecavir in the treatment of Compensatory period of hepatitis b cirrhosis, as well as the adjuvant treatment of Biejia Pill in combination.PROSPERO registration number: CRD42019135402.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Hepatite B/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Quimioterapia Combinada , Guanina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto
4.
Value Health ; 22(11): 1248-1256, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Birth cohort screening for the hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been implemented in the US, but there is little evidence of its cost-effectiveness in England. We aim to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of one-time HCV screening for individuals born between 1950 and 1979 as part of the National Health Service health check in England, a health check for adults aged 40 to 74 years in primary care. METHODS: A Markov model was developed to analyze add-on HCV testing to the National Health Service health check for individuals in birth cohorts between 1950 and 1979, versus current background HCV testing only, over a lifetime horizon. The model used data from a back-calculation model of the burden of HCV in England, sentinel surveillance of HCV testing, and published literature. Results are presented from a health service perspective in pounds in 2017, as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios per quality-adjusted life years gained. RESULTS: The base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ranged from £7648 to £24 434, and £18 681 to £46 024, across birth cohorts when considering 2 sources of HCV transition probabilities. The intervention is most likely to be cost-effective for those born in the 1970s, and potentially cost-effective for those born from 1955 to 1969. The model results were most sensitive to the source of HCV transition probabilities, the probability of referral and receiving treatment, and the HCV prevalence among testers. The maximum value of future research across all birth cohorts was £11.3 million at £20 000 per quality-adjusted life years gained. CONCLUSION: Birth cohort screening is likely to be cost-effective for younger birth cohorts, although considerable uncertainty exists for other birth cohorts. Further studies are warranted to reduce uncertainty in cost-effectiveness and consider the acceptability of the intervention.

5.
Aust Health Rev ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671288

RESUMO

ObjectiveAlthough community-based models for treating hepatitis C virus (HCV) are widely recognised for reaching more people who require treatment, little is known about their organisational and operational elements. This study aimed to address this gap and develop a framework for designing, implementing and evaluating community-based models for treating HCV.MethodsThis study was a systematic review in which 17 databases were searched for published and unpublished studies. The final search of databases was performed in September 2017. A qualitative inductive thematic approach was used to extract and categorise organisational and operational elements of community-based models for treating HCV.ResultsData analysis yielded 13 organisational and operational elements that were categorised into three domains: support for patients, support for healthcare providers and service delivery facilitation. In the support for patients domain, support was categorised into four elements: peer support, psychological assessment and support, social assessment and support and adherence support. In the support for healthcare providers domain, the elements included the provision of educational opportunities for HCV care providers, specialist mentoring, decision making support and rewarding and recognition for HCV care providers. Finally, the service delivery facilitation domain included seven elements that target service-level enablers for community-based HCV treatment, including essential infrastructure, policy implementation and collocation and collaboration with other related services.ConclusionThis framework for understanding the components of models of community-based HCV treatment may be used as a guide for designing, implementing and evaluating models of care in support of HCV elimination. HCV care providers and patients need to be supported to improve their engagement with the provision of community-based treatment. In addition, evidence-based strategies to facilitate service delivery need to be included.What is known about the topic?Community-based models for treating HCV are widely recognised as having the advantage of reaching more people who require treatment. These types of models aim to remove barriers related to accessibility and acceptability associated with tertiary centre-based HCV treatment.What does this paper add?Community-based models for treating HCV use various organisational and operational elements to improve the accessibility, effectiveness and acceptability of these services. The elements we identified target three main domains: support for patients with HCV, support for HCV care providers and service delivery facilitation. The importance of these organisational and operational elements designed to improve health and health services outcomes of community-based models for treating HCV is strongly influenced by context, and dependent on both the setting and target population.What are the implications for practitioners?Health policy makers and practitioners need to consider a patient's psychosocial and economic status and provide support when needed. To successfully deliver HCV treatment in community settings, HCV care providers need to be trained and supported, and need to establish linkages, collaborations or colocations with other related services.

6.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 56(4): 440-446, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although liver transplantation is considered to be a high-risk procedure, it is well-established as a treatment option for the cure and quality of life enhancement for individuals who suffer from diseases. Preventing an infection by hepatitis B virus through immunization schedules has been the most effective way to reduce complications, since it decreases the number of people who suffer from chronic hepatitis caused by the hepatitis B virus and eradicates its transmission. OBJECTIVE: 1. Analyzing evidence in the literature on various schedules employed for immunization against hepatitis B in patients who have received a liver transplantation. 2. Suggesting potential immunization schedules against hepatitis B in patients who suffer from liver cirrhosis, without previous verifying documentation, using the Child-Turcotte Pugh score, according to evidences found in the literature. METHODS: Systematic review of the literature, conducted on the data bases MedLine, PubMed, and Lilacs, between September, 2017 and January, 2018, by using the following keywords: "Liver Transplantation, "Immunization Schedule", "Hepatitis B Vaccines". In order to analyze the articles, a summary figure was especially designed and both the results and discussion were presented in a descriptive way. RESULTS: We included 24 studies; among them, eight had accelerated immunization schedules, 13 followed the conventional schedules, and three had super accelerated schedules. Regarding immunization, 21 studies were conducted with patients in the pre-transplant period, one with a transplanted patient, one with a pre-transplant group, and one with a post-transplant group. Found articles suggest that, disregarding the chosen immunization schedule, seroconversion rates tended to be lower as the liver disease advanced, compared to the healthy population. CONCLUSION: The studies did not find seroconversion superiority between the different immunization schedules (conventional and unconventional). However, since candidates to liver transplantation are usually very vulnerable, results show that super accelerated immunization schedules are possibly recommended for such group of patients; serologic test results will be higher when the immunization schedule is completed in the pre-transplant period.

7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 943, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large proportion of people who inject drugs (PWID) living with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have not been treated. It is unknown whether inclusion of HCV diagnostics and treatment into integrated substance use disorder treatment and care clinics will improve uptake and outcome of HCV treatment in PWID. The aim is to assess the efficacy of integrating HCV treatment to PWID and this paper will present the protocol for an ongoing trial. METHODS: INTRO-HCV is a multicentre, randomised controlled clinical trial that will compare the efficacy of integrated treatment of HCV in PWID with the current standard treatment. Integrated treatment includes testing for HCV, assessing liver fibrosis with transient elastography, counselling, treatment delivery, follow-up and evaluation provided by integrated substance use disorder treatment and care clinics. Most of these clinics for PWID provide opioid agonist therapy while some clinics provide low-threshold care without opioid agonist therapy. Standard care involves referral to further diagnostics, treatment and treatment follow-up given in a hospital outpatient clinic with equivalent medications. The differences between the delivery platforms in the two trial arms involve use of a drop-in approach rather than specific appointment times, no need for additional travelling, less blood samples taken during treatment, and treatment given from already known clinicians. The trial will recruit approximately 200 HCV infected individuals in Bergen and Stavanger, Norway. The primary outcomes are time to treatment initiation and sustained virologic response, defined as undetectable HCV RNA 12 weeks after end of treatment. Secondary outcomes are cost-effectiveness, treatment adherence, changes in quality of life, fatigue and psychological well-being, changes in drug use, infection related risk behaviour, and risk of reinfection. The target group is PWID with HCV diagnosed receiving treatment and care within clinics for PWID. DISCUSSION: This study will inform on the effects of an integrated treatment program for HCV in clinics for PWID compared to standard care aiming to increase access to treatment and improving treatment adherence. If the integrated treatment model is found to be safe and efficacious, it can be considered for further scale-up. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov.no. NCT03155906.

8.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(Supplement_5): v5-v16, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HCV disproportionately affects marginalized communities such as homeless populations and people who inject drugs (PWID), posing a challenge to traditional health services. The HepFriend initiative in London is a model of care utilizing HCV outreach screening and peer support to link vulnerable individuals to HCV treatment in secondary care. OBJECTIVES: To assess the cost-effectiveness of the HepFriend initiative from a healthcare provider perspective, compared with standard-of-care pathways (consisting of testing in primary care and other static locations, including drug treatment centres, and linkage to secondary care). METHODS: Cost-effectiveness analysis using a dynamic HCV transmission and disease progression model among PWID and those who have ceased injecting, including housing status and drug treatment service contact. The model was parameterized using London-specific surveillance and survey data, and primary intervention cost and effectiveness data (September 2015 to June 2018). Out of 461 individuals screened, 197 were identified as HCV RNA positive, 180 attended secondary care and 89 have commenced treatment to date. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was determined using a 50 year time horizon. RESULTS: For a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20000 per QALY gained, the HepFriend initiative is cost-effective, with a mean ICER of £9408/QALY, and would become cost saving at 27% (£10525 per treatment) of the current drug list price. Results are robust to variations in intervention costs and model assumptions, and if treatment rates are doubled the intervention becomes more cost-effective (£8853/QALY). CONCLUSIONS: New models of care that undertake active case-finding with enhanced peer support to improve testing and treatment uptake amongst marginalized and vulnerable groups could be highly cost-effective and possibly cost saving.

9.
J Infect ; 79(6): 503-512, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629015

RESUMO

The treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been revolutionised by the advent of oral, well-tolerated, direct acting antiviral therapies (DAA), with high cure rates. However, in some scenarios, HCV resistance to antiviral therapies may have an impact on treatment success. Public Health England's HCV Resistance Group was established to support clinicians treating people with HCV, where the issue of resistance may be a factor in clinical decision-making, and this review includes the Group's current recommendations on the use of HCV resistance testing. The authors describe the principles behind and approach to HCV resistance testing and consider evidence from in vitro studies, clinical trials and real world cohorts on the impact of HCV resistance on treatment outcomes for particular DAA regimens. Five scenarios are identified in the UK and similar settings, where, in the Group's opinion, resistance testing should be performed.

10.
Vnitr Lek ; 65(9): 546-551, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635465

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global public health problem with changing epidemiology due to several factors predominantly vaccination policy and migration. Chronic hepatitis B means the duration of HBV infection for more than 6 months. It is a dynamic process reflecting the interaction between HBV replication and the host immune response and not all patients with chronic HBV infection have chronic hepatitis B. All patients with chronic HBV infection are in increased risk of progression to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The long-term administration of potent nucleos(t)ide analogue with high barrier of resistance (tenofovir, entecavir) represents the treatment of choice. Pegylated interferon-α can also be considered in mid to moderate chronic hepatitis B patients.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Hepatite B Crônica , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 765, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct Acting Antiviral (DAAs) drugs have a much lower burden of treatment and monitoring requirements than regimens containing interferon and ribavirin, and a much higher efficacy in treating hepatitis C (HCV). These characteristics mean that initiating treatment and obtaining a virological cure (Sustained Viral response, SVR) on completion of treatment, in non-specialist environments should be feasible. We investigated the English-language literature evaluating community and primary care-based pathways using DAAs to treat HCV infection. METHODS: Databases (Cinahl; Embase; Medline; PsycINFO; PubMed) were searched for studies of treatment with DAAs in non-specialist settings to achieve SVR. Relevant studies were identified including those containing a comparison between a community and specialist services where available. A narrative synthesis and linked meta-analysis were performed on suitable studies with a strength of evidence assessment (GRADE). RESULTS: Seventeen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria: five from Australia; two from Canada; two from UK and eight from USA. Seven studies demonstrated use of DAAs in primary care environments; four studies evaluated integrated systems linking specialists with primary care providers; three studies evaluated services in locations providing care to people who inject drugs; two studies evaluated delivery in pharmacies; and one evaluated delivery through telemedicine. Sixteen studies recorded treatment uptake. Patient numbers varied from around 60 participants with pathway studies to several thousand in two large database studies. Most studies recruited less than 500 patients. Five studies reported reduced SVR rates from an intention-to-treat analysis perspective because of loss to follow-up before the final confirmatory SVR test. GRADE assessments were made for uptake of HCV treatment (medium); completion of HCV treatment (low) and achievement of SVR at 12 weeks (medium). CONCLUSION: Services sited in community settings are feasible and can deliver increased uptake of treatment. Such clinics are able to demonstrate similar SVR rates to published studies and real-world clinics in secondary care. Stronger study designs are needed to confirm the precision of effect size seen in current studies. Prospero: CRD42017069873.

12.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 27(8): 577-581, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594074

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) has put forward the strategic goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a major public health threat by 2030, and the research and development of new treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients is an important part of this. In recent years, functional or clinical cure marked by HBsAg clearance and continuous undetectable HBV DNA has gradually become an ideal treatment endpoint recommended by clinical guidelines at home and abroad. Studies have shown that CHB patients who achieved long-term viral suppression after nucleoside analogues (NAs), adding or switching to interferons may have the potential to improve the clearance rate of HBsAg. However, the HBsAg conversion rate of patients in each treatment group in these studies was still low, and a reasonable combined therapy strategy and suitable patient population need to be further explored. In addition, some new drugs are being developed in pursuit of a CHB cure, though many clinical trials of new drugs are still based from a long-term treatment of NAs. Therefore, NAs antiviral therapy remains the cornerstone at this stage for CHB.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Nucleosídeos/análogos & derivados , Nucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos
13.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 27(8): 594-603, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594076

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major world public health problem. Current guidelines for the prevention and treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) have suggested clinical cure (also known as functional cure) as the ideal therapeutic goal, which is associated with decreased risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Clinical cure is defined as sustained, undetectable serum HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA with or without seroconversion to anti-HBs, but with the persistence of residual cccDNA, accompanied by resolution of liver injury after the completion of a finite course of treatment. Accumulating data from a series of randomized controlled trials as well as clinical practice have confirmed certain clinical benefit of optimal sequential/ combination strategies of direct acting antiviral drugs (DAA) [such as nucleoside analogues (NA)] or immunomodulators (such as pegylated interferon alpha (Peg-IFN)] for appropriately selected CHB patients. This consensus provides an updated and comprehensive analysis of the data supporting the use of combination therapies and summarizes the roadmap towards clinical cure of CHB to guide decision-making in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B Crônica/terapia , Consenso , DNA Viral/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos E da Hepatite B/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite B , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 917, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus is one of the major public health concerns globally. It is highly infectious and can be transmitted from person to person through vertically or horizontally via contaminated body fluids. Despite the provision of an effective vaccine, it remains a major problem worldwide, particularly among the developing countries. METHODS: Online electronic databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, African Index Medicus, African Journals Online, and WHO Afro Library were searched and published articles from 2010 to June 8, 2019, were considered. Both authors independently screened articles and extracted the data. Funnel-Plots and Egger's test statistics were used to determine the presence of small-study effects and publication bias. The pooled prevalence of HBV was analyzed using the random-effects model. The possible sources of heterogeneity was analyzed through subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and meta-regression. RESULTS: The overall pooled prevalence of HBV was 6% and among subgroups, pregnant women, healthcare workers, and HIV positive patients accounted for 5% for each group. Relatively low prevalence (4%) was obtained among blood donors. The Egger's test statistics (p = 0.747) indicated the absence of publication bias. In addition, from the sensitivity analysis, there was no influence on the overall effect estimate while removing a single study at a time. The level of heterogeneity was reduced among pregnant women, HIV positive and studies with unknown sampling techniques. After conducting meta-regression, province, study group, screening method, and quality of papers were identified as sources of heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: The overall pooled prevalence of HBV in Ethiopia was high. Strengthening and scaling up of the scope of the existing vaccination program and implementing novel approaches including screen-and-treat could be implemented to reduce the burden of the disease. Generally, the study can provide current prevalence estimate of HBV that could vital for intervention to tackle the disease.

15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 101(5): 963-972, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31516107

RESUMO

Ethiopia's hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence is predicted to rise by 2030. To halt this increasing trend, a suitable approach to the elimination of HCV is needed. This review explores the current status, challenges, and opportunities and outlines a strategy for the micro-elimination approach in Ethiopia. I searched PubMed and EMBASE using combined Medical Subject Heading databases for the literature on HCV micro-elimination. A phased public health approach to HCV micro-elimination, including preparation/capacity building (phase I), implementation (phase II), and rollout and scale-up (phase III), targeting people living with HIV, prisoners, chronic hepatitis and cancer patients, blood donors, and pregnant women is a pragmatic strategy to Ethiopia. This can be implemented at general and tertiary care referral hospitals with a future scale-up to district hospitals through task-shifting by training general practitioners, nurses, laboratory technologists, and pharmacists. Availability of the highly effective direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) can be ensured by expanding the existing program that provides highly subsidized DAAs through an agreement with Gilead Sciences, Inc. and eventually aiming at domestic generic manufacturing. The significant enablers to HCV micro-elimination in Ethiopia include the control of healthcare-associated HCV infection, blood safety, access to affordable testing and pan-genotypic DAAs, task-shifting, multisectoral partnership, and regulatory support. General population-based HCV screening and treatment are not cost-effective for Ethiopia because of high cost, program complexity, and disease epidemiology.

16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 811, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem in China. Over a decade has passed since the last National Hepatitis Seroepidemiological Survey was conducted in 2006. The lack of updated data on hepatitis B in China makes assessing the current prevalence and burden of the disease inadequate. In response to the above situation, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to provide a better understanding of hepatitis B epidemiology in the general population of China. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in international databases (Medline through PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science) and national databases (CBM, CNKI, WanFang Data) to retrieve primary studies published between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2017. The pooled prevalence of HBV infection and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Quality assessment, heterogeneity testing and publication bias assessment were also performed. RESULTS: Of the 27 studies included in the meta-analysis, the pooled estimated prevalence of HBV infection in the general population of China from 2013 to 2017 was 6.89% (95% CI:5.84-7.95%), which could be extrapolated to an estimated population of 84 million living with HBsAg in 2018. The prevalence of HBV infection in males was higher than that in females (5.88% vs 5.05%), and rural areas had a higher prevalence than urban areas (5.86% vs 3.29%). The highest prevalence of HBV infection was reported in Western provinces (8.92, 95% CI: 7.19-10.64%). In adults older than 20 years, the prevalence of HBV infection was approximately 7%, which was higher than that in children. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HBV infection in the general population of China was classified as higher intermediate prevalence (5-7.99%), of which more than 90% of the HBV infection population included adults older than 20 years. The blocking of mother-to-infant hepatitis B transmission and plans involving timely birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine within 24 h should be implemented. Additionally, improving the quality of life and survival rate of the infected population through antiviral therapy and high-risk adult vaccination will be the priority of our future work. Moreover, various control measures should be implemented in different provinces across China.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , China/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Humanos , Prevalência , População Urbana
17.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e029538, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551376

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the second largest contributor to liver disease in the UK, with injecting drug use as the main risk factor among the estimated 200 000 people currently infected. Despite effective prevention interventions, chronic HCV prevalence remains around 40% among people who inject drugs (PWID). New direct-acting antiviral (DAA) HCV therapies combine high cure rates (>90%) and short treatment duration (8 to 12 weeks). Theoretical mathematical modelling evidence suggests HCV treatment scale-up can prevent transmission and substantially reduce HCV prevalence/incidence among PWID. Our primary aim is to generate empirical evidence on the effectiveness of HCV 'Treatment as Prevention' (TasP) in PWID. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We plan to establish a natural experiment with Tayside, Scotland, as a single intervention site where HCV care pathways are being expanded (including specialist drug treatment clinics, needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), pharmacies and prison) and HCV treatment for PWID is being rapidly scaled-up. Other sites in Scotland and England will act as potential controls. Over 2 years from 2017/2018, at least 500 PWID will be treated in Tayside, which simulation studies project will reduce chronic HCV prevalence among PWID by 62% (from 26% to 10%) and HCV incidence will fall by approximately 2/3 (from 4.2 per 100 person-years (p100py) to 1.4 p100py). Treatment response and re-infection rates will be monitored. We will conduct focus groups and interviews with service providers and patients that accept and decline treatment to identify barriers and facilitators in implementing TasP. We will conduct longitudinal interviews with up to 40 PWID to assess whether successful HCV treatment alters their perspectives on and engagement with drug treatment and recovery. Trained peer researchers will be involved in data collection and dissemination. The primary outcome - chronic HCV prevalence in PWID - is measured using information from the Needle Exchange Surveillance Initiative survey in Scotland and the Unlinked Anonymous Monitoring Programme in England, conducted at least four times before and three times during and after the intervention. We will adapt Bayesian synthetic control methods (specifically the Causal Impact Method) to generate the cumulative impact of the intervention on chronic HCV prevalence and incidence. We will use a dynamic HCV transmission and economic model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the HCV TasP intervention, and to estimate the contribution of the scale-up in HCV treatment to observe changes in HCV prevalence. Through the qualitative data we will systematically explore key mechanisms of TasP real world implementation from provider and patient perspectives to develop a manual for scaling up HCV treatment in other settings. We will compare qualitative accounts of drug treatment and recovery with a 'virtual cohort' of PWID linking information on HCV treatment with Scottish Drug treatment databases to test whether DAA treatment improves drug treatment outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Extending HCV community care pathways is covered by ethics (ERADICATE C, ISRCTN27564683, Super DOT C Trial clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02706223). Ethical approval for extra data collection from patients including health utilities and qualitative interviews has been granted (REC ref: 18/ES/0128) and ISCRCTN registration has been completed (ISRCTN72038467). Our findings will have direct National Health Service and patient relevance; informing prioritisation given to early HCV treatment for PWID. We will present findings to practitioners and policymakers, and support design of an evaluation of HCV TasP in England.

18.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e029516, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399460

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C is a blood-borne virus (HCV) that can seriously damage the liver and is spread mainly through blood-to-blood contact with an infected person. Over 85% of individuals who have HCV in Scotland became infected following injecting drug use. Since people who inject drugs (PWID) are the main source of new infections, theoretical modelling has suggested that treatment of HCV infection in PWID may effectively reduce HCV prevalence and accomplish elimination. This protocol describes a clinical trial delivering HCV treatment within injecting equipment provision sites (IEPS) in Tayside, Scotland. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: PWID attending IEPS are tested for HCV and, if they are chronically infected with HCV and eligible, invited to receive treatment within the IEPS. They are randomised to one of three treatment regimens; daily observed treatment, treatment dispensed every 2 weeks and treatment dispensed every 2 weeks together with an adherence psychological intervention (administered before treatment begins). The primary outcome is comparison of the rate of successful treatment (SVR12) in each treatment group. Secondary analyses include assessment of adherence, reinfection rates, viral resistance to treatment and interaction of the treatment with illicit drugs. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The ADVANCE (A Direct obserVed therApy versus fortNightly CollEction) HCV trial was given favourable opinion by East of Scotland Research Ethics Committee (LR/17/ES/0089) prior to commencement. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT) (2017-001039-38) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03236506).

19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 26, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384341

RESUMO

Introduction: approximately eighty million people around the world are living with hepatitis C, and 700,000 people die every year, due to hepatitis C related complications. In Seychelles, a total of 777 cases of hepatitis C were reported from 2002 to 2016, but up to mid of 2016, the cases were not being treated. Treatment with Harvoni, a combination of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir (SOF/LDV), is now being offered on the condition that the patient does not, or has stopped, injecting drugs. This paper is the first to establish the cost effectiveness of treating all cases of hepatitis C in Seychelles with Harvoni, as compared to no treatment. Methods: data extracted from literature was used to populate an economic model to calculate cost-effectiveness from Seychelles' government perspective. The model structure was also informed by the systematic review and an accompanying grading of economic models using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standard (CHEERS) checklist. A Markov model was developed, employing a lifetime horizon and costs and benefits were analysed from a payer's perspective and combined into incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Results: the direct-acting antiviral (DAA), Harvoni, was found to be cost-saving in Seychelles hepatitis C virus (HCV) cohort, as compared to no treatment, with an ICER of € 753.65/QALY. The treatment was also cost-saving when stratified by gender, with the ICER of male and female being € 783.74/QALY and € 635.20/QALY, respectively. Moreover, the results obtained from acceptability curves showed that treating patients with Harvoni is the most cost-effective option, even for low thresholds. Conclusion: treating hepatitis C cases in Seychelles is cost-saving. It is worth developing a treatment programme to include all cases of hepatitis C, regardless of status of drug injection.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Fluorenos/administração & dosagem , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Uridina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/economia , Benzimidazóis/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Fluorenos/economia , Hepatite C Crônica/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Sexuais , Seicheles , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Uridina Monofosfato/administração & dosagem , Uridina Monofosfato/economia
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013107, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B is a liver disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Chronic hepatitis B requires long-term management aiming to reduce the risks of hepatocellular inflammatory necrosis, liver fibrosis, decompensated liver cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer, as well as to improve health-related quality of life. Acupuncture is being used to decrease discomfort and improve immune function in people with chronic hepatitis B. However, the benefits and harms of acupuncture still need to be established in a rigorous way. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of acupuncture versus no intervention or sham acupuncture in people with chronic hepatitis B. SEARCH METHODS: We undertook electronic searches of the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, Science Citation Index Expanded, Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chongqing VIP (CQVIP), Wanfang Data, and SinoMed to 1 March 2019. We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (www.who.int/ictrp), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov/), and the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR) for ongoing or unpublished trials until 1 March 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised clinical trials, irrespective of publication status, language, and blinding, comparing acupuncture versus no intervention or sham acupuncture in people with chronic hepatitis B. We included participants of any sex and age, diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B as defined by the trialists or according to guidelines. We allowed co-interventions when the co-interventions were administered equally to all intervention groups. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Review authors in pairs individually retrieved data from reports and through correspondence with investigators. Primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, proportion of participants with one or more serious adverse events, and health-related quality of life. Secondary outcomes were hepatitis B-related mortality, hepatitis B-related morbidity, and adverse events considered not to be serious. We presented the pooled results as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the risks of bias using risk of bias domains with predefined definitions. We put more weight on the estimate closest to zero effect when results with fixed-effect and random-effects models differed. We evaluated the certainty of evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included eight randomised clinical trials with 555 randomised participants. All included trials compared acupuncture versus no intervention. These trials assessed heterogeneous acupuncture interventions. All trials used heterogeneous co-interventions applied equally in the compared groups. Seven trials included participants with chronic hepatitis B, and one trial included participants with chronic hepatitis B with comorbid tuberculosis. All trials were assessed at overall high risk of bias, and the certainty of evidence for all outcomes was very low due to high risk of bias for each outcome, imprecision of results (the confidence intervals were wide), and publication bias (small sample size of the trials, and all trials were conducted in China). Additionally, 79 trials lacked the necessary methodological information to ensure their inclusion in our review.None of the included trials aim to assess all-cause mortality, serious adverse events, health-related quality of life, hepatitis B-related mortality, and hepatitis B-related morbidity. We are uncertain whether acupuncture, compared with no intervention, has an effect regarding adverse events considered not to be serious (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.06; I² = 0%; 3 trials; 203 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or detectable hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.11 to 3.68; I² = 98%; 2 trials; 158 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Acupuncture showed a reduction in detectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA (a non-validated surrogate outcome; RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.74; 1 trial, 58 participants; very low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain whether acupuncture has an effect regarding the remaining separately reported adverse events considered not to be serious.Three of the eight included trials received academic funding from government or hospital. None of the remaining five trials reported information on funding. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The clinical effects of acupuncture for chronic hepatitis B remain unknown. The included trials lacked data on all-cause mortality, health-related quality of life, serious adverse events, hepatitis-B related mortality, and hepatitis-B related morbidity. The vast number of excluded trials lacked clear descriptions of their design and conduct. Whether acupuncture influences adverse events considered not to be serious is uncertain. It remains unclear if acupuncture affects HBeAg, and if it is associated with reduction in detectable HBV DNA. Based on available data from only one or two small trials on adverse events considered not to be serious and on the surrogate outcomes HBeAg and HBV DNA, the certainty of evidence is very low. In view of the wide usage of acupuncture, any conclusion that one might try to draw in the future should be based on data on patient and clinically relevant outcomes, assessed in large, high-quality randomised sham-controlled trials with homogeneous groups of participants and transparent funding.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Hepatite B Crônica/terapia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
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