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1.
Microorganisms ; 9(3)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799545

RESUMO

The availability of whole genome sequences in public databases permits genome-wide comparative studies of various bacterial species. Whole genome sequence-single nucleotide polymorphisms (WGS-SNP) analysis has been used in recent studies and allows the discrimination of various Brucella species and strains. In the present study, 13 Brucella spp. strains from cattle of various locations in provinces of South Africa were typed and discriminated. WGS-SNP analysis indicated a maximum pairwise distance ranging from 4 to 77 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the South African Brucella abortus virulent field strains. Moreover, it was shown that the South African B. abortus strains grouped closely to B. abortus strains from Mozambique and Zimbabwe, as well as other Eurasian countries, such as Portugal and India. WGS-SNP analysis of South African B. abortus strains demonstrated that the same genotype circulated in one farm (Farm 1), whereas another farm (Farm 2) in the same province had two different genotypes. This indicated that brucellosis in South Africa spreads within the herd on some farms, whereas the introduction of infected animals is the mode of transmission on other farms. Three B. abortus vaccine S19 strains isolated from tissue and aborted material were identical, even though they originated from different herds and regions of South Africa. This might be due to the incorrect vaccination of animals older than the recommended age of 4-8 months or might be a problem associated with vaccine production.

2.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803521

RESUMO

Laboratory experiments have shown higher oil recovery with nanoparticle (NPs) flooding. Accordingly, many studies have investigated the nanoparticle-aided sweep efficiency of the injection fluid. The change in wettability and the reduction of the interfacial tension (IFT) are the two most proposed enhanced oil recovery (EOR) mechanisms of nanoparticles. Nevertheless, gaps still exist in terms of understanding the interactions induced by NPs that pave way for the mobilization of oil. This work investigated four types of polymer-coated silica NPs for oil recovery under harsh reservoir conditions of high temperature (60 ∘C) and salinity (38,380 ppm). Flooding experiments were conducted on neutral-wet core plugs in tertiary recovery mode. Nanoparticles were diluted to 0.1 wt.% concentration with seawater. The nano-aided sweep efficiency was studied via IFT and imbibition tests, and by examining the displacement pressure behavior. Flooding tests indicated incremental oil recovery between 1.51 and 6.13% of the original oil in place (OOIP). The oil sweep efficiency was affected by the reduction in core's permeability induced by the aggregation/agglomeration of NPs in the pores. Different types of mechanisms, such as reduction in IFT, generation of in-situ emulsion, microscopic flow diversion and alteration of wettability, together, can explain the nano-EOR effect. However, it was found that the change in the rock wettability to more water-wet condition seemed to govern the sweeping efficiency. These experimental results are valuable addition to the data bank on the application of novel NPs injection in porous media and aid to understand the EOR mechanisms associated with the application of polymer-coated silica nanoparticles.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807616

RESUMO

Mozambique is a country in Southern Africa with around 30 million inhabitants. Malaria is the leading cause of mortality in the country. According to the WHO, Mozambique has the third highest number of malaria cases in the world, representing approximately 5% of the world total cases. Sussundenga District has the highest incidence in the Manica province and environmental conditions are the major contributor to malaria transmission. There is a lack of malaria risk maps to inform transmission dynamics in Sussundenga village. This study develops a malaria risk map for Sussundenga Village in Mozambique and identifies high risk areas to inform on appropriate malaria control and eradication efforts. One hundred houses were randomly sampled and tested for malaria in Sussundenga Rural Municipality. To construct the map, a spatial conceptual model was used to estimate risk areas using ten environmental and anthropic factors. Data from Worldclim, 30 × 30 Landsat images were used, and layers were produced in a raster data set. Layers between class values were compared by assigning numerical values to the classes within each layer of the map with equal rank. Data set input was classified, using diverse weights depending on their appropriateness. The reclassified data outputs were combined after reclassification. The map indicated a high risk for malaria in the northeast and southeast, that is, the neighborhoods of Nhamazara, Nhamarenza, and Unidade. The central eastern areas, that is, 25 de Junho, 1 and 2, 7 de Abril, and Chicueu presented a moderate risk. In Sussundenga village there was 92% moderate and 8% high risk. High malaria risk areas are most often located in densely populated areas and areas close to water bodies. The relevant findings of this study can inform on effective malaria interventions.

4.
Arch Sex Behav ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821377

RESUMO

Mozambique has one of the highest burdens of HIV in the world, where the prevalence is estimated at 13.2% among adults aged 15-49 years. Men who pay for sex (MPS) are considered a bridging population for HIV infection. However, the characteristics of MPS in Mozambique are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of paid sex among men 15-49 years and investigate risk factors associated with paid sex. We analyzed data collected from 4724 men, aged 15-49 years, as part of the 2015 Mozambique AIDS Indicator Survey. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression models accounting for survey design were used to assess the associations between paying for sex and demographic characteristics and the number of lifetime and recent sex partners, condom use at last sex, and self-reported sexually transmitted infection symptoms. The prevalence of paid sex in the last 12 months was 10.4% (95% CI 9.0-12.1), with Cabo Delgado province having the highest prevalence (38.8%). MPS in the last 12 months were most frequently between the ages of 20-24 years (13.5%), not in a relationship (17.8%), had a primary education (11.9%), from poor households (14.0%), had more than three sexual partners excluding their spouse in the last 12 months (44.7%), and self-reported a STI in the past 12 months (44.2%). HIV prevalence was higher among men who ever paid for sex compared with men who did not (13.1% vs. 9.4%, p = .02). Men who reported 10+ lifetime partner (aOR 7.7; 95% CI 4.5-13.0; p < .001), from Cabo Delgado (aOR 4.0; 95% CI 2.2-7.4; p < .001), who reported STI symptoms in the past 12 months (aOR 2.7; 95% CI 1.7-4.2; p < .001), and HIV positive (aOR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0-3.7; p = .05) were more likely to have paid for sex in the last 12 months. These findings present the HIV prevalence among Mozambican MPS and highlight the need for a comprehensive behavioral, structural, and biomedical approach to interventions to reduce the risks of commercial and transactional sex.

5.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805689

RESUMO

(1) Background: Mozambique has an average population age of 17 years and adolescents and youths have a pivotal role in SARS-CoV-2 pandemic control. (2) Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in order to assess the awareness and information needs with regard to COVID-19 among a sample of adolescents and youths from two different Mozambican provinces. (3) Results: Only 25% of adolescents and youths had a high level of awareness and only 543/2170 participants reported a high level of knowledge regarding COVID-19. In our multivariate model, significant predictors of reporting a high level of knowledge about COVID-19 include female sex (O.R. = 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-2.89), having a house without a thatched roof (O.R. = 1.85; 95% CI 1.02-2.95) and HIV-positive status (O.R. = 1.56; 95% CI 1.36-2.87). (4) Conclusions: Our study highlights an important and relevant knowledge gap in adolescents and youths with respect to the COVID-19 pandemic. Involving young people and adolescents in the fight against SARS-CoV-2 is an essential strategy, especially in countries where the national average age is young, such as Mozambique, and where this epidemic can aggravate an already fragile health system.

6.
Pathogens ; 10(3)2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806380

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is one of the most important causes of diarrhea in children less than 2 years of age. In this study, we report the frequency, risk factors and species of Cryptosporidium detected by molecular diagnostic methods in children admitted to two public hospitals in Maputo City, Mozambique. We studied 319 patients under the age of five years who were admitted due to diarrhea between April 2015 and February 2016. Single stool samples were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, microscopically by using a Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (mZN) staining method and by using Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique using 18S ribosomal RNA gene as a target. Overall, 57.7% (184/319) were males, the median age (Interquartile range, IQR) was 11.0 (7-15) months. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 11.0% (35/319) by microscopy and in 35.4% (68/192) using PCR-RFLP. The most affected age group were children older than two years, [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 5.861; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.532-22.417; p-value < 0.05]. Children with illiterate caregivers had higher risk of infection (aOR: 1.688; 95% CI: 1.001-2.845; p-value < 0.05). An anthroponotic species C. hominis was found in 93.0% (27/29) of samples. Our findings demonstrated that cryptosporidiosis in children with diarrhea might be caused by anthroponomic transmission.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249714, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccines have been adopted in African countries since 2009, including Mozambique (2015). Disease burden data are needed to evaluate the impact of rotavirus vaccine. We report the burden of rotavirus-associated diarrhea in Mozambique from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) before vaccine introduction. METHODS: A case-control study (GEMS), was conducted in Manhiça district, recruiting children aged 0-59 months with moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) and less-severe-diarrhea (LSD) between December 2007 and November 2012; including 1-3 matched (age, sex and neighborhood) healthy community controls. Clinical and epidemiological data and stool samples (for laboratory investigation) were collected. Association of rotavirus with MSD or LSD was determined by conditional logistic regression and adjusted attributable fractions (AF) calculated, and risk factors for rotavirus diarrhea assessed. RESULTS: Overall 915 cases and 1,977 controls for MSD, and 431 cases and 430 controls for LSD were enrolled. Rotavirus positivity was 44% (217/495) for cases and 15% (160/1046) of controls, with AF = 34.9% (95% CI: 32.85-37.06) and adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) of 6.4 p< 0.0001 in infants with MSD compared to 30% (46/155) in cases and 14% (22/154) in controls yielding AF = 18.7%, (95% CI: 12.02-25.39) and aOR = 2.8, p = 0.0011 in infants with LSD. The proportion of children with rotavirus was 32% (21/66) among HIV-positive children and 23% (128/566) among HIV-negative ones for MSD. Presence of animals in the compound (OR = 1.9; p = 0.0151) and giving stored water to the child (OR = 2.0, p = 0.0483) were risk factors for MSD; while animals in the compound (OR = 2.37, p = 0.007); not having routine access to water on a daily basis (OR = 1.53, p = 0.015) and washing hands before cooking (OR = 1.76, p = 0.0197) were risk factors for LSD. CONCLUSION: The implementation of vaccination against rotavirus may likely result in a significant reduction of rotavirus-associated diarrhea, suggesting the need for monitoring of vaccine impact.

9.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112414, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831642

RESUMO

Savanna fires occurring in sub-Saharan Africa account for over 60% of global fire extent, of which more than half occurs in the Southern Hemisphere contributing ~29% of global fire emissions. Building on experience in reducing savanna fire emissions in fire-prone north Australian savannas through implementation of an internationally accredited 'savanna burning' emissions abatement methodology, we explore opportunities and challenges associated with the application of a similar approach to incentivise emissions reduction in fire-prone southern African savannas. We first show that for a focal region covering seven contiguous countries, at least 80% of annual savanna large fire (>250 ha) extent and emissions occur under relatively severe late dry season (LDS) fire-weather conditions, predominantly in sparsely inhabited areas. We then assess the feasibility of adapting the Australian emissions abatement methodology through exploratory field studies at the Tsodilo Hills World Heritage site in north-west Botswana, and the Niassa Special Reserve in northern Mozambique. Our assessment demonstrates that application of a savanna burning emissions abatement method focused on the undertaking of strategically located early dry season (EDS) burning to reduce LDS wildfire extent and resultant emissions meets key technical criteria, including: LDS fine fuels tend to be markedly greater than EDS fuels given seasonal leaf litter inputs; LDS fires tend to be significantly more severe and combust more fuels; methane and nitrous oxide emission factors are essentially equivalent in EDS and LDS periods under cured fuel conditions. In discussion we consider associated key implementation challenges and caveats that need to be addressed for progressing development of savanna burning methods that incentivise sustainable fire management, reduce emissions, and support community livelihoods in wildfire-dominated southern African savannas.

10.
J Interpers Violence ; : 8862605211005139, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832374

RESUMO

While considerable attention has been given to the health consequences of child marriage in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), limited studies exist on its impact on intimate partner violence (IPV) in the region. We address this gap by examining the link between child marriage and IPV. We tested our study hypothesis using demographic and health survey data of 28,206 young women aged 20-24 years from 16 SSA countries with recent surveys (2015-2019). Binary logistic regression models were used to examine the effect of child marriage on IPV. Child marriage prevalence ranged from 13.5% in Rwanda, in East Africa, to 77% in Chad, in Central Africa, while IPV ranged from 17.5% in Mozambique in Southern Africa to 42% in Uganda, in East Africa. Past year experience of IPV was higher among young women who married or begun cohabiting before the age of 18 (36.9%) than those who did at age 18 or more (32.5%). This result was consistent for all forms of violence: physical violence (22.7% vs 19.7%), emotional violence (25.3% vs 21.9%), and sexual violence (12% vs 10.4%). After controlling for covariates, we found that young women in SSA who married before 18 years were more likely to experience IPV than those who married as adults (AOR: 1.20; 95% CI [1.12, 1.29]). Significant heterogeneity was observed in the country-level results, with a higher likelihood of IPV found in 14 of the 16 countries and lower in Angola and Chad. Child marriage is associated with a higher likelihood of IPV in most SSA countries, suggesting that ending child marriage will result in a substantial reduction in IPV. There is a need to institute policies to support and protect women who marry as children from abusive relationships in SSA.

11.
Elife ; 102021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835026

RESUMO

We conducted a controlled before-and-after trial to evaluate the impact of an onsite urban sanitation intervention on the prevalence of enteric infection, soil transmitted helminth re-infection, and diarrhea among children in Maputo, Mozambique. A non-governmental organization replaced existing poor-quality latrines with pour-flush toilets with septic tanks serving household clusters. We enrolled children aged 1-48 months at baseline and measured outcomes before and 12 and 24 months after the intervention, with concurrent measurement among children in a comparable control arm. Despite nearly exclusive use, we found no evidence that intervention affected the prevalence of any measured outcome after 12 or 24 months of exposure. Among children born into study sites after intervention, we observed a reduced prevalence of Trichuris and Shigella infection relative to the same age group at baseline (<2 years old). Protection from birth may be important to reduce exposure to and infection with enteric pathogens in this setting.

12.
Euro Surveill ; 26(13)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797392

RESUMO

Two cases of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with the B.1.351 variant were reported in France in mid-January, 2020. These cases attended a gathering in Mozambique in mid-December 2020. Investigations led to the identification of five imported cases responsible for 14 transmission chains and a total 36 cases. Epidemiological characteristics seemed comparable to those described before the emergence of the South African variant B.1.351. The lack of tertiary transmission outside of the personal sphere suggests that distancing and barrier measures were effective.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , /genética , Viagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , /transmissão , Criança , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 90, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the COVID-19 response preparedness of the Mozambican health system by 1) determining the location of oxygen-ready public health facilities, 2) estimating the oxygen treatment capacity, and 3) determining the population coverage of oxygen-ready health facilities in Mozambique. METHODS: This analysis utilizes information on the availability of oxygen sources and delivery apparatuses to determine if a health facility is ready to deliver oxygen therapy to patients in need, and estimates how many patients can be treated with continuous oxygen flow for a 7-day period based on the available oxygen equipment at health facilities. Using GIS mapping software, the study team modeled varying travel times to oxygen-ready facilities to estimate the proportion of the population with access to care. RESULTS: 0.4% of all health facilities in Mozambique are prepared to deliver oxygen therapy to patients, for a cumulative total of 283.9 to 406.0 patients-weeks given the existing national capacity, under varying assumptions including ability to divert oxygen from a single source to multiple patients. 35% of the population in Mozambique has adequate access within one-hour driving time of an oxygen-ready health facility. This varies widely by region; 89.1% of the population of Maputo City was captured by the one-hour driving time network, as compared ot 4.4% of the population of Niassa province. CONCLUSIONS: The Mozambican health system faces the dual challenges of under-resourced health facilities and low geographic accessibility to healthcare as it prepares to confront the COVID-19 pandemic. This analysis also illustrates the disparity between provinces in preparedness to deliver oxygen therapy to patient, with Cabo Delgado and Nampula being particularly under-resourced.

14.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(6): 105712, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical epidemiology of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in Sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. Such information may be relevant for service planning, prevention and for adapting existing CVT management guidelines to that zone of the World. AIMS: Systematic review to describe the demography, associated conditions, clinical and neuroimaging features, treatment and outcome of CVT in Sub-Saharan Africa. SUMMARY OF REVIEW: We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, clinicaltrials.gov and reference lists of included studies for studies reporting original data on CVT in sub-Saharan Africa. We included 20 observational studies describing 287 CVT patients, 11 case reports (13 patients) and 9 case series (274 patients). All studies had a high risk of bias. In case series 58.6 % of the patients were female, the most common associated condition was infection (63.1%), followed by oral contraceptives (7.3%), pregnancy/puerperium (6.2 %), and prothrombotic conditions (2.2%). CT was the most common method to diagnose CVT (85%). Ninety-nine percent (101/102) of patients reported in case series after the year 2000 were anticoagulated. In case series, 21/210 with information (10 %) patients died in the acute phase, while 60/129 with information (46.5%) recovered without sequels. CONCLUSIONS: The low number of reported CVT cases from Sub-Saharan Africa suggests that CVT is either infrequent, not diagnosed or not reported. Infection is the most common risk factor. Most CVT cases were confirmed by CT alone. Almost all patients reported after year 2000 received anticoagulation. Death rate was higher than in high income countries.

15.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann ; : 2184923211005667, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease affects more than 33,000,000 individuals, mostly from low- and middle-income countries. The Cape Town Declaration on Access to Cardiac Surgery in the Developing World was published in August 2018, signaling the commitment of the global cardiac surgery and cardiology communities to improving care for rheumatic heart disease patients. METHODS: As the Cape Town Declaration formed the basis for which the Cardiac Surgery Intersociety Alliance was formed, the purpose of this article is to describe the history of the Cardiac Surgery Intersociety Alliance, its formation, ongoing activities, and future directions, including the announcement of selected pilot sites. RESULTS: The Cardiac Surgery Intersociety Alliance is an international alliance consisting of representatives from major cardiothoracic surgical societies and the World Heart Federation. Activities have included meetings at annual conferences, exhibit hall participation for advertisement and recruitment, and publication of selection criteria for cardiac surgery centers to apply for Cardiac Surgery Intersociety Alliance support. Criteria focused on local operating capacity, local championing, governmental and facility support, appropriate identification of a specific gap in care and desire to engage in future research. Eleven applications were received for which three finalist sites were selected and site visits conducted. The two selected sites were Hospital Central Maputo (Mozambique) and King Faisal Hospital Kigali (Rwanda). CONCLUSIONS: Substantial progress has been made since the passing of the Cape Town Declaration and the formation of the Cardiac Surgery Intersociety Alliance, but ongoing efforts with collaboration of all committed parties-cardiac surgery, cardiology, industry, and government-will be necessary to improve access to life-saving cardiac surgery for rheumatic heart disease patients.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830224

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) affects >33 000 000 individuals, mostly from low- and middle-income countries. The Cape Town Declaration on Access to Cardiac Surgery in the Developing World was published in August 2018, signalling the commitment of the global cardiac surgery and cardiology communities to improving care for patients with RHD. METHODS: As the Cape Town Declaration formed the basis for which the Cardiac Surgery Intersociety Alliance (CSIA) was formed, the purpose of this article is to describe the history of the CSIA, its formation, ongoing activities and future directions, including the announcement of selected pilot sites. RESULTS: The CSIA is an international alliance consisting of representatives from major cardiothoracic surgical societies and the World Heart Federation. Activities have included meetings at annual conferences, exhibit hall participation for advertisement and recruitment and publication of selection criteria for cardiac surgery centres to apply for CSIA support. Criteria focused on local operating capacity, local championing, governmental and facility support, appropriate identification of a specific gap in care and desire to engage in future research. Eleven applications were received for which 3 finalist sites were selected and site visits conducted. The 2 selected sites were Hospital Central Maputo (Mozambique) and King Faisal Hospital Kigali (Rwanda). CONCLUSIONS: Substantial progress has been made since the passing of the Cape Town Declaration and the formation of the CSIA, but ongoing efforts with collaboration of all committed parties-cardiac surgery, cardiology, industry and government-will be necessary to improve access to life-saving cardiac surgery for patients with RHD.

17.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e044680, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), millions of pregnant women are exposed to malaria infection. The cornerstone of the WHO strategy to prevent malaria in pregnancy in moderate to high-transmission areas is the administration of intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine at each scheduled antenatal care (ANC) visit. However, overall coverage remains low. 'Transforming IPT for Optimal Pregnancy' (TIPTOP) project aims at delivering IPTp at the community level (C-IPTp) to complement ANC provision with the goal of increasing IPTp coverage and improving maternal and infant's health. This protocol describes the approach to measure the effect of this strategy through household surveys (HHS) in four SSA countries: Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Madagascar, Mozambique and Nigeria. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A quasi-experimental evaluation has been designed. Delivery of C-IPTp will start first in one area per country, and later it will be extended to two more areas per country. HHS will be carried out before C-IPTp implementation in all study sites, at midterm in initial implementation areas, and after the implementation in all project areas. A multistage cluster sampling method will be followed for the selection of participants. Women of reproductive age who had a pregnancy that ended in the 6 or 12 months prior to the interview, depending on the survey, will be invited to participate by responding to a questionnaire. The main indicators will be coverage of three or more doses of IPTp and attendance to at least four ANC visits. A difference-in-difference analysis will be performed to evaluate the effectiveness of C-IPTp. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The project has been reviewed by the ethics committees of WHO, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona and all project country boards. Project results will be disseminated to in-country stakeholders and at regional and international meetings. TIPTOP project aims to develop and disseminate global recommendations for C-IPTp delivery. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03600844; Pre-results.

18.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247992, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to the 2017 estimate, around 214 million reproductive-age women in developing regions who want to avoid pregnancy do not use a modern contraceptive method. Although there are studies done on factors associated with modern contraceptive utilization in individual East African countries, as to our search of the literature, there is limited evidence on the pooled prevalence and determinants of modern contraceptive utilization in the East African region. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence and determinants of modern contraceptive utilization in the East African region. METHODS: The pooled prevalence of modern contraceptive utilization and the strength of determinants were estimated using STATA version 14. Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC), Median Odds Ratio (MOR), Proportional Change in Variance (PCV), and deviance were used for model fitness and comparison. The multilevel logistic regression model was fitted to identify determinants of modern contraceptive use in the region. Adjusted Odds Ratio with its 95% Confidence Interval was presented, and variables with a p-value ≤of 0.05 were declared significant determinants of modern contraceptive utilization. RESULTS: Overall, about 20.68% (95%CI:-20.46.,20.91)of women used modern contraceptive, ranging from 9.08% in Mozambique to 61.49% in Comoros. In the multilevel logistic regression model; maternal age group 25-34 (AOR: 0.79, 95%CI:0.76,0.82) and 35-49 (AOR:0.49, 95%CI:0.46,0.51). Being married (AOR:0.85, 95%CI:0.82,0.88), mothers with primary education (AOR:1.48, 95%CI:1.43,1.54) and secondary and above education level (AOR:1.60, 95%CI:1.52,1.69), husbands with primary education (AOR:2.43, 95%CI:2.35,2.51) and secondary and above education level (AOR:2.92, 95%CI:2.76,3.05). The mothers who had occupation (AOR:2.11, 95%CI:1.23,1.33), mothers from households with middle wealth index (AOR:1.23, 95%CI:1.19,1.28) and rich wealth index (AOR:1.28, 95%CI:1.23,1.33) were found to be significant determinants of modern contraceptive use. CONCLUSION: We found that modern contraceptive utilization in the 12 East Africa countries was low compared to SDG target 2030(75%). The governmental and non-governmental organizations should scale up their public health programs to the poor and marginalized communities to scale up modern contraceptive utilization uptake in the region. In addition, reforming the health system and reproductive health education through mass media to create awareness of modern contraceptive use benefits are effective strategies to improve modern contraceptive use among East Africa women.

19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD012250, 2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical circumcisions are among the most common surgical procedures performed in males. The usual indications are phimosis (inability to completely retract the foreskin and expose the glans due to a congenital or acquired constriction of the prepuce), paraphimosis (when the foreskin is not pulled back over the glans after retraction resulting in a tight constricting band which causes swelling of the distal penis and acute discomfort), balanoposthitis (erythema and edema of the prepuce and glans) and balanitis (inflammation is confined to the glans; the foreskin is usually non-retractile). Circumcision devices have been developed to shorten the operative time, simplify techniques, and improve safety and cosmetic outcomes. The devices generally aim to crush the foreskin while simultaneously creating hemostasis, the foreskin is then excised or allowed to slough off. Their use is supposedly safer and easier to replicate than the standard dissection techniques. There are at least 20 devices for male circumcision on the market, yet their effectiveness has not been reviewed to date. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of device-based circumcisions compared with standard surgical techniques in adolescent and adult males (10 years old and above). SEARCH METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search with no restrictions to the language of publication or publication status. We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Web of Science, trials registries, grey literature sources and conference proceedings up to 16 April 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials of device-based circumcisions (crush or ligature circumcision devices) compared to standard surgical dissection-based circumcision conducted by health professionals in a medical setting. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently assessed study eligibility and extracted data from the included studies. We classified adverse events into serious, moderate or mild. We reported study results as risk ratios (RR) or mean differences (MD) using 95% confidence intervals (CI) and a random-effects model. We used the GRADE approach to evaluate the overall certainty of the evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: Eighteen trials met the inclusion criteria. Trials were conducted in China, South Africa, Kenya and Zambia, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Primary outcomes Serious adverse events: there were no serious adverse events in either treatment arm (11 trials, 3472 participants). Moderate adverse events: there may be a slight increase in moderate adverse events when devices are used compared to standard surgical techniques (RR 1.31, 95% CI 0.55 to 3.10; I²= 68%; 10 trials, 3370 participants; low-certainty evidence); this corresponds to 8 more (ranging from 15 fewer to 84 more) moderate adverse events per 1000 participants. We downgraded the certainty of the evidence for study limitations and imprecision. Secondary outcomes Mild adverse events: we are uncertain about the difference in mild adverse events between groups when devices are used compared to standard surgical techniques (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.44 to 2.72; I² = 91%; 10 trials, 3370 participants; very low-certainty evidence). We downgraded the certainty of the evidence for study limitations, imprecision and unexplained inconsistency. Operative time: operative time is probably about 17 minutes shorter when using a device rather than standard surgical techniques, which constitutes a clinically meaningful decrease in a procedure (MD -17.26 minutes, 95% CI -19.96 to -14.57; I² = 99%; 14 trials, 4812 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). We downgraded the certainty of the evidence for serious study limitations. The standard surgical technique generally takes about 24 minutes. There may be less postoperative pain during the first 24 hours when circumcision devices are used compared to standard surgical techniques (measured using a visual analog scale [VAS]; MD 1.30 cm lower, 95% CI 2.37 lower to 0.22 lower; I² = 99%; 9 trials, 3022 participants; low-certainty evidence). We downgraded the certainty of the evidence for study limitations and unexplained heterogeneity. There may be little or no difference in postoperative pain experienced during the first seven days when compared with standard surgical techniques (measured using a VAS; MD 0.11 cm higher, 95% CI 0.89 lower to 1.11 higher; I² = 94%; 4 trials, 1430 participants; low-certainty evidence). We downgraded the certainty of the evidence for study limitations and unexplained inconsistency. A higher score on the VAS indicates greater pain. Participants may slightly prefer circumcision devices compared to standard surgical techniques (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.37; I² = 97%; 15 trials, 4501 participants; low-certainty evidence). We downgraded the certainty of the evidence for study limitations and unexplained inconsistency. We recorded satisfaction as a dichotomous outcome. Higher rates reflected greater satisfaction. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found that there were no serious adverse events reported when using a circumcision device compared to standard surgical techniques, but they may slightly increase moderate adverse effects, and it is unclear whether there is a difference in mild adverse effects. Use of circumcision devices probably reduces the time of the procedure by about 17 minutes, a clinically meaningful time saving. For patients, use of the circumcision device may result in lower pain scores during the first 24 hours and patients may be slightly more satisfied with it compared with standard surgical techniques. Clinicians, patients and policymakers can use these results in conjunction with their own contextual factors to inform the approach that best suits their healthcare settings. High-quality trials evaluating this intervention are needed to provide further certainty regarding the rates of adverse effects and postoperative pain of using devices compared to standard approaches.

20.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249080, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to capture the acceptability prior to, during and after the implementation of the first year of MDA rounds conducted under the Magude project, a malaria elimination project in southern Mozambique. METHODS: This was a mixed-methods study, consisting of focus group discussions (FGDs) prior to the implementation of MDA rounds (September 2015), non-participant observations (NPOs) conducted during the MDA rounds (November 2015 -beginning of February 2016), and semi-structured interviews (SSIs) after the second round (end of February 2016). Community leaders, women in reproductive age, general members of the community, traditional healers and health professionals were recruited to capture the opinions of all representing key members of the community. A generic outline of nodes and codes was designed to analyze FGDs and SSI separately. Qualitative and quantitative NPO information was analyzed following a content analysis approach. FINDINGS: 222 participants took part in the FGDs (n = 154), and SSIs (n = 68); and 318 household visits during the MDA underwent NPOs. The community engagement campaign emerged throughout the study stages as a crucial factor for the acceptability of MDAs. Acceptability was also fostered by the community's general will to cooperate in any government-led activity that would reduce malaria burden, the appropriate behavior and knowledge of field workers, or the fact that the intervention was available free of charge to all. Absenteeism of heads of households was identified as the main barrier for the success of the campaign. The most commonly reported factors that negatively affected acceptability were the fear of adverse events, rumors of deaths, being unable to drink alcohol while taking DHAp, or the fear to take DHAp while in anti-retroviral treatment. Pregnancy testing and malaria testing were generally well accepted by the community. CONCLUSION: Magude's community generally accepted the first and second antimalarial MDA rounds, and the procedures associated to the intervention. Future implementation of antimalarial MDAs in southern Mozambique should focus on locally adapted strategies that engage the community to minimize absenteeism and refusals to the intervention.

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