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2.
Inter Econ ; 56(5): 270-273, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629503

RESUMO

During the recovery, investing in gender equality is essential: it will lead directly to higher GDP and indirectly to increase human capital and promote a sustainable society. Or Women as economic agents may themselves have an impact on policies: the changing role of women in families and societies and their greater representation in decision making positions contribute to focusing and redirecting the policy agenda toward items that ultimately reduce gender gaps.

3.
J Phys Act Health ; : 1-8, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to describe changes in gender and wealth inequalities in leisure-time physical activity (PA) of Brazilians during a 6-year interval. It also aims to evaluate inequalities regarding PA public programs awareness, participation, and access to public spaces for PA. METHODS: Data from 2 population-based surveys conducted in 2013 and 2019 were used. Leisure-time PA prevalence was assessed considering those reporting ≥150 minutes per week. The authors evaluated gender inequalities calculating differences and ratios, and wealth inequalities using the slope index of inequality and the concentration index- assessing changes over time. RESULTS: National levels of leisure-time PA increased from 2013 to 2019, and an increase in inequalities was observed; women and the poorest groups still presented lower prevalence. A decline in socioeconomic inequalities was observed from 2013 to 2019 regarding the availability of public spaces and awareness about public programs. However, outcomes remained more common among the richest group. Inequalities did not vary for participation in public programs. CONCLUSION: Although leisure-time PA increased from 2013 to 2019 at a national level, there were no improvements in gender inequalities, and wealth inequalities worsened over time. Indicators of public strategies for PA increased for the population, but inequalities remain.

4.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(11): 1787-1798, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Across the world, it remains legal to discriminate against people because of their weight. Although US studies demonstrate public support for laws to prohibit weight discrimination, multinational research is scarce. The present study conducted a multinational comparison of support for legislative measures to address weight discrimination and bullying across six countries. METHODS: Participants were adults (n = 13,996) enrolled in an international weight-management program and residing in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the UK, and the US. Participants completed identical online surveys that assessed support for antidiscrimination laws and policies to address weight bullying, demographic characteristics, and personal experiences of weight stigma. RESULTS: Across countries, support was high for laws (90%) and policies (92%) to address weight-based bullying, whereas greater between-country variation emerged in support for legislation to address weight-based discrimination in employment (61%, 79%), as a human rights issue (57%), and through existing disability protections (47%). Findings highlight few and inconsistent links between policy support and sociodemographic correlates or experienced or internalized weight stigma. CONCLUSIONS: Support for policies to address weight stigma is present among people engaged in weight management across Westernized countries; findings offer an informative comparison point for future cross-country research and can inform policy discourse to address weight discrimination and bullying.

5.
Body Image ; 39: 248-258, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655859

RESUMO

Although weight stigma and discrimination are associated with increased body dissatisfaction and eating disorder risk, reduced opportunities, and poorer well-being, there are few legal protections for such discrimination in the U.S. We addressed one barrier to enacting protective legislation - public attitudes toward anti-weight discrimination laws - by assessing the impact of media representations of fatness and information about peer attitudes. Using a 2 × 2 experimental design, participants (N = 525) completed baseline assessments of political conservatism and weight bias and were randomly assigned to view fat-negative or fat-positive media content that was ostensibly supported or not supported by their peers, followed by questionnaires assessing fat phobia and legislative attitudes. Two-way ANCOVAs controlling for baseline weight bias and political conservatism indicated a significant effect for media framing, with greater fat phobia and less support for anti-discrimination laws and policies among those who viewed the fat-negative frame; however, effects for ostensible peer support and interaction effects were not significant. These preliminary findings suggest that efforts to shift media rhetoric may enhance support for anti-weight discrimination laws. Future research should investigate other barriers to anti-discrimination legislation and estimate their impact on body dissatisfaction, eating disorder risk, and other indicators of population health.

6.
Front Psychol ; 12: 729322, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489831

RESUMO

Political advertisements can shift attitudes and behaviors to become more exclusionary toward social out-groups. However, people who engage in an antidiscrimination exercise in the context of an experiment may respond differently to such ads. What interventions might foster inclusive attitudes in the presence of political communications about social policy issues like transgender rights? We examined two scalable antidiscrimination exercises commonly used in applied settings: describing a personal narrative of discrimination and perspective-taking. We then showed people political ads that are favorable or opposed to transgender rights to determine whether those interventions moderate how receptive people are to the messages. Relying on two demographically representative survey experiments of adults in the United States (study 1 N = 1,291; study 2 N = 1,587), we found that personal recollections of discriminatory experiences did not reduce exclusionary attitudes, but perspective-taking had some effects, particularly among those who fully complied with the exercise. However, both studies revealed potential backfire effects; recalling a discriminatory experience induced negative attitudes among a subset of the participants, and participants who refused to perspective-take when prompted also held more negative attitudes. Importantly, political ads favorable toward transgender rights consistently resulted in more positive attitudes toward transgender people. Future work needs to carefully examine heterogeneous responses and resistance to antidiscrimination interventions and examine what particular aspects of the political ads induced the attitude change.

7.
Porto Alegre; Editora Rede Unida; 20210916. 220 p.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342097

RESUMO

O livro "Literatura e Saúde Pública" reúne autoras/es de todo o Brasil em uma coletânea de rara beleza e que dialogam com os cenários e temáticas da saúde. O livro é uma parceria entre a Editora Rede Unida e o Laboratório de Políticas Públicas, Ações Coletivas e Saúde (LAPPACS/UFRGS). São dois volumes compostos por contos, crônicas, poemas e relatos que discutem a complexidade do ato de cuidar e tensionando, por meio da escrita criativa, a relação entre ficção e realidade. A imagem de capa e as ilustrações principais foram criadas por trabalhadoras/es e usuárias/os do CAPS AD III Amanhecer da cidade de Canoas/RS. O segundo volume foi prefaciado por Ricardo Braga, que analisa as interrelações entre a saúde e literatura que se desdobram nos capítulos do livro. Estas narrativas compõem um mosaico de produções heterogêneas, relacionando variados períodos históricos, variadas políticas públicas, categorias sociais diversas, tecnologias e suas incidências sobre os corpos, aprisionando ou expandindo limites. Foram abordadas diferentes enfermidades, peregrinações nos sistemas de saúde e pelos territórios diversos e singulares e as burocracias que desafiam a vida. Foram evocados corpos doentes ou adoecidos, vulneráveis ou vulnerabilizados, enfrentando kafkianas burocracias do Estado e também criando alternativas de fuga e de modos de vida, desbravando a selvageria do capitalismo, desvelando nuances do sistema sensíveis às fragilidades do corpo e da alma. Este volume, "Literatura e Saúde Pública: Territórios e Cuidado: gênero, família, vida e morte", leva o leitor diretamente para os cenários do cuidado. As políticas públicas de saúdedeixam de ser vistas apenas como um conjunto de programas, protocolos, instituições, redes de atendimento, e ganham carne, corpo, sangue e suor. Os modos como são afetados, no dia a dia, pacientes e profissionais da saúde, estão situados na trama dos encontros humanos, onde a vulnerabilidade de ambos os lados, do paciente e dos profissionais, produz os excessos da experiência vivida, ultrapassa os protocolos e exige ser dita, escrita, ficcionada, elaborada. São produções narrativas que transpõem sintomas individuais e institucionais em uma miríade de cenários figurados, tão ricos quanto só a arte pode criar para, ao mesmo tempo, ultrapassar e tornar sustentável o vivido. As descrições/invenções de realidades matizaram o contato do corpo com a norma, com o Estado e com as políticas públicas da saúde, abrindo a experiência do adoecer e do cuidar para novos significados e sensibilidades que a escrita imaginativa pode produzir.


Assuntos
Humanos , Política Pública , Sistemas de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Literatura
12.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; : 207640211006736, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Affective polarization and stigma toward individuals with schizophrenia and toward immigrants in Argentina are not new despite its importance and dissemination. However, no research has been conducted taking into consideration political partisanship and attitudes toward these groups. AIMS: Political polarization and attitudes toward socialization across party lines are studied in conjunction with attitudes toward immigrants and toward individuals with schizophrenia. METHOD: Individuals from Buenos Aires (n = 712) were surveyed for their political partisanship and their attitudes toward Peruvian and Bolivian immigrants, people with schizophrenia and partisans from the opposing political party. A modified version of the Bogardus scale was used. RESULTS: Social distance was from highest to lowest toward people with schizophrenia, political opponents, and immigrants. Individuals with schizophrenia were strongly discriminated against by most participants: 86% would definitely or probably not want them to take care of their children, 83% would not want them to be their healthcare provider, and 81% would not want to marry them. Immigrants were comparatively not discriminated against: 10% would not want them to take care of their children, 8% would not want to receive health care from them, and 28% would not want to marry them. Cristina Fernández de Kirchner partisans showed the lowest level of discrimination toward these two groups, compared to Mauricio Macri partisans and to independent voters. However, the former group had greater discriminatory attitudes toward Mauricio Macri partisans than the latter. CONCLUSIONS: As compared to other discriminatory attitudes, discrimination toward persons with schizophrenia is widespread and pervasive. Lower levels of discrimination toward people with schizophrenia and toward immigrants would not predict attitudes toward the opposing political partisans.

15.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 69, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653362

RESUMO

While the terms 'sex' and 'gender' represent distinct concepts, their influence may intersect as important determinants of health. Despite their influence in shaping individual health outcomes, there is often inaccuracy and inconsistency in the degree to which sex and gender considerations are integrated in the health policymaking process. This primary aim of this paper is to fill the gap in the current understanding of how sex and gender considerations are integrated in this process. A scoping review methodology was used with the objective of assessing the extent to which sex and gender were considered inclusively and comprehensively in established examples of health policy planning and development. One hundred seventy-five documents from the academic and grey literature were found to meet the inclusion criteria for this scoping review. The authors charted the data from these publications, assessing the ways in which sex and gender were incorporated in their policy development process. Five key findings were ascertained from this review: (1) the terms sex and gender are often used interchangeably; (2) the terms sex and gender are often used with a limited and binary scope; (3) the most inclusive and comprehensive documents included transgender and gender diverse populations; (4) there are significant variations in the degree of inclusivity and comprehensivity of these documents based on geographic distribution; and (5) documents published within the last 5 years were more inclusive than older documents. This paper concludes with an acknowledgment of the limitations of the study design, a summary of the findings, future research directions, and implications for policymakers.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Política de Saúde , Formulação de Políticas , Caracteres Sexuais , Inclusão Social , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero
16.
J Health Econ ; 77: 102441, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676198

RESUMO

We examine public policy toward the use of genetic tests by insurers when a positive test makes actuarially fair insurance too expensive for some consumers. With state-dependent utility, consumers may decline actuarially fair insurance if the probability of becoming ill exceeds a threshold. In markets with adverse selection, a positive genetic test may cause all or some high risks to drop out of the market (complete and partial genetic discrimination, respectively). Full participation in the market by all consumers requires cross-subsidization. We show that the consent law and mandatory testing are equivalent. Under complete genetic discrimination, the duty to disclose is never Pareto dominated, but either the code of conduct or consent law can yield the same outcome. Under partial genetic discrimination, the duty to disclose is never Pareto dominated. However, partial genetic discrimination and cross-subsidization imply the information ban is noncomparable to the other policy alternatives.

17.
J Adolesc Health ; 69(2): 321-328, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579622

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A small fraction of people with opioid use disorder (OUD) receives appropriate care. Public opinion about addiction contributes to the availability and accessibility of effective treatment services. Little is known about such attitudes toward OUD among young adults, a population at heightened risk for OUD onset. The current study examined endorsement of social stigma, discrimination, and policy attitudes about OUD and hypothesized correlates of such attitudes (familiarity with OUD, criminal justice involvement, respondent demographic characteristics). METHODS: A national sample of 190 young adults (weighted n = 408; 69% female, 42% White, non-Hispanic) aged 19-29 years completed web and telephone surveys covering opioid social stigma, discrimination, policy attitudes, personal experience with opioids, and criminal justice, and participant characteristics (age, sex, race, education, employment, income). Linear regressions were performed to examine associations between respondent characteristics and attitudes. RESULTS: Young adults, on average, endorsed moderate levels of stigma and discrimination toward people with OUD and support for treatment-oriented policies. Stigma was positively associated with discrimination and negatively associated with support for policies favorable to people with OUD. Regression results revealed that more negative attitudes toward OUD were endorsed as a function of older age and less personal experience or familiarity with OUD. CONCLUSIONS: Heterogeneity in young adults' attitudes about OUD may be explained, in part, by personal characteristics and familiarity with OUD. Adolescence may be an opportune developmental period to prevent or reduce public stigma related to OUD and MOUD and increase public attitudes in support of expanded access to effective OUD treatments.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Estigma Social , Adolescente , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Políticas , Adulto Jovem
18.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(4): 529-532, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428444

RESUMO

Racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States experience disparities in their health and health care that arise from a combination of interacting factors, including racism and discrimination, social drivers of health, health care access and quality, individual behavior, and biology. To ameliorate these disparities, the American College of Physicians (ACP) proposes a comprehensive policy framework that recognizes and confronts the many elements of U.S. society, some of which are intertwined and compounding, that contribute to poorer health outcomes. In addition to this framework, which includes high-level principles and discusses how disparities are interconnected, ACP offers specific policy recommendations on disparities and discrimination in education and the workforce, those affecting specific populations, and those in criminal justice practices and policies in its 3 companion policy papers. ACP believes that a cross-cutting approach that identifies and offers solutions to the various aspects of society contributing to poor health is essential to achieving its goal of good health care for all, poor health care for none.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Racismo , Sociedades Médicas , Diversidade Cultural , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Estados Unidos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466282

RESUMO

Gender is recognized as one of the most relevant determinants of health inequalities. This scoping review sought to identify and analyse policies, either implemented or formulated as proposals, which aimed to reduce gender inequalities in health. We searched Medline, Web of Science, and Scielo. Of 2895 records, 91 full text articles were analysed, and 33 papers were included. Of these papers, 22 described the process of formulation, implementation, or evaluation of policies whose aim was to reduce gender inequalities in health; six focused on recommendations, and the remaining five dealt with both issues. Our review showed that the policies aimed at reducing gender inequalities in health, either implemented or formulated as proposals, are scarce. Moreover, despite some success, overall progress has been slow. The studies show failures in design and particularly in the implementation process. We found a lack of awareness and capacity in the policy-making progress, under-financing, bureaucratization, shortage of relevant data, and absence of women's participation in decision-making. Therefore, an emphasis on the design and implementation of gender-sensitive policies seems essential to advance gender equality in health. This scoping review gathers evidence to support the design of such policies and recommendations that can facilitate their implementation.


Assuntos
Equidade de Gênero , Política de Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Formulação de Políticas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
Terminologia | DeCS - Descritores em Ciências da Saúde | ID: 059209

RESUMO

Policies that include the existence of a body responsible for the articulation and implementation of a platform based on an equality perspective that requires the integration of race-ethnicity, differences in sexual orientation, as well as the demands and needs arising from differences within the executive. Its objective is to translate a programmatic vision into action and action axes that reflects the struggle for egalitarian social relations. (From http://bit.ly/28WAaYO)


Políticas que incluyen la existencia de un organismo responsable de la articulación e implementación de una plataforma basada en una perspectiva de igualdad que requiere la integración de la raza y el origen étnico, las diferencias en la orientación sexual, así como las demandas y necesidades que surgen de las diferencias dentro del ejecutivo. Su objetivo es traducir una visión programática en acciones y ejes de acción que reflejen la lucha por las relaciones sociales igualitarias. (Traducción libre del original: http://bit.ly/28WAaYO)


Políticas que incluem a existência de um organismo responsável pela articulação e implementação de uma plataforma pautada por uma perspectiva de igualdade que exige a integração dos aspectos de raça-etnia, de diferenças de orientação sexual, bem como das reivindicações e necessidades oriundas das diferenças de idade no âmbito do executivo. Seu objetivo é traduzir uma visão programática em eixos de atuação e ações que reflita a disputa por relações sociais igualitárias. (Adaptação do original: http://bit.ly/28WAaYO)

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