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1.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788289

RESUMO

The coexistence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to high morbidity and mortality in these populations. Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) has decreased TB incidence in HIV-infected patients, this coexistence still prevails in China. Patients with HIV-PTB admitted to Beijing You An Hospital from 2014 to 2018 were retrospectively enrolled, and information on demographics, clinical characteristics, and laboratory findings were extracted from medical records. Predictors of death, including age (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.05), tobacco use (AHR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.54-4.94), history of tuberculosis (AHR: 3.53; 95% CI: 1.82-6.85), not being on ART (AHR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.31-6.63), extrapulmonary tuberculosis (AHR: 2.391; 95% CI: 1.37-4.18), sputum smear positivity (AHR: 2.84; 95% CI: 1.61-4.99), CD4+ T cell count ≤ 50 cells/µl (AHR: 3.45; 95% CI: 1.95-6.10), and initiating ART ≥ 8 weeks after the initiation of antituberculous therapy (odds ratio: 3.30; 95% CI: 1.09-10.04). By contrast, there were no deaths among the six patients who began ART within 8 weeks after the initiation of antituberculous therapy. Age, tobacco use, not being on ART, extrapulmonary tuberculosis, sputum smear positivity, and CD4+ T cell count ≤50 cells/µl predict those patients at high risk of death among HIV-infected patients with PTB, and the time of initiating ART after the initiation of antituberculous therapy is also important for prognosis.

2.
Indian J Tuberc ; 68(1): 32-39, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641849

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Identifying the risk factors for deaths during tuberculosis (TB) treatment is important for achieving the vision of India's National Strategic Plan of 'Zero Deaths' by 2025. We aimed to determine the proportion of deaths during TB treatment and its risk factors among smear positive pulmonary TB patients aged more than 15 years. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a cohort study using data collected for RePORT India Consortium (Regional Prospective Observational Research in Tuberculosis). SETTING: Revised TB Control Program (RNTCP) in three districts of South India. PARTICIPANTS: The cohort consisted of newly diagnosed drug sensitive patients enrolled under the Revised National TB Control Program during 2014-2018 in three districts of southern India. Information on death was collected at homes by trained project staff. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We calculated 'all-cause mortality' during TB treatment and expressed this as a proportion with 95% confidence interval (CI). Risk factors for death were assessed by calculating unadjusted and adjusted relative risks with 95% CI. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age was of the 1167 participants was 45 (14.5) years and 79% of them were males. Five participants (0.4%) were HIV infected. Among the males, 560 (61%) were tobacco users and 688 (75%) reported consuming alcohol. There were 47 deaths (4%; 95% CI 3.0-5.3) of which 28 deaths (60%) occurred during first two months of treatment. In a bi-variable analysis, age of more than 60 years (RR 2.27; 95%CI: 1.24-4.15), male gender (RR 3.98; 95% CI: 1.25-12.70), alcohol use in last 12 months (RR 2.03; 95%CI: 1.07-3.87), tobacco use (RR 1.87; 95%CI: 1.05-3.36) and severe anaemia (RR 3.53: 95%CI: 1.34-9.30) were associated with a higher risk of death. In adjusted analysis, participants with severe anaemia (<7gm/dl) had 2.4 times higher risk of death compared to their counterparts. CONCLUSION: Though deaths during TB treatment was not very high, early recognition of risk groups and targeted interventions are required to achieve zero TB deaths.

4.
BMC Immunol ; 21(1): 52, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that tuberculosis (TB) is a risk factor for chronic airflow limitation. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is recognized as the result of chronic inflammation, usually related to noxious particles. Post-TB airflow obstruction and tobacco-related COPD have the same functional pathway characterized by persistent airflow limitation. We sought to compare the profile of 29 cytokines in the sputum of subjects with post-TB airflow obstruction and those with COPD related to tobacco. RESULTS: The forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity (FEV/FVC) ratio were lower in the COPD patients with the history of smoking compared to the post-TB airflow obstruction subgroup. The stages of the disease were more advanced in COPD / tobacco patients. Among the cytokines, IL-1α, IL-1ß, MIP-1ß, sCD40L and VEGF levels were higher in COPD patients, compared to the controls with p values ​​of 0.003, 0.0001, 0.03, 0.0001 and 0.02 respectively. When the two COPD subgroups were compared, IL-1α, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-8 levels were higher in the COPD patients with the history of tobacco compared to the COPD patients with the history of TB with p-values ​​of 0.031, 0.05, 0.021 and 0.016, respectively. CONCLUSION: COPD related to tobacco is more severe than post-TB airflow obstruction. The pathogenesis of post-TB airflow obstruction appears to involve the cytokines IL-1RA, IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-17, GRO and sCD40L, while COPD related to tobacco involves more cytokines.

5.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(11): e1408-e1417, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation is important in patients with tuberculosis because it can reduce the high rates of treatment failure and mortality. We aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of cystine as a smoking cessation aid in patients with tuberculosis in Bangladesh and Pakistan. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, trial at 32 health centres in Bangladesh and Pakistan. Eligible patients were adults (aged >18 years in Bangladesh; aged >15 years in Pakistan) with pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed in the previous 4 weeks, who smoked tobacco on a daily basis and were willing to stop smoking. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive behavioural support plus either oral cytisine (9 mg on day 0, which was gradually reduced to 1·5 mg by day 25) or placebo for 25 days. Randomisation was done using pregenerated block randomisation lists, stratified by trial sites. Investigators, clinicians, and patients were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was continuous abstinence at 6 months, defined as self-report (of not having used more than five cigarettes, bidis, a water pipe, or smokeless tobacco products since the quit date), confirmed biochemically by a breath carbon monoxide reading of less than 10 parts per million. Primary and safety analysis were done in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with the International Standard Randomised Clinical Trial Registry, ISRCTN43811467, and enrolment is complete. FINDINGS: Between June 6, 2017, and April 30, 2018, 2472 patients (1527 patients from Bangladesh; 945 patients from Pakistan) were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive cytisine (n=1239) or placebo (n=1233). At 6 months, 401 (32·4%) participants in the cytisine group and 366 (29·7%) participants in the placebo group had achieved continuous abstinence (risk difference 2·68%, 95% CI -0·96 to 6·33; relative risk 1·09, 95% CI 0·97 to 1·23, p=0·114). 53 (4·3%) of 1239 participants in the cytisine group and 46 (3·7%) of 1233 participants in the placebo group reported serious adverse events (94 events in the cytisine group and 90 events in the placebo group), which included 91 deaths (49 in the cytisine group and 42 in the placebo group). None of the adverse events were attributed to the study medication. INTERPRETATION: Our findings do not support the addition of cytisine to brief behavioural support for the treatment of tobacco dependence in patients with tuberculosis. FUNDING: European Union Horizon 2020 and Health Data Research UK. TRANSLATIONS: For the Bengali and Urdu translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Tabagismo/terapia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Azocinas/uso terapêutico , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Psicoterapia Breve , Quinolizinas/uso terapêutico , Tabagismo/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(6): 2501-2505, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975178

RESUMO

Gabon carries a high burden of both tuberculosis (TB) and smoking. This study examines the disease characteristics of smoking pulmonary TB patients in Lambaréné. We interviewed adult pulmonary TB patients in Lambaréné, between March 2016 and April 2019. Clinical and biological patient characteristics were collected. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to assess factors associated with smoking. The mean age of patients included was 31 years (±13). The proportion of smokers in our study was 30% (89/295). Smoking was significantly associated with patient-related diagnostic delay (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 8.18; 95% CI = 3.67-19.56), a higher number of pulmonary TB signs and symptoms (AOR = 2.74; 95% CI = 1.18-6.73), and a higher sputum mycobacterial load (AOR = 3.18; 95% CI = 1.33-8.11). The prevalence of smoking among TB patients is high, and leading to aggravated disease as compared with controls. Our study findings suggest that smoking patients should be regularly screened for TB, to reduce diagnostic delay and TB transmission within community. Smoking cessation activities should be included in the national TB control program in Gabon.

7.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(6): 2860-2865, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984139

RESUMO

Introduction: This study was conducted to estimate the burden of tobacco use and nicotine dependence among newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients to help inform effective implementation of tobacco cessation strategies among tuberculosis patients to improve treatment outcomes. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 211 consecutive newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients between July 2018 till January 2019 at Ballabgarh tuberculosis unit (TU) in Faridabad district of Haryana, India. All participants were administered a pre-tested questionnaire to assess tobacco use and the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND) to assess nicotine dependence. Current tobacco users were defined as those who smoked in the past 7 days. Nicotine dependence was classified as low, moderate, or high for the FTND score of 0-3, 4-6, and 7-10, respectively. Results: Majority of the participants (71.1%) were male, aged 26-50 years (45.5%), and married (65.4%). Fifty (23.7%, CI: 18.0-29.4) participants were currently using tobacco; 29 (13.7%, CI: 9.1-18.4) reported smoking tobacco while 23 (10.9%, CI: 6.7-15.1) reported using smokeless tobacco. In the last month, the proportion of patients who attempted to quit smoking and smokeless tobacco was 31% and 26.1%, respectively. 86.2% of the smokers and 69.6% smokeless tobacco users reported moderate to a high level of nicotine dependence. Conclusion: High prevalence of tobacco use, a higher level of nicotine dependence and inability to quit despite an attempt among a large number of tuberculosis patients, necessitates the inclusion of routine tobacco cessation advice and nicotine replacement therapy in tuberculosis care.

8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1364, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The co-morbidity of cardiometabolic diseases in patients with Tuberculosis adds a significant burden in current health systems in developing countries including Nepal. The main objective of this study was to explore cardiometabolic risk factors among patients with Tuberculosis. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among patients with tuberculosis in 12 tuberculosis treatment centers from eight districts of Nepal between May and July 2017. Interviews with participants were conducted using a structured questionnaire and were supplemented by anthropometric measurements and on-site blood glucose tests. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: Among 221 study participants, 138 (62.4%) had new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis, 24 (10.9%) had new smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis and 34 (15.4%) had new extra- pulmonary tuberculosis. Overall, 43.1% of the patients with tuberculosis had at least one cardiometabolic risk factor. The prevalence of at least one cardiometabolic risk factor was more in male than female (47.8% versus 33.8%). Prevalence of tobacco (18.9% versus 4.8%), and alcohol (12.6% versus 6.5%) use was proportionately higher in male compared to female. The prevalence of hypertension (17% vs. 21%) and obesity (11.9% vs. 12.9%) was lower in male compared to females. Female (AOR = 0.47; CI: 0.23-0.94), those from Gandaki Province (AOR = 0.32; CI: 0.13-0.79) and literate (AOR = 0.49; CI: 0.25-0.96) had reduced risk of cardiometabolic disease risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the role of gender and socio-demographic characteristics associated with the risk of cardiometabolic diseases in patients with Tuberculosis. The findings from this study can guide medical practitioners and policy makers to consider clinical suspicion, diagnosis and treatment. National treatment guideline can benefit by integrating the management of non-communicable diseases in Tuberculosis treatment centers.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/terapia
9.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 41(5): 885-895, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799615

RESUMO

Tuberculosis has been declared as a global emergency. Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a state in which host immunity cannot completely eradicate Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Cigarette smoke increases the risk of respiratory infections, such a TB, as it has adverse effects on respiratory immune function. In this cross-sectional study, which was performed from 2016 to 2017, 31 patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer, 63 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 46 with problems in respiratory system, and 40 healthy subjects were studied. Demographic data of all subjects were recorded via a questionnaire. IGRAs (Interferon-γ release assays) were used to determine LTBI. We showed that smoking has significant odds ratio for COPD patients (OR: 4.58, 95% CI: 1.93-10.87). Also, the concordance of smoking with COPD (OR: 22, 95% CI: 2.7-179.2), lung cancer (OR: 10, 95% CI: 1.03-97), and other respiratory diseases (OR: 4.54, 95% CI: 1.93-10.87) is a significant risk factor for the presence of LTBI whereas the existence of LTBI in the study groups did not show any significant odds ratio. This study is the first to analyze the relationship between smoking in patients with respiratory diseases and LTBI susceptibility in Iran by IGRAs, which proposes cigarette smoking as a powerful risk factor for LTBI.

10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 854, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking plays a key role in the development of tuberculosis (TB) infection and is also a predictor of poor TB treatment prognosis and outcomes. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking and to assess the effects of smoking on treatment outcomes among TB patients. METHODS: A multi-center retrospective study design was used to collect data from TB patients in four different states of Malaysia, namely Penang, Sabah, Sarawak, and Selangor. The study included medical records of TB patients admitted to the selected hospitals in the period from January 2006 to March 2009. Medical records with incomplete data were not included. Patient demographics and clinical data were collected using a validated data collection form. RESULTS: Of all patients with TB (9337), the prevalence of smokers was 4313 (46.2%). Among smokers, 3584 (83.1%) were associated with pulmonary TB, while 729 (16.9%) were associated with extrapulmonary TB. Male gender (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.30-1.58), Chinese ethnicity (OR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.49), Sarawak indigenous ethnicity (OR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.95), urban residents (OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.33-1.61), employed individuals (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.09-1.34), alcoholics (OR = 4.91, 95% CI 4.04-5.96), drug abusers (OR = 7.43, 95% CI 5.70-9.60) and presence of co-morbid condition (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.16-1.40) all showed significant association with smoking habits. This study found that 3236 (75.0%) patients were successfully treated in the smokers' group, while 4004 (79.7%) patients were non-smokers. The proportion of deaths (6.6%, n = 283), defaulters (6.6%, n = 284) and treatment interruptions (4.7%, n = 204) was higher in the smokers' group. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking has a strong influence on TB and is a major barrier towards treatment success (OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.69-0.84, p < 0.001). Therefore, the findings indicate that smoking cessations are an effective way to decrease treatment failure and drug resistance.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Comorbidade , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Falha de Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(5): e203865, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356884

RESUMO

Importance: Diabetes is a severe metabolic disorder affecting human health worldwide, with increasing prevalence in low- and middle-income countries. Gaps in knowledge regarding factors that lead to diabetes and its association with tuberculosis (TB) endemicity at the national scale still exist, mainly because of the lack of large-scale dual testing and appropriate evaluation methods. Objectives: To identify locations in India where diabetes prevalence is concentrated, examine the association of diabetes with sociodemographic and behavioral covariates, and uncover where high regional TB endemicity overlaps with diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included 803 164 men aged 15 to 54 years and women aged 15 to 49 years who participated in the Demographic Health Survey (2015-2016), carried out by the India Ministry of Health and Family Welfare using a 2-stage clustered sampling, which included a diabetes estimation component. The survey was conducted from January 2015 to December 2016, and data analysis was conducted from July 2018 to January 2019. Exposures: Self-reported diabetes status. Main Outcomes and Measures: Self-reported diabetes status was used to estimate the association of covariates, including educational level, sex, age, religion, marital status, alcohol use, tobacco use, obesity status, and household socioeconomic level, with diabetes prevalence. Additionally, regional tuberculosis endemicity level, estimated using the India TB report for 2014 from the Revised National TB Program, was included to evaluate the national extent of the spatial overlap of diabetes and TB. Results: Among 803 164 sampled individuals (691 982 [86.2%] women; mean [SD] age, 30.09 [9.97] years), substantial geographic variation in diabetes prevalence in India was found, with a concentrated burden at the southern coastline (cluster 1, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana: prevalence, 3.01% [1864 of 61 948 individuals]; cluster 2, Tamil Nadup and Kerala: prevalence, 4.32% [3429 of 79 435 individuals]; cluster 3, east Orissa: prevalence, 2.81% [330 of 11 758 individuals]; cluster 4, Goa: prevalence, 4.43% [83 of 1883 individuals]). Having obesity and overweight (odds ratio [OR], 2.44; 95% CI, 2.18-2.73; P < .001; OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.52-1.82; P < .001, respectively), smoking tobacco (OR, 3.04; 95% CI, 1.66-5.56; P < .001), and consuming alcohol (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.37-2.95; P < .001) were associated with increased odds of diabetes. Regional TB endemicity and diabetes spatial distributions showed that there is a lack of consistent geographical overlap between these 2 diseases (eg, TB cluster 4: 60 213 TB cases; 186.79 diabetes cases in 20 183.88 individuals; 0.93% diabetes prevalence; TB cluster 8: 47 381 TB cases; 180.53 diabetes cases in 22 449.18 individuals; 0.80% diabetes prevalence; TB cluster 9: 37 620 TB cases, 601.45 diabetes cases in 12 879.36 individuals; 4.67% diabetes prevalence). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, identifying spatial clusters of diabetes on the basis of a nationally representative survey suggests that India may face different levels of disease severity, and each region might need to implement control strategies that are more appropriate for its unique epidemiologic context.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Lung India ; 37(3): 232-237, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367845

RESUMO

Context: Tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are converging epidemics, each worsening the morbidity of the other. A study of the prevalence of DM in TB patients assumes great importance. Aims: The study aims to evaluate the association between DM and TB over a 10-year period in a tertiary care hospital. Settings and Design: A retrospective observational study in a southern Indian tertiary care teaching hospital was conducted. Materials and Methods: All patients with TB diagnosed and treated during the 10-year study period were identified from the hospital database. All relevant clinical, microbiological, and laboratory results pertaining to diagnosis of DM were collected. The diagnosis of TB and DM was made as per the standard criteria. Statistical Analysis: Categorical variables were analyzed using Chi-square test while continuous variables using independent sample t-test. Results: From 2001 to 2012, we studied 1979 TB patients among whom data on DM were available. The prevalence of DM was 29%, 21%, and 14%, in smear positive, smear negative and extrapulmonary TB respectively (overall 24%). Diabetics were more likely to be men (77.3% vs. 61%;P = 0.001); >40 years of age (81.7% vs. 38.9%;P < 0.001); heavier (59.96 vs. 50.37;P = 0.004); tobacco smokers (16.1% vs. 8.1%;P < 0.001); and alcohol consumers (6.8% vs. 4%;P = 0.02). They were less likely to be HIV coinfected (1.8% vs. 6.1%;P < 0.001). HIV coinfection was seen in 5% of patients and was substantially higher in extrapulmonary TB group (19.4%). Multidrug-resistant TB was lower in DM (11.7%) compared to non-DM (15.9%) (P = 0.02). Overall, 48% of the DM patients were diagnosed at the time of TB diagnosis. Over 10 years, no obvious changes in the trend were evident. Conclusions: Over a 10-year study period, 24% of the TB patients were diabetic, nearly half were detected at the time of TB diagnosis. There may be a good case for screening all TB patients for DM.

13.
Alcohol ; 86: 113-119, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325101

RESUMO

Collaborative activities to address tobacco addiction among tuberculosis (TB) patients are in place in India. The research was carried out to estimate the prevalence and to determine the predictors of hazardous alcohol use among pulmonary TB patients, assessing the need for joint TB-alcohol collaborative activities. It was a cross-sectional study carried out among 200 drug-sensitive pulmonary TB patients of Bhavnagar city of Gujarat using the "Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test" (AUDIT), with patients scoring ≥8 on AUDIT said to be having hazardous alcohol use. The prevalence of hazardous alcohol use among drug-sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis patients was found to be 20% (95% CI = 15%-26%). On applying multiple logistic regression, regular use of smokeless tobacco (adjusted Odds Ratio aOR = 5, 95% CI = 1.8-14.9, p = 0.002), history of alcohol use by father (aOR = 4, 95% CI = 1.7-10.2, p = 0.002), residing at a place where spurious liquor was being brewed (aOR = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.4-16.4, p = 0.012), and belonging to scheduled caste/scheduled tribe (SC/ST) (aOR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-6.8, p = 0.034) were the significant predictors for hazardous alcohol use. It is concluded from the study that one-fifth of drug-sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Bhavnagar have hazardous alcohol use. The study calls for joint TB-alcohol collaborative activities in India.

14.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 318(5): L1004-L1007, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233791
15.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 24(2): 170-175, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking contributes to tuberculosis (TB) epidemiology. However, limited evidence exists on how smoking impacts TB treatment outcomes such as treatment loss to follow-up and culture conversion.METHODS: This meta-analysis assessed current evidence of the impact of active cigarette smoking on TB treatment outcomes. PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for English-language articles published from database inception through 2017. Articles addressing active pulmonary TB and cigarette smoking were identified and data abstracted. Smokers were defined as those who smoked every day or some days at the time of interview/diagnosis. Non-smokers did not smoke at the time of interview/diagnosis. Unfavorable outcomes included any outcome other than cure or completion of TB treatment. Three different data sets were examined: 8 articles addressing unfavorable treatment outcomes, 9 analyzing only treatment loss to follow-up, and 5 addressing delayed smear or culture conversion. Studies that had <20 subjects or that addressed only populations with comorbidities were excluded.RESULTS: We identified 1030 studies; 21 studies fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Smokers had greater odds of unfavorable outcomes (pooled odds ratio [pOR] 1.23, 95%CI 1.14-1.33), delayed smear or culture conversion (pOR 1.55, 95%CI 1.04-2.07), and treatment loss to follow-up (pOR 1.35, 95%CI 1.21-1.50).CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking is associated with negative treatment results and delayed conversion to negative smear or culture, suggesting smoking is an important factor for consideration in TB elimination efforts.

16.
Eur J Case Rep Intern Med ; 7(1): 001342, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015968

RESUMO

A 20-year-old Swiss male presented at the emergency department with acute onset of febrile temperatures and hemoptysis and a 3-month history of productive cough. An X-ray and CT scan of the chest, sputum samples for acid-fast bacilli, polymerase chain reaction(PCR), and cultures for Mycobacteria revealed pulmonary infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. None of the classical risk factors for tuberculosis were present, but the patient reported regularly smoking a water pipe. Water-pipe smoking poses a serious risk of M. tuberculosis transmission. LEARNING POINTS: This case report illustrates an unusual risk factor for tuberculosis: water-pipe smoking.With the higher social acceptance of water-pipe smoking, physicians must be aware of the associated complications.

17.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(2): 100-104, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030934

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) and smoking are causing a heavy mortality worldwide. Tobacco smoke increases the risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and tuberculosis disease, including severe pulmonary tuberculosis, resistant bacilli forms and death from this disease. Smoking patients with TB have poorer compliance with treatment of tuberculosis than non-smokers. In countries with high TB incidence and smoking prevalence tending to increase, smoking cessation is a means of controlling the TB epidemic. Stopping smoking improves the course of tuberculosis and promotes its final cure, it is accompanied by a better therapeutic observance. WHO recommended coordination between national tuberculosis and tobacco control programs to optimize control of the TB epidemic. The mobilization of health professionals in helping smokers with tuberculosis stopping smoking is required.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Humanos , Fumantes , Fumar
18.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 28(3): e2018294, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022216

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to describe drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) notifications in Brazil. METHODS: this is a descriptive study of clinical and epidemiological characteristics of DR-TB notifications in 2014 on SITETB and TBWeb, these being information systems on which cases involving special treatment regimens are registered. RESULTS: there were 1,574 cases, 94.8% of which had the pulmonary form, 27.6% involved primary resistance, and 50.9% were multidrug-resistant; 70.6% of cases were male, 87.0% were between 20 and 59 years old, 60.9% were of Afro-Brazilian, and 68.0% had less than 8 years of schooling; as for comorbidities, 13.1% of patients had AIDS, 11.3% had diabetes, 25.8% made harmful use of alcohol, 21.0% were illegal drugs users, and 22.2% were tobacco users. CONCLUSION: the majority of DR-TB notifications were related to men, young people, Afro-Brazilian and people with low levels of education; there was a high percentage of primary resistance, as well as multidrug-resistance and comorbidities, with emphasis on substance use.

19.
Genomics ; 112(2): 1223-1232, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306748

RESUMO

We investigated whether genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) influences lung adenocarcinoma development among never-smokers using TB genome-wide association study (GWAS) results within the Female Lung Cancer Consortium in Asia. Pathway analysis with the adaptive rank truncated product method was used to assess the association between a TB-related gene-set and lung adenocarcinoma using GWAS data from 5512 lung adenocarcinoma cases and 6277 controls. The gene-set consisted of 31 genes containing known/suggestive associations with genetic variants from previous TB-GWAS. Subsequently, we followed-up with Mendelian Randomization to evaluate the association between TB and lung adenocarcinoma using three genome-wide significant variants from previous TB-GWAS in East Asians. The TB-related gene-set was associated with lung adenocarcinoma (p = 0.016). Additionally, the Mendelian Randomization showed an association between TB and lung adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.66, p = 0.027). Our findings support TB as a causal risk factor for lung cancer development among never-smoking Asian women.

20.
Indian J Tuberc ; 66(4): 555-560, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ending the TB epidemic by 2030 is among the key targets for countries to achieve Sustainable Development Goals. In current times we are grappling with dual burden of tuberculosis as well as tobacco use. METHODS: There is sufficient evidence to establish that tobacco smoking significantly spikes up the risk of acquiring, developing and death among tuberculosis patients. Active or passive exposure to tobacco smoke is significantly associated with tuberculosis infection and tuberculosis disease, independent of a large number of other potential confounders. RESULTS: Despite having substantial evidence about the impact of tobacco control measures, particularly tobacco cessation, on TB outcomes, the integration of TB and tobacco control still remains far-off. CONCLUSION: It is high time when TB control programs must begin to address tobacco control as a potential preventive intervention to combat colliding epidemics of tobacco and tuberculosis. This white paper discusses about the role of tobacco control in reaching the ambitious goal of ending TB epidemic by 2030.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Humanos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle
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