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1.
Exp Ther Med ; 18(6): 4541-4546, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798696

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection represents a public health threat and a challenge for the medical community. Untimely treatment may lead to liver cirrhosis and even liver cancer. At present, the major treatment for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B patients includes administration of interferon-α (IFN-α), which has anti-viral and immunomodulatory effects. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR-9) have important roles in anti-viral therapy. However, their predictive value regarding the efficacy of IFN-α treatment of HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients has remained elusive. A total of 178 patients with CHB and HBeAg-positive status, who had not received any previous anti-HBV treatment, were enrolled in the present study. All patients were treated with IFN-α. HBV DNA load, hepatitis B surface antigen and serum alanine aminotransferase were measured prior to and following 48 weeks of treatment. According to HBV levels, the patients were divided into a response group and non-responders group. To determine the amount of pDCs, blood dendritic cell antigen 2 (BDCA-2)- and immunoglobulin-like transcript 7 (ILT7)-expressing cells in liver biopsies were detected using immunohistochemistry. TLR-9 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was determined by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. There was no significant difference in the proportion of pDCs (BDCA-2; ILT7) and TLR-9 mRNA expression between the response group and the non-responders group prior to IFN-α treatment. After IFN-α treatment, BDCA-2, ILT7 and TLR-9 mRNA expression was obviously increased in the response group compared with that in the non-responders group (P<0.05). Increased expression of BDCA-2, ILT7 and TLR-9 mRNA was negatively correlated with HBV DNA (P<0.05). Increased levels of pDCs and TLR-9 were negatively correlated with HBV DNA, and were thus capable of predicting the IFN-α treatment response in patients with CHB and HBeAg-positive status.

2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808124

RESUMO

In recent years, the debate on ethical issues related to hepatitis C virus therapies has been focused on the problem of drug prices and access to therapies. Nonetheless, the goal of hepatitis C virus eradication set by the World Health Organization in 2016 is raising new ethical issues, since governments are faced with a new challenge: reaching through screening, diagnosis and treatment a large amount of subjects with undiagnosed hepatitis C infection. National governments, especially high-income countries with a Welfare State, are compelled to provide access to therapies, but also to involve those who are still unaware of their disease status.Since people cannot be forced but should be guided towards the choice of screening, diagnosis and treatment, three concepts will be instrumental in the success of any HCV elimination policy: involvement, communication and protection of vulnerable individuals.Given the importance of diagnosis and treatment both in terms of individual benefit and social benefit, while respecting individual freedom and autonomy, the government has a moral obligation to try to drive individuals on the path of therapy. Even if it fails to get a complete success, the hepatitis C virus eradication campaign will lead to a significant reduction in the incidence of the disease and it will convey a very important message: today more than ever public health interventions must be thought in a global perspective, far beyond the borders of National States.

3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C (HCV) is a main cause of chronic liver disease worldwide and is consistently under-diagnosed. Community-based screening initiatives, such as HepCheck, have been identified as important components of HCV care. OBJECTIVES: HepCheck focuses on screening and identifying HCV RNA positive cases in high-risk populations and linking them to care as part of a larger European project to improve HCV care (HepCare). METHODS: HCV testing with a self-administered questionnaire were offered to 2822 individuals. RESULTS: There were 2,079 patients screened. Of those, 397 (19%) of the overall screened cohort were identified as having active HCV infections as measured by HCV RNA PCR. Those were mostly male (84%), white (88%) had a history of Injecting Drug Use (IDU) (86%), homelessness (58%) and tattooing (42%). There were 136 new cases (7% of total sample and 34% of identified active infections). Romania had the highest proportion of new identified cases with 87%, then Ireland (60%), then Spain (43%), whilst the UK had the lowest proportion of new cases (10%). DISCUSSION: For those lost to follow-up a major strategy is re-engagement For those newly diagnosed, a 'seek and treat' approach is a key strategy thus defining different priorities for different countries.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810204

RESUMO

Despite a decline in the prevalence of hepatitis B in China, the disease burden remains high. Large populations unaware of infection risk often fail to meet the ideal treatment window, resulting in poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate models identifying high-risk populations who should be tested for hepatitis B surface antigen. Data came from a large community-based health screening, including 97,173 individuals, with an average age of 54.94. A total of 33 indicators were collected as model predictors, including demographic characteristics, routine blood indicators, and liver function. Borderline-Synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) was conducted to preprocess the data and then four predictive models, namely, the extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), random forest (RF), decision tree (DT), and logistic regression (LR) algorithms, were developed. The positive rate of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was 8.27%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for XGBoost, RF, DT, and LR models were 0.779, 0.752, 0.619, and 0.742, respectively. The Borderline-SMOTE XGBoost combined model outperformed the other models, which correctly predicted 13,637/19,435 cases (sensitivity 70.8%, specificity 70.1%), and the variable importance plot of XGBoost model indicated that age was of high importance. The prediction model can be used to accurately identify populations at high risk of hepatitis B infection that should adopt timely appropriate medical treatment measures.

5.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812456

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Because hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is curable in the majority of cases, the diagnosis of all infected patients has become a priority. In difficult-to-diagnose populations, simpler diagnostic methods are required such as the use of dried blood spots (DBS) as an alternative to blood drawn by venipuncture (VP). Before being able to include it as a HCV diagnostic detection method within the Spanish National Health System, the diagnostic accuracy of standard hospital equipment must be evaluated. METHODOLOGY: DBS samples were evaluated in vitro and in a field test after being processed in the Cobas 6800 system, establishing a correlation with the result by VP. Performance with different viral loads and intra-assay variability was compared. RESULTS: In samples with a viral load of>3 log10IU/ml, viraemia was detected in all cases when at least two blood spot elutions were used (94 detections out of 95 spot elutions). The performance with 2 spots was lower in samples with<3 log10IU/ml (7/20). Correlation between VP and DBS viraemia was excellent (maximum with 2 spots, r2=0.906, P<.001) with a coefficient of variation of 0.05%. In routine clinical practice with specimens from screened subjects (n=61), excellent diagnostic accuracy was also observed. CONCLUSION: Viral load detection using DBS of at least two spots is a reliable method for HCV diagnosis. The standardisation of the method is feasible and our results support the incorporation of this diagnostic tool in Spain's Public Health System.

6.
Hepatology ; 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816111

RESUMO

The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) initiated the hepatitis C guidance project (hereafter HCV guidance) in 2013. The AASLD-IDSA HCV guidance website (www.HCVGuidelines.org) disseminates up-to-date, peer-reviewed, unbiased, evidence-based recommendations to aid clinicians making decisions regarding the testing, management, and treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Utilizing a web-based system enables timely and nimble distribution of the HCV guidance, which is periodically updated in near real time as necessitated by emerging research data, recommendations from public health agencies, the availability of new therapeutic agents, or other significant developments affecting the rapidly evolving hepatitis C arena.

7.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818498

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of HCV infection in the general population of a health area through an intervention in Primary Care, differentiating between new diagnoses and infections previously diagnosed but not treated. METHODS: Participants were selected through a risk assessment questionnaire, with all those who gave at least one affirmative answer and all those over 50 years of age undergoing a rapid test. Positive tests were confirmed in the lab by determination of anti-HCV antibodies by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay and determination of viraemia. RESULTS: Of the 7,991 participants, 36.2% presented a positive HCV risk questionnaire. 4,717 tests were performed, finding an anti-HCV percentage of 0.65% in the screened population, with 0.46% of active infections. Among the individuals with a positive test result, 51.9% had a known prior diagnosis but had not received treatment, because they were not aware of it or were not linked to the health system, and 19.2% had a positive result for the first time. The prevalence of hidden infection was higher in men, those over 50 years of age and people from Eastern Europe. CONCLUSION: We found a prevalence of active infections higher than recently described nationwide, and a higher percentage of newly diagnosed infections than recent similar studies in other areas. These differences justify the need to perform local assessments of the prevalence of HCV infection in each of the health areas where it is planned to implement and monitor a microelimination programme.

8.
Ann Intern Med ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791065

RESUMO

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) disproportionately affects disadvantaged communities. Objective: To examine processes and outcomes of Screen, Treat, Or Prevent Hepatocellular Carcinoma (STOP HCC), a multicomponent intervention for HCV screening and care in safety-net primary care practices. Design: Mixed-methods retrospective analysis. Setting: 5 federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) and 1 family medicine residency program serving low-income communities in diverse locations with largely Hispanic populations. Patients: Persons born in 1945 through 1965 (baby boomers) who had never been tested for HCV and were followed through May 2018. Intervention: The Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) model guided implementation and evaluation. Test costs were covered for uninsured patients. Measurements: All practices tested patients for anti-HCV antibody (anti-HCV) and HCV RNA. For uninsured patients with chronic HCV in 4 practices, quantitative data also enabled assessment of HCV staging, specialist teleconsultation, direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment, and sustained virologic response (SVR). Implementation fidelity and adaptation were assessed qualitatively. Results: Anti-HCV screening was done in 13 334 of 27 700 baby boomers (48.1%, varying by practice from 19.8% to 71.3%). Of 695 anti-HCV-positive patients, HCV RNA was tested in 520 (74.8%; 48.9% to 92.9% by practice), and 349 persons (2.6% of those screened) were diagnosed with chronic HCV. In 4 FQHCs, 174 (84.9%) of 205 uninsured patients with chronic HCV had disease staging, 145 (70.7%) had teleconsultation review, 119 (58.0%) were recommended to start DAA therapy, 82 (40.0%) initiated free DAA therapy, 74 (36.1%) completed therapy (27.8% to 60.0% by practice), and 70 (94.6% of DAA completers) achieved SVR. Implementation was promoted by multilevel practice engagement, patient navigation, and anti-HCV screening with reflex HCV RNA testing. Limitation: No control practices were included, and data were missing for some variables. Conclusion: Despite a similar framework for STOP HCC implementation, performance varied widely across safety-net practices, which may reflect practice engagement as well as infrastructure or cost challenges beyond practice control. Primary Funding Source: Cancer Prevention & Research Institute of Texas and Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services.

9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1019, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C is a major public health burden. With new interferon-free direct-acting agents (showing sustained viral response rates of more than 98%), elimination of HCV seems feasible for the first time. However, as HCV infection often remains undiagnosed, screening is crucial for improving health outcomes of HCV-patients. Our aim was to assess the long-term cost-effectiveness of a nationwide screening strategy in Germany. METHODS: We used a Markov cohort model to simulate disease progression and examine long-term population outcomes, HCV associated costs and cost-effectiveness of HCV screening. The model divides the total population into three subpopulations: general population (GEP), people who inject drugs (PWID) and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), with total infection numbers being highest in GEP, but new infections occurring only in PWIDs and MSM. The model compares four alternative screening strategies (no/basic/advanced/total screening) differing in participation and treatment rates. RESULTS: Total number of HCV-infected patients declined from 275,000 in 2015 to between 125,000 (no screening) and 14,000 (total screening) in 2040. Similarly, lost quality adjusted life years (QALYs) were 320,000 QALYs lower, while costs were 2.4 billion EUR higher in total screening compared to no screening. While incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) increased sharply in GEP and MSM with more comprehensive strategies (30,000 EUR per QALY for total vs. advanced screening), ICER decreased in PWIDs (30 EUR per QALY for total vs. advanced screening). CONCLUSIONS: Screening is key to have an efficient decline of the HCV-infected population in Germany. Recommendation for an overall population screening is to screen the total PWID subpopulation, and to apply less comprehensive advanced screening for MSM and GEP.

10.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health burden, affecting over 4 million people. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the US Preventive Services Task Force guidelines recommend screening everyone born between 1945 and 1965, but screening rates remain low. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether bulk ordering and electronic messaging to patients improves guideline-based HCV screening rates. DESIGN: A non-randomized controlled trial of 1024 adults from November 2016 to March 2017. PARTICIPANTS: Patients due for HCV screening with at least one primary care office visit in one of three primary care clinics and enrolled in the healthcare system's tethered personal health record (tPHR). INTERVENTIONS: Control patients received normal care for HCV screening, consisting of passive HCV reminders to providers during face-to-face visits and passive HCV screening notification through the patient's tPHR. Intervention patients received normal care and also had HCV antibody tests ordered for them and customized messages sent through their tPHR inviting them to go directly to the lab for HCV screening over a 12-week period. MAIN MEASURES: Percentage/number of patients receiving HCV antibody tests during the intervention period. Percentage/number of intervention group patients receiving HCV screening with other blood work. KEY RESULTS: In the intervention group, 33% (168 of 514) completed HCV testing, compared with 19% (97 of 510) of controls (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.1). Bulk lab ordering appeared to have a large impact while bulk messaging appeared to have a less significant role. CONCLUSIONS: Leveraging population analytics and bulk ordering in an electronic health record with bulk messaging to a tPHR directly engages patients in blood screening tests and can significantly improve completion. This methodology has a broad range of applications including many recommended screening or disease-specific testing. This bulk ordering and direct-to-patient messaging approach improves patient screening while decreasing provider/staff work. TRIAL REGISTRATION: MetroHealth IRB16-00776 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

11.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225830, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection remains an important public health concern particularly in Africa. Between 1990 and 2013, Hepatitis B mortality increased by 63%. In recent times, effective antiviral agents against HBV such as Nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) are available. These drugs are capable of suppressing HBV replication, preventing progression of chronic Hepatitis B to cirrhosis, and reducing the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver-related death. Notwithstanding, these treatments are underused despite their effectiveness in managing Hepatitis B. This study sought to explore barriers to treatment and care for people with Hepatitis B (PWHB) in Ghana, paying particular attention to beliefs about aetiology that can act as a barrier to care for PWHB. METHODS: We used an exploratory qualitative design with a purposive sampling technique. Face-to-face interviews were conducted for 18 persons with Hepatitis B (PWHB) and 15 healthcare providers (HCP; physicians, nurses, and midwives). In addition, four focus group discussions (FGD) with a composition of eight HCPs in each group were done. Participants were recruited from one tertiary and one regional hospital in Ghana. Data were processed using QSR Nvivo version 10.0 and analysed using the procedure of inductive thematic analysis. Participants were recruited from one tertiary and one regional hospital in Ghana. RESULTS: Three main cultural beliefs regarding the aetiology of chronic Hepatitis B that act as barriers to care and treatment were identified. These were: (1) the belief that chronic Hepatitis B is a punishment from the gods to those who touch dead bodies without permission from their landlords, (2) the belief that bewitchment contributes to chronic Hepatitis B, and (3) the belief that chronic Hepatitis B is caused by spiritual poison. Furthermore, individual level barriers were identified. These were the absence of chronic Hepatitis B signs and symptoms, perceived efficacy of traditional herbal medicine, and PWHB's perception that formal care does not meet their expectations. Health system-related barriers included high cost of hospital-based care and inadequate Hepatitis B education for patients from HCPs. CONCLUSION: Given that high cost of hospital based care was considered an important barrier to engagement in care for PWHB, we recommend including the required Hepatitis B laboratory investigations such as viral load, and the recommended treatment in the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). Also, we recommend increasing health care providers and PWHB Hepatitis B knowledge and capacity in a culturally sensitive fashion, discuss with patients (1) myths about aetiology and the lack of efficacy of traditional herbal medicines, and (2) patients' expectations of care and the need to monitor even in the absence of symptoms.

12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1027, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral hepatitis is a global public health problem affecting millions of people worldwide, causing thousands of deaths due to acute and persistent infection, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. Providing updated serologic data can improve both surveillance and disease control programs. This study is aimed to determine the seroprevalence of markers for viral hepatitis (A, B, C, D and E) and the epidemiology of such infections in the general population of southern Iran's Hormozgan province. METHODS: Between 2016 and 2017, a total of 562 individuals with ages ranging from 1 to 86 years, who visited governmental public laboratories for routine check-ups, were tested for the presence of serological markers to hepatitis virus types A to E using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: The overall anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibody seroprevalence was 93.2% (524/562). The prevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibodies was 15.8% (89/562) among which 1.6% (9/562) of the seropositive individuals also had evidence of recent exposure to the virus (IgM positivity). Two and a half percent (14/562) were positive for hepatitis B surface (HBs) antigen, whereas 11.6% (65/562) tested positive for anti-hepatitis B core (HBc) antibodies. Among anti-HBc positive patients, 11% (7/65) had HBs Ag and 5% (3/65) were positive for anti-hepatitis D virus (HDV) antibodies. The prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies was 0.7% (4/562). The seroprevalence of anti-HAV, HEV IgG, anti-HBc antibodies, and HBs Ag increased with age. CONCLUSION: The present study confirms a high seroprevalence of HAV infection among the examined population and reveals high levels of endemicity for HEV in the region. Planned vaccination policies against HAV should be considered in all parts of Iran. In addition, improvements on public sanitation and hygiene management of drinking water sources for the studied area are recommended.

13.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 56(4): 394-398, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years the management of hepatitis C virus infection and the possibility of its eradication have been researched due to the importance that they represent in the health of the world population. Obtaining data that help to cope with this pathology improves the quality of life of those affected by it. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of direct-acting antiviral therapies provided by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in accordance to the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines of 2015. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiological profile of patients with chronic hepatitis C and the rate of sustained virologic response using direct-acting antivirals of all individuals that attended the referral service for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C at the Hospital of the Federal University of Rio Grande. METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective/prospective study with all patients with chronic hepatitis C who had their treatments available from December 2015 to August 2017 according to the criteria of the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines of 2015. In the first phase, the clinical and demographic variables of all individuals enrolled in a treatment for hepatitis C were selected and collected from the Reference Service database. In the second phase, treatment data were collected. The outcome variable, sustained virologic response, was defined as an undetectable viral load on the blood test three months after the end of treatment. The descriptive and bivariate analyzes were performed with Pearson's chi-square and Fisher's Exact test, adopting a P value ≤0.05 in the SPSS 20 software. RESULTS: Of the 252 participants in the study, 228 (90.5%) had a sustained virologic response, 55.2% were male with an average age of 58.6 years (SD±9.1). Genotype 1 was the most prevalent, observed in 54.4% of the participants, and 87.4% of the patients had moderate/advanced hepatic fibrosis. After the statistical analysis, it was observed that the individuals with genotype 3 and moderate/advanced hepatic fibrosis had lower sustained virologic response rate (P=0.05 and P=0.04, respectively). CONCLUSION: It was observed that the use of direct-acting antivirals, in comparison to previous therapeutic regimens, increases the sustained virologic response, reaching all patients with mild fibrosis. This study provides information that helps in the hepatitis C treatment by showing that prescribing early treatment for patients without hepatic fibrosis and/or genotype 3 virus could increase therapeutic effectiveness.

14.
Virusdisease ; 30(3): 367-372, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803803

RESUMO

Viral hepatitis is a considerable public health burden affecting millions of people throughout the world. The incidence of viral hepatitis varies greatly depending upon geographic locations, age and gender. Exploring the etiological spectrum and clinic-epidemiological profile of acute viral hepatitis (AVH) becomes essential for strategizing the preventive measures to control the diseases. An epidemiological data depicting AVH situation and its etiologies is missing from central India. With the aim of fulfilling this lacuna, the present analysis was done on samples tested over a period of 2 years from July 2015 to June 2017. Of the 1901 hepatitis cases, 597 individuals (31.4%) were positive for AVH infection and HEV was the predominant cause followed by HBV, HAV and HCV. Co-infections of hepatitis viruses were detected in 42 cases. Co-infection of HEV with HBV was the commonest pattern. Male preponderance was observed among AVH positive cases and the age group of 26-45 years was the most susceptible to the viral hepatitis infections, except hepatitis A, which was the most frequent among children. Two hundred patients (33.45%) required hospitalization and 51 deaths were attributed to AVH infections. The analysis for the first time reports intricacies and viral etiologies of AVH in central India. Regular diagnosis of AVH etiology and monitoring of cases will help in patient management and assist disease control programs to take policy decisions.

15.
Semin Liver Dis ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805583

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus infection is a global public health threat affecting approximately 257 million individuals worldwide. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss has been the classic endpoint to define functional cure and decrease the large pool of individuals with CHB. Current treatments with nucleos(t)ide analogues persistently suppress hepatitis B virus (HBV) deoxyribonucleic acid in most CHB patients, but rarely achieve functional cure. New viral biomarkers, such as quantitative HBsAg, hepatitis B core-related antigen, and HBV ribonucleic acid, and combinations of these markers have the potential role of guiding HBV cure by enabling selection of the best candidates for therapy, identifying individuals with a higher likelihood of achieving HBsAg loss, and helping in the design of studies with new drugs. However, some of the assays used to analyze these markers require standardization and improvements in the level of detection. Analysis of host biomarkers to assess the host immune response to HBV is also important, as the natural course of CHB is determined by the interplay between viral replication and the immune response. These biomarkers are, however, in an early phase of development.

16.
J Oncol Pract ; 15(12): 629-637, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825756

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increases the risk for several types of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, as primary and second primary malignancies. HCV-infected patients with cancer, particularly those undergoing anticancer therapy, are at risk for development of enhanced HCV replication, which can lead to hepatitis flare and progression of liver fibrosis or cirrhosis. Risk factors for HCV infection include injection drug use, blood transfusion, or solid organ transplantation before 1992, receipt of clotting factor concentrates before 1987, long-term hemodialysis, chronic liver disease, HIV positivity, and occupational exposure. Widely available direct-acting antivirals are highly effective against HCV and well tolerated. Identification of HCV-infected individuals is the essential first step in treatment and eradication of the infection. One-time screening is recommended for persons born from 1945 to 1965; screening is also recommended for persons with risk factors. Recently, a public health recommendation has been drafted to screen all adults age 18 to 79 years. Two oncology organizations recommend screening all patients with hematologic malignancies and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients, and a recently published multicenter prospective study supports universal HCV screening for all patients with cancer. HCV screening entails testing for anti-HCV antibodies in serum and, when results are positive, HCV RNA quantitation to confirm infection. Direct-acting antiviral therapy eradicates HCV in almost all cases. Virologic cure of HCV prevents chronic hepatitis and progression to liver fibrosis or cirrhosis. HCV eradication also decreases the risk of developing HCV-associated primary and second primary malignancies, and it may allow HCV-infected patients access to important cancer clinical trials. Patients with HCV-related cirrhosis require lifelong surveillance for HCC, even after viral eradication.

17.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829731

RESUMO

The incidence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection has been low in developed countries for decades; however, many adults in these countries are susceptible to HAV infection. In recent years, the global trade of food products originating from HAV-endemic countries resulted in HAV outbreaks associated with imported foods in developed countries. This article aims to review the characteristics of selected HAV outbreaks associated with imported food in developed countries during 2012-2018, and discusses improvements in global public health capabilities and new tools for effective detection, control, and prevention of HAV outbreaks.

18.
Am J Mens Health ; 13(6): 1557988319895141, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876213

RESUMO

Since February 2017 in Poland, an increasing number of acute hepatitis A (AHA) cases have been reported; a noteworthy increase to 3,072 cases of AHA in 2017 compared to 35 cases in 2016 was reported by the National Institute of Public Health (NIPH). The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic features, clinical manifestations, laboratory results, and sexually transmitted coinfections. All cases of AHA diagnosed between February 2017 and February 2018 at the University Hospital in Krakow were analyzed. A total of 119 cases of hepatitis A virus (HAV) were reported; 105 (88%) were males and 14 (12%) were females, with a mean age 31 years (range 19-62). In 84 patients (71%), the HAV was transmitted by oral-anal sexual contact between men. Six women were infected by close house contact with men infected with HAV. The route of transmission was not identified for 29 cases, and 88 patients (74%) required hospitalization. Among the cases, the following coinfections were already diagnosed: HIV 36 patients (30%), chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) 4 patients (3%), and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) 2 patients (1.5%). During AHA diagnosis, some new sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were detected; syphilis eight patients (6.7%), HIV/syphilis seven patients (6%), HIV//HCV/syphilis one patient, and acute retroviral syndrome/Shigella flexneri one patient. Overall, AHA outbreak in Poland in 2017 affected primarily men who have sex with men (MSM) and was connected with oral-anal sexual contacts, and the majority of patients did not have HAV vaccination. These results show a clear need for routinely offering HAV vaccination to at-risk populations and that awareness among health-care workers about HAV sexual transmission may help introduce prevention methods.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876587

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the most significant public health problems currently facing the United States, especially in West Virginia. If it is undetected and left untreated, the likelihood of sustaining a treatment response decreases. While early identification has been identified as a critical focus in trying to obtain better health outcomes, new drug treatments appear promising, if somewhat expensive. West Virginia is a predominantly rural state, where the incidence of HCV is 9 times the national average and Medicaid costs for treatment amounted to more than $27 million from 2014 to 2016. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the effects of early identification and treatment for patients infected with HCV as it relates to West Virginia. A comprehensive systematic review was limited to 58 articles published from 2008 to 2018 and were in English. Findings from this review identified early detection as the first line of a preventive strategy to help reduce the evolving epidemic and that oral medications could reduce the risk of liver cancer and death. The cost associated with hospitalization of HCV more than tripled from $20 963 in 2005 to $64 867 in 2011 with the average charge per hospitalization at $53 626 due to HVC. The lack of adequate treatment options has led to increasing (and even more expensive) hospital care for untreated HCV. These facts suggest that this state might be facing an expected financial health care crisis due to its increasingly drug-related HCV-infected population.

20.
APMIS ; 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863490

RESUMO

Hepatitis C is a global public health problem and Pakistan is the second largest country in the globe with highest prevalence rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Until 2014, Pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV), have been the standard therapy for HCV, however, owing to its adverse side effects and very low sustained virologic response (SVR) rates therapeutics trend is shifted towards direct acting antivirals. Tripartite motif-containing 22 (TRIM22) is a dynamic antiviral protein that can inhibit multiple viruses in vivo. Expression of TRIM22 mRNA has been linked to outcome of PEG-IFN and ribavirin therapy, where its higher expression leads to rapid virus clearance. However, in terms of therapy with direct acting antiviral (DAA) or double DAA, impact of TRIM22 expression is largely unknown. These new drugs show more than 90% of SVR rates and lesser side effects and have proven to be better than IFN therapy. Endogenous IFN system suppress various pathogens through the induction of antiviral effectors termed as interferon stimulating genes (ISGs). We have studied the expression levels of one of these antiviral effectors, TRIM22 in response to Sofosbuvir (SOF) and Daclatasvir (DAC) in combination with RBV, using quantitative PCR in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HCV infected patients. We have observed sustained virus clearance in more than 90% of patients treated with DAA and double DAA and have seen the expression of TRIM22 to be higher in patients who attained SVR as compared to the untreated patients. We have also observed down-regulation of TRIM22 in patients who failed to attain rapid virus clearance, and up-regulation in those who achieved rapid clearance of virus. Genetic factors that determine the lower TRIM22 expression in these patients are needed to be explored that may also play a role in lower response to anti-HCV therapy. Endogenous IFN system and effects of antiviral proteins in response to DAA therapy is needed to be studied in order to better understand the host response towards these drugs to make them more effective.

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