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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 212-217, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The growing need to classify the origin of honey in a simple way is leading to the development of affordable analytical equipment that is in-line and manageable, enabling rapid on-site screening. The aim of this work was therefore to evaluate whether an electronic tongue (made of four metallic electrodes: Ir, Rh, Pt, Au), based on potential multistep pulse voltammetry with electrochemical polishing, is able to differentiate between honey samples from Spain, Honduras, and Mozambique. RESULTS: It was demonstrated, for the first time, that automatic pulse voltammetry, in combination with principal component analysis (PCA) statistical analysis, was able to differentiate honey samples from these three countries. A partial least squares (PLS) analysis predicted the level of certain physicochemical parameters, the best results being for conductivity and moisture with correlation coefficients of 0.948 and 0.879, whereas the weakest correlation was for the sugars. CONCLUSION: The tool proposed in this study could be applied to identify the country origin of the three types of multifloral honey considered here. It also offers promising perspectives for expanding knowledge of the provenance of honey. All of this could be achieved when a comprehensive database with the information generated by this electronic tongue has been created. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

2.
J Theor Biol ; 484: 110030, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568789

RESUMO

We introduce an agent-based model describing a susceptible-infectious-susceptible (SIS) system of humans and mosquitoes to predict malaria epidemiological scenarios in realistic biological conditions. Emphasis is given to the transition from endemic behavior to eradication of malaria transmission induced by combined drug therapies acting on both the gametocytemia reduction and on the selective mosquito mortality during parasite development in the mosquito. Our mathematical framework enables to uncover the critical values of the parameters characterizing the effect of each drug therapy. Moreover, our results provide quantitative evidence of what was up to now only partially assumed with empirical support: interventions combining gametocytemia reduction through the use of gametocidal drugs, with the selective action of ivermectin during parasite development in the mosquito, may actively promote disease eradication in the long run. In the agent model, the main properties of human-mosquito interactions are implemented as parameters and the model is validated by comparing simulations with real data of malaria incidence collected in the endemic malaria region of Chimoio in Mozambique. Finally, we discuss our findings in light of current drug administration strategies for malaria prevention, which may interfere with human-to-mosquito transmission process.

3.
Zootaxa ; 4638(2): zootaxa.4638.2.9, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712481

RESUMO

The genus Cestradoretus Ohaus, 1912 was erected by Ohaus (1912) to accommodate a Madagascan Adoretini species, C. tenuirostris Ohaus, 1912. This genus is characterized by the adults having the apex of the labrum with a long, fine, acute process curved downwards. In the addition to the above mentioned paper, Ohaus (1912) also described C. acomys Ohaus, 1912 from Tanzania, and later moved Adoretus tarsatus Klug, 1855, described from Mozambique, to Cestradoretus (Ohaus 1916).  Later, Machatschke (1965) described two species from Africa, C. freyi Machatschke, 1965 from Botswana and C. minusculus Machatschke, 1965 from Somalia, and Frey (1976) described C. clypealis Frey, 1976 from Somalia. Thus, Cestradoretus included six species, one from Madagascar and five from Africa.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Botsuana , Madagáscar , Moçambique , Somália , Tanzânia
4.
Zootaxa ; 4629(2): zootaxa.4629.2.11, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712528

RESUMO

A new monotypic genus of aorid amphipod Propejanice gen. nov. is described and figured from material collected in Brazil. The single species, P. lagamarensis sp. nov. was collected from artificial plates suspended in the sea in Paraná and Sao Paulo States, Brazil. The new genus appears to be morphologically closest to the genus Janice Griffiths, 1973 from Moçambique, from which it differs in the carpochelate male gnathopod 1. Both genera are phylogenetically close to the genus Grandidierella Coutière, 1904.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Animais , Brasil , Masculino
5.
Zootaxa ; 4682(1): zootaxa.4682.1.1, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715941

RESUMO

A list of 60 species of the Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera) recorded from Gorongosa National Park and provinces Sofala and Manica in central Mozambique is provided and their natural history is discussed. Of these, 58 species are illustrated and bioacoustic data are presented for 47 species. Two new genera and 9 new species are described: Gorongosa carri gen. et sp. n., Ovonotus abreuae gen. et sp. n., Afroagraecia muagurai sp. n., Enyaliopsis iaculator sp. n., Eurycorypha parkeri sp. n., Eurycorypha stalmansi sp. n., Eulioptera carolli sp. n., Eulioptera mutembai sp. n., and Parpyrrhicia guytonae sp. n. Four species of Ruspolia are recognized as potentially new and their bioacoustic data are presented. Pseudorhynchus pungens meridionalis Ragge, 1969 is synonymized with Pseudorhynchus pungens pungens (Schaum, 1853); Angustithorax spiniger Massa, 2015 is synonymized with Oxyecous magnus Ragge, 1956; and the synonymy of Lanista africana (Walker, 1870) with Lanista annulicornis (Walker, 1869) is reversed. Two species, G. carri and O. abreuae, appear to be endemic to Mt. Gorongosa and 24 species are recorded for the first time from Mozambique.


Assuntos
Formigas , Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Moçambique , Parques Recreativos
6.
Zootaxa ; 4668(3): zootaxa.4668.3.7, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716621

RESUMO

The present paper contains descriptions of four new species of the genus Tumicla Wallengren, 1863: T. elephantina sp. nov. (South Mozambique), T. mbeghai sp. nov. (NE Tanzania), T. admiranda sp. nov. (SE Democratic Republic of the Congo) and T. smithi sp. nov. (Central Zambia). The male paratype specimen of T. doa Kühne 2007 is proved to be not conspecific with the holotype female but belongs to an undescribed species described here as T. mbeghai sp. nov. rendering Tumicla doa to be known by the female holotype only. Adults, male and female genitalia of the new and related species are illustrated.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Masculino , Moçambique , Tanzânia , Zâmbia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4571(2): zootaxa.4571.2.3, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715816

RESUMO

Present paper contains the first comprehensive summary of the Nolini species of the Maputo Special Reserve collected between November 2016 and February 2018. The Nolini fauna counts 21 species in total, 17 species are proved to be new for the fauna of Mozambique, two species are new to science and described here as Mecothrix maputuana sp. n. and Meganola shangaana sp. n. The subgenus Mecothrix Hacker, 2012 is upgraded to genus rank. Mecothrix cana Hacker, 2012 and Nola submelanoscelis Hacker, 2012 are downgraded to subspecies rank (Mecothrix aegyptiaca cana Hacker, 2012 stat. n., Nola biangulata submelanoscelis Hacker, 2012 stat. n.). Meganola meridianissima Hacker, 2012 syn. n. and Meganola kakamega Hacker, 2012 syn. n. are synonymized with Meganola bispermutata Hacker, 2012, in addition Nolidia nanoxantha Hacker, 2012 syn. n. and Nolidia polionana Hacker, 2012 syn. n. are synonymised with Nolidia elachistomorpha Hacker, 2012. Nolidia elachistomorpha is transferred to the genus Hampsonola László, Ronkay Ronkay, 2015 (Hampsonola elachistomorpha (Hacker, 2012) comb. n.). With 43 colour and 40 black and white figures.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Cor , Quênia , Moçambique
8.
Zootaxa ; 4671(3): zootaxa.4671.3.2, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716041

RESUMO

The formerly monotypic taxon, Hyalopale bispinosa Perkins 1985 (Chrysopetalinae), is comprised of a cryptic species complex from predominantly tropical embayments and island reefs of the Western Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans. Hyalopale species are of meiofaunal size (length: 1-2.8mm), but considered non-interstitial, with the majority of species inhabiting a singular habitat of shallow littoral zones among algae and epifauna overlying sediments in rubble. Hyalopale adults exhibit notochaetal fans characterized by the presence of lateral and midline notochaetal spines. Species of Hyalopale can be distinguished by the shape of glass-like notochaetal paleae and the number of densely stacked ribs. Hyalopale bispinosa forms a western and eastern Atlantic species complex, comprising the type species, Hyalopale bispinosa s.s., a comparatively larger form with the highest number of notochaetal paleael ribs from Florida, and Hyalopale cf. bispinosa, from the western and eastern Mediterranean, a smaller form with a similar notochaetal morphology to the latter. Unfortunately, no molecular sequence data is available for Hyalopale bispinosa s.s. Five new species are described, with molecular sequence data provided for three: Hyalopale leslieae sp. nov., a small form with a comparatively low number of paleal ribs, found from the Florida Keys to Belize, Caribbean Sea, H. zerofskii sp. nov. from southern California and Mexico, eastern Pacific and H. sapphiriglancyorum sp. nov., a distinctive species with the lowest number of paleael ribs, from Raja Ampat, Indonesia and the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, western Pacific. Two other species are described from morphology alone: H. angeliensis sp. nov. from Dampier, Western Australia and Seychelle Islands, eastern Indian Ocean and H. furfuricula sp. nov. from the Red Sea and Mozambique, western Indian Ocean, possessing a unique paleal brow shape. While well supported as a clade, support for relationships within Hyalopale is low. Hyalopale cf. bispinosa (Mediterranean) was recovered as sister group to the remaining Hyalopale, with H. leslieae sp. nov. as sister to the Hyalopale Pacific clade, comprising H. zerofskii sp. nov. (eastern Pacific) and H. sapphiriglancyorum sp. nov. (western Pacific). Within Chrysopetalinae, Hyalopale and Paleanotus formed a clade that was the sister group to the other paleate chrysopetalids under maximum likelihood, though Paleanotus grouped with the other paleate forms under maximum parsimony. The adult morphology of Hyalopale species is compared with that exhibited in the larvae of Paleanotus species; based on these results, including possession of a shared notochaetal character, Hyalopale is considered to contain paedomorphic taxa.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Animais , Região do Caribe , Oceano Índico , Ilhas , Oceano Pacífico , Filogenia
9.
Zootaxa ; 4646(3): zootaxa.4646.3.6, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717005

RESUMO

A new species of tree snake Dipsadoboa montisilva Branch, Conradie Tolley sp. nov. (Serpentes: Colubridae) is described from the 'sky islands' of Mount Mabu and Mount Ribáuè in northern Mozambique. Features of scalation, colour, body form and habitat distinguish the new species from other Dipsadoboa. This is supported by a phylogenetic analysis using one mitochondrial marker (cytochrome b) that shows the new Mozambican species is divergent from other sampled Dipsadoboa, including D. flavida and D. aulica, the only congeners known to occur in Mozambique. Morphologically, the new Dipsadoboa forms part of the D. werneri-shrevei complex from east and southeast Africa, but differs in having higher subcaudal counts, a different temporal pattern and only two supralabials entering the orbit. Phylogenetically, it occurs in a clade with D. shrevei and D. werneri. The status of D. shrevei in East Africa is reassessed, particularly in terms of the poorly-known Dipsadoboa shrevei kageleri from northern Tanzania. It is morphologically well defined from D. shrevei shrevei and utilises a different habitat. Although based on limited genetic data, it appears to be well-defined from typical D. shrevei and is accordingly raised to specific status. The only Tanzanian record for typical D. shrevei from Mtene, Rondo Plateau in southeast Tanzania is well isolated from the species' range to the west (e.g. Zambia, Angola) and the published scalation features, particularly ventral counts, do not fully accord with D. shrevei. The Rondo Plateau population is treated as Dipsadoboa incerta sedis, and because we return D. shrevei to its binomial status, we can no longer consider D. shrevei as occurring in Tanzania. Biogeographically, the Rondo Plateau population may have a stronger affinity to the new Mozambican species. The discovery of isolated populations of the new species in mid-altitude forest remnants on Mt Mabu and Mt Ribáuè emphasizes the high conservation importance of the Mozambique forest 'sky islands' from which numerous other endemic new species have been recently discovered. These species are impacted by ongoing habitat destruction through slash and burn clearing for subsistence agriculture.


Assuntos
Colubridae , Angola , Animais , Florestas , Ilhas , Moçambique , Filogenia , Tanzânia , Zâmbia
10.
Zootaxa ; 4691(3): zootaxa.4691.3.3, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719391

RESUMO

A new species of the genus Leucoraja is described from off Kenya in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). The new species was collected during a survey of the R/V Fridtiof Nansen. Leucoraja elaineae sp. n. is the third species in the genus found to occur in the WIO, and the only species in the genus Leucoraja known exclusively from this region. Its closest geographic congener L. wallacei, occurring from Namibia to southern Mozambique, can be separated by a combination of morphological and meristic characters including an elongated, pronounced snout (L. elaineae sp. n.) vs a short, blunt snout (L. wallacei), higher predorsal vertebral (107 vs 64-74) and pectoral fin radial counts (77 vs 61-64), a dorsal surface pattern consisting of a single ocelli at the midbase of each pectoral fin, paired small white spots, and no banding or crossbars on its tail vs numerous rosettes and whorls, no prominent ocelli at the pectoral fin bases, and 3-4 tail bands. The only other WIO Leucoraja species in the genus, L. compagnoi is known only from South Africa and has a short, blunt snout, a lower upper tooth count (38 vs 57 in L. elaineae sp. n.), a plain dorsal disc color with no markings and distinct bands on its tail. All other members of the genus occur in the North Atlantic, except one species that occurs in the eastern Central Atlantic and one in the eastern Indian Ocean.


Assuntos
Raias , Animais , Oceano Índico
11.
Malar J ; 18(1): 360, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Mozambique. Increased investments in malaria control have reduced the burden, but few studies have estimated the costs of malaria in the country. This paper estimates the economic costs associated with malaria care to households and to the health system in the high burden district of Mopeia in central Mozambique. METHODS: Malaria care-seeking and morbidity costs were routinely collected among 1373 households with at least one child enrolled in an active case detection (ACD) cohort in Mopeia, and through cross-sectional surveys with 824 families in 2017 and 805 families in 2018. Household costs included direct medical expenses, transportation and opportunity costs of the time lost due to illness. Structured questionnaires were used to estimate the health system costs associated with malaria care in all 13 district health facilities. Cost estimations followed an ingredient-based approach with a top-down allocation approach for health system expenses. RESULTS: Among participants in cross-sectional studies, households sought care for nine severe malaria cases requiring hospital admission and for 679 uncomplicated malaria cases. Median household costs associated with uncomplicated malaria among individuals of all ages were US$ 3.46 (IQR US$ 0.07-22.41) and US$ 81.08 (IQR US$ 39.34-88.38) per severe case. Median household costs were lower among children under five (ACD cohort): US$ 1.63 (IQR US$ 0.00-7.79) per uncomplicated case and US$ 64.90 (IQR US$ 49.76-80.96) per severe case. Opportunity costs were the main source of household costs. Median health system costs associated with malaria among patients of all ages were US$ 4.34 (IQR US$ 4.32-4.35) per uncomplicated case and US$ 26.56 (IQR US$ 18.03-44.09) per severe case. Considering household and health system costs, the overall cost of malaria care to society was US$ 7.80 per uncomplicated case and US$ 107.64 per severe case, representing an economic malaria burden of US$ 332,286.24 (IQR US$ 186,355.84-1,091,212.90) per year only in Mopeia. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the provision of free malaria services, households in Mopeia incur significant direct and indirect costs associated with the disease. Furthermore, the high malaria cost on the Mozambican health system underscores the need to strengthen malaria prevention to reduce the high burden and improve productivity in the region.

12.
Lancet Glob Health ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea, a global cause of child mortality and morbidity, is linked to adverse consequences including childhood stunting and death from other diseases. Few studies explore how diarrhoeal mortality varies subnationally, especially by cause, which is important for targeting investments. Even fewer examine indirect effects of diarrhoeal morbidity on child mortality. We estimated the subnational distribution of mortality, morbidity, and childhood stunting attributable to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and shigella infection in children younger than 5 years from 11 eastern and central African countries. These pathogens are leading causes of diarrhoea in young children and have been linked to increased childhood stunting. METHODS: We combined proxy indicators of morbidity and mortality risk from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys with published relative risks to estimate the potential distribution of diarrhoeal disease risk. To estimate subnational burden, we used country-specific or WHO region-specific morbidity and mortality estimates and distributed them subnationally by three indices that integrate relevant individual characteristics (ie, underweight, probability of receiving oral rehydration treatment of diarrhoea, and receiving vitamin A supplementation) and household characteristics (ie, type of drinking water and sanitation facilities). FINDINGS: Characterising ETEC and shigella subnational estimates of indirect morbidity (infection-attributable stunting) and indirect mortality (stunting-related deaths from other infectious diseases) identified high-risk areas that could be missed by traditional metrics. Burundi and Democratic Republic of the Congo had the highest ETEC-associated and shigella-associated mortality and stunting rates. Mozambique, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Zimbabwe had the greatest subnational heterogeneity in most ETEC and shigella mortality measures. Inclusion of indirect ETEC and shigella mortality in burden estimates resulted in a 20-30% increase in total ETEC and shigella mortality rates in some subnational areas. INTERPRETATION: Understanding the indirect mortality and morbidity of diarrhoeal pathogens on a subnational level will strengthen disease control strategies and could have important implications for the relative impact and cost-effectiveness of new enteric vaccines. Because our methods rely on publicly available data, they could be employed for national planning. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

13.
J Infect Dis ; 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Innovative approaches are needed to limit antimalarial resistance evolution. Understanding the role of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) on the selection for resistance and the impact such selection has on pregnancy outcomes can guide future interventions. METHODS: Plasmodium falciparum isolates (n = 914) from 2 randomized clinical trials were screened for pfmdr1 copy number variation and pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhfr, and pfdhps resistance markers. The trials were conducted between 2010 and 2013 in Benin, Gabon, Kenya, and Mozambique to establish the efficacy of IPTp-mefloquine (MQ) compared with IPTp-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected and to IPTp-placebo in HIV-infected women. RESULTS: In HIV-uninfected women, the prevalence of pfcrt mutants, pfdhfr/pfdhps quintuple mutants, and pfmdr1 copy number was similar between women receiving IPT-SP and IPTp-MQ. However, prevalence of pfmdr1 polymorphism 86Y was lower in the IPTp-MQ group than in the IPTp-SP group, and within the IPTp-MQ group it was lower at delivery compared with recruitment. No effect of IPTp-MQ on resistance markers was observed among HIV-infected women. The carriage of resistance markers was not associated with pregnancy outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Selection of wild-type pfmdr1 polymorphism N86 by IPTp-MQ highlights the strong selective pressure IPTp can exert and the opportunity for using negative cross-resistance in drug choice for clinical treatment and IPTp.

14.
Ambio ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709492

RESUMO

Malaria is a serious global health issue, with around 200 million cases per year. As such, great effort has been put into the mass distribution of bed nets as a means of prophylaxis within Africa. Distributed mosquito nets are intended to be used for malaria protection, yet increasing evidence suggests that fishing is a primary use for these nets, providing fresh concerns for already stressed coastal ecosystems. While research documents the scale of mosquito net fisheries globally, no quantitative analysis of their landings exists. The effects of these fisheries on the wider ecosystem assemblages have not previously been examined. In this study, we present the first detailed analysis of the sustainability of these fisheries by examining the diversity, age class, trophic structure and magnitude of biomass removal. Dragnet landings, one of two gear types in which mosquito nets can be utilised, were recorded across ten sites in northern Mozambique where the use of Mosquito nets for fishing is common. Our results indicate a substantial removal of juveniles from coastal seagrass meadows, many of which are commercially important in the region or play important ecological roles. We conclude that the use of mosquito nets for fishing may contribute to food insecurity, greater poverty and the loss of ecosystem functioning.

15.
Br J Nutr ; 122(10): 1175-1181, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709969

RESUMO

The Reaching End Users (REU) project introduced orange sweet potatoes (OSP) to farmers in northern Mozambique between 2006 and 2009, and the associated cluster randomised control trial found increased vitamin A intake among targeted children and women of child-bearing age and reduced prevalence of inadequate vitamin A intake. Yet little is known about whether successful agricultural-nutrition interventions have lasting effects. This study measures the lasting effects of the REU project, 3 years after the project ended, on vitamin A intake. To do so, dietary intake data were collected in the same thirty-six villages as the original study, focusing on both women of child-bearing age and children under 6 years old, the latter including both children who had been measured before and younger children (under 3 years old) in the same farmer groups. The dietary intake is then converted to micronutrient intake to compare treated households with control households. Vitamin A intake remains higher in treated villages than in control villages among both children under 3 years old, who had not been born when the original intervention ended, and mothers of child-bearing age. Differences in vitamin A intake can wholly be attributed to differences in OSP intake. Therefore, the REU project appears to have had lasting impacts on vitamin A intake beyond the intervention period. Had the vine retention component been enhanced, lasting impacts could have been even larger.

16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701868

RESUMO

Like most malaria-endemic countries, Mozambique relies on tabulation of confirmed malaria test-positive febrile patients to track incidence of malaria. However, this approach is potentially biased by incidental malaria parasitemia in patients with fever of another etiology. We compared pan-Plasmodium aldolase and lactate dehydrogenase and Plasmodium falciparum HRP2 antigen concentrations measured using a laboratory bead-based assay of samples collected from 1,712 febrile and afebrile patients of all ages in Maputo, Zambézia, and Cabo Delgado provinces. We used a Bayesian latent class model to estimate the proportion of malaria-attributable fevers in malaria test-positive febrile patients. Depending on the antigen, estimated rates of malaria-attributable fever in malaria test-positive febrile patients were 100% in Maputo, 33-58% in Zambézia, and 63-74% in Cabo Delgado. Our findings indicate that most malaria test-positive febrile patients in the three provinces of Mozambique had a fever that was likely caused by the concurrent malaria infection. Counting malaria test-positive febrile patients for estimation of malaria incidence appears to be appropriate in this setting.

17.
Trop Med Int Health ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667997

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) Option B+ programme in two provinces with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden in Mozambique over the first four years of programme implementation. METHODS: We assessed the PMTCT cascade in antenatal care (ANC) from July 2013 to December 2017 using facility-level data and performed a retrospective cohort analysis with patient-level data. We compared the 12-month antiretroviral therapy (ART) retention rates between women with HIV infection who initiated ART under Option B+ ('B+ pregnant') and those who initiated ART for their own health ('own health'). RESULTS: A total of 916 280 pregnant women enrolled in ANC. The proportion of women with a documented HIV status increased from 93% in 2013 to 96% in 2017. The proportion of those tested HIV-positive decreased from 8% to 6% while that of those HIV-positive on ART increased from 42% to 95%. Of the 44 377 HIV-positive women included in the analysis, 35% were lost to care. 'B+ pregnant' women initiating ART in 2015 were less likely to have no follow-up (NFU) compared with 'own health' women starting ART during the same period (adjusted odds ratio: 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64-0.94, P = 0.01). There was no statistical difference between the two groups during the other years in which ART was initiated. Of those returning for care after their first visit (N = 39 801), the 'B+ pregnant' women showed a higher risk of non-retention than the other group (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03-1.25) when ART was initiated in 2013. The risk decreased during the subsequent years, with no difference observed between the groups. CONCLUSION: PMTCT Option B+ programme scale-up has yielded positive results, including the maintenance of high HIV testing and ART initiation rates in ANC. Challenges still remain, however, in improving immediate engagement in care and long-term retention. Seeking alternative service delivery models to support existing health systems and prevent defaulters is required to achieve the UNAIDS 95-95-95 targets for PMTCT in Mozambique.

18.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 86(1): e1-e8, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714137

RESUMO

The effective control of tsetse flies (Diptera; Glossinidae), the biological vectors of trypanosome parasites that cause human African trypanosomosis and African animal trypanosomosis throughout sub-Saharan Africa, is crucial for the development of productive livestock systems. The degree of genetic isolation of the targeted populations, which indicate reinvasion potential from uncontrolled areas, will be critical to establish a control strategy. Molecular and morphometrics markers were used to assess the degree of genetic isolation between seemingly fragmented populations of Glossina brevipalpis Newstead and Glossina austeni Newstead present in South Africa. These populations were also compared with flies from adjacent areas in Mozambique and Eswatini. For the molecular markers, deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted, a r16S2 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed and the PCR product sequenced. Nine landmarks were used for the morphometrics study as defined by vein intersections in the right wings of female flies. Generalised Procrustes analyses and regression on centroid size were used to determine the Cartesian coordinates for comparison between populations. Both methods indicated an absence of significant barriers to gene flow between the G. brevipalpis and G. austeni populations of South Africa and southern Mozambique. Sustainable control can only be achieved if implemented following an area-wide management approach against the entire G. brevipalpis and G. austeni populations of South Africa and southern Mozambique. Limited gene flow detected between the G. austeni population from Eswatini and that of South Africa or Mozambique may imply that these two populations are in the proses of becoming isolated.

19.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 86(1): e1-e5, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714141

RESUMO

Eight ixodid tick species were collected from 173 African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Kenya, northern Mozambique and Zimbabwe, and two species were collected from six African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) in the Republic of Congo. A new host record is reported for Amblyomma eburneum. A list of ticks collected from elephants in various African countries, and stored in the United States National Tick Collection, is supplied as well as an annotated checklist of the 27 ixodid tick species that have been collected from African elephants. The geographic distributions and alternative hosts of the various tick species collected from elephants are briefly discussed.

20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16544, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719563

RESUMO

The end of the Late Palaeozoic Ice Age (LPIA) ushered in a period of significant change in Earth's carbon cycle, demonstrated by the widespread occurrence of coals worldwide. In this study, we present stratigraphically constrained organic stable carbon isotope (δ13Corg) data for Early Permian coals (312 vitrain samples) from the Moatize Basin, Mozambique, which record the transition from global icehouse to greenhouse conditions. These coals exhibit a three-stage evolution in atmospheric δ13C from the Artinskian to the Kungurian. Early Kungurian coals effectively record the presence of the short-lived Kungurian Carbon Isotopic Excursion (KCIE), associated with the proposed rapid release of methane clathrates during deglaciation at the terminus of the Late Palaeozoic Ice Age (LPIA), with no observed disruption to peat-forming and terrestrial plant communities. δ13Corg variations in coals from the Moatize Basin are cyclic in nature on the order of 103-105 years and reflect changes in δ13Corg of ~±1‰ during periods of stable peat accumulation, supporting observations from Palaeozoic coals elsewhere. These cyclic variations express palaeoenvironmental factors constraining peat growth and deposition, associated with changes in base level. This study also demonstrates the effectiveness of vitrain in coal as a geochemical tool for recording global atmospheric change during the Late Palaeozoic.

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