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1.
Malar J ; 20(1): 8, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is frequently said that funding is essential to ensure optimal results from a malaria intervention control. However, in recent years, the capacity of the government of Mozambique to sustain the operational cost of indoor residual spraying (IRS) is facing numerous challenges due to restrictions of the Official Development Assistance. The purpose of the study was to estimate the cost of IRS operationalization in two districts of Maputo Province (Matutuíne and Namaacha) in Mozambique. The evidence produced in this study intends to provide decision-makers with insight into where they need to pay close attention in future planning in order to operationalize IRS with the existent budget in the actual context of budget restrictions. METHODS: Cost information was collected retrospectively from the provider perspective, and both economic and financial costs were calculated. A "one-way" deterministic sensitivity analysis was performed. RESULTS: The average economic costs totaled US$117,351.34, with an average economic cost per household sprayed of US$16.35, and an average economic cost per person protected of US$4.09. The average financial cost totaled US$69,174.83, with an average financial cost per household sprayed and per person protected of US$9.84 and US$2.46, respectively. Vehicle, salary, and insecticide costs were the greatest contributors to overall cost in the economic and financial analysis, corresponding to 52%, 17%, and 13% in the economic analysis and 21%, 27%, and 22% in the financial analysis, respectively. The sensitivity analysis was adapted to a range of ± (above and under) 25% change. There was an approximate change of 14% in the average economic cost when vehicle costs were decreased by 25%. In the financial analysis, the average financial cost was lowered by 7% when salary costs were decreased by 25%. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, the current cost analysis provides an impetus for the consideration of targeted IRS operationalization within the available governmental budget, by using locally-available human resources as spray operators to decrease costs and having IRS rounds be correctly timed to coincide with the build-up of vector populations.

2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 16, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacterales in Sub-Saharan Africa is still restricted, and in particular in Mozambique. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) - and plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC)-producing clinical strains of Escherichia coli at Maputo Central Hospital (MCH), a 1000-bed reference hospital in Maputo, Mozambique. METHODS: A total of 230 clinical isolates of E. coli from urine (n = 199) and blood cultures (n = 31) were collected at MCH during August-November 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disc diffusion method and interpreted according to EUCAST guidelines. Isolates with reduced susceptibility to 3rd generation cephalosporins were examined further; phenotypically for an ESBL-/AmpC-phenotype by combined disc methods and genetically for ESBL- and pAmpC-encoding genes by PCR and partial amplicon sequencing as well as genetic relatedness by ERIC-PCR. RESULTS: A total of 75 isolates with reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime and/or ceftazidime (n = 75) from urine (n = 58/199; 29%) and blood (n = 17/31; 55%) were detected. All 75 isolates were phenotypically ESBL-positive and 25/75 (33%) of those also expressed an AmpC-phenotype. ESBL-PCR and amplicon sequencing revealed a majority of blaCTX-M (n = 58/75; 77%) dominated by blaCTX-M-15. All AmpC-phenotype positive isolates (n = 25/75; 33%) scored positive for one or more pAmpC-genes dominated by blaMOX/FOX. Multidrug resistance (resistance ≥ three antibiotic classes) was observed in all the 75 ESBL-positive isolates dominated by resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. ERIC-PCR revealed genetic diversity among strains with minor clusters indicating intra-hospital spread. CONCLUSION: We have observed a high prevalence of MDR pAmpC- and/or ESBL-producing clinical E. coli isolates with FOX/MOX and CTX-Ms as the major ß-lactamase types, respectively. ERIC-PCR analyses revealed genetic diversity and some clusters indicating within-hospital spread. The overall findings strongly support the urgent need for accurate and rapid diagnostic services to guide antibiotic treatment and improved infection control measures.

3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 18, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mozambique has a high burden of group A rotavirus (RVA) infection and chronic undernutrition. This study aimed to determine the frequency and potential risk factors for RVA infection in undernourished children under 5 years old with diarrhoea in Mozambique. METHODS: The analysis was conducted using data from March 2015 to December 2017, regarding children under 5 years old with at least one type of undernutrition. Anthropometric measures were used to calculate indices of weight-for-age, weight-for-height and height-for-age through the Z-Scores. RVA results were extracted from the National Diarrhoea Surveillance database. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test was used for qualitative variables and organized in contingency tables and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were considered for the calculation of RVA infection proportion and in the multiple logistic regression models to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (AOR). RESULTS: Of the 842 undernourished children included in the analysis, 27.2% (95% CI: 24.3-30.3%) were positive for RVA. The rate of RVA infection was 42.7% (95% CI: 38.0-47.5%) in the pre-vaccine period, with great reduction to 12.2% (95% CI: 9.4-15.6%) in the post-vaccine period. Most of the RVA undernourished children had severe wasting (33.3%) and severe stunting (32.0%). The risk of infection was significantly high in children from 0 to 11 months (p-value < 0.001) when compared to the age group of 24-59 months. A higher proportion of RVA infection was detected in households with five or more members (p-value = 0.029). Similar proportions of RVA were observed in children fed only by breast milk (34.9%) and breast milk with formula (35.6%). A higher proportion of undernourished HIV-positive children co-infected with RVA (7.4%) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of RVA infection in undernourished children declined following the introduction of the vaccine in Mozambique. Beyond the temporal variation, Maputo province, age and crowded households were also associated to RVA infection. A high proportion of RVA infection was observed in children with severe wasting and a triple burden of disease: undernutrition, RVA and HIV, highlighting the need to conduct follow-up studies to understand the long-term impact of these conditions on children's development.

4.
Hum Resour Health ; 19(1): 4, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407597

RESUMO

Poor health worker motivation, and the resultant shortages and geographic imbalances of providers, impedes the provision of quality care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This systematic review summarizes the evidence on interventions used to motivate health workers in LMICs. A standardized keyword search strategy was employed across five databases from September 2007 -September 2017. Studies had to meet the following criteria: original study; doctors and/or nurses as target population for intervention(s); work motivation as study outcome; study design with clearly defined comparison group; categorized as either a supervision, compensation, systems support, or lifelong learning intervention; and conducted in a LMIC setting. Two independent reviewers screened 3845 titles and abstracts and, subsequently, reviewed 269 full articles. Seven studies were retained from China (n = 1), Ghana (n = 2), Iran (n = 1), Mozambique (n = 1), and Zambia (n = 2). Study data and risk of bias were extracted using a standardized form. Though work motivation was the primary study outcome, four studies did not provide an outcome definition and five studies did not describe use of a theoretical framework in the ascertainment. Four studies used a randomized trial-group design, one used a non-randomized trial-group design, one used a cross-sectional design, and one used a pretest-posttest design. All three studies that found a significant positive effect on motivational outcomes had a supervision component. Of the three studies that found no effects on motivation, two were primarily compensation interventions and the third was a systems support intervention. One study found a significant negative effect of a compensation intervention on health worker motivation. In conducting this systematic review, we found there is limited evidence on successful interventions to motivate health workers in LMICs. True effects on select categories of health workers may have been obscured given that studies included health workers with a wide range of social and professional characteristics. Robust studies that use validated and culturally appropriate tools to assess worker motivation are greatly needed in the Sustainable Development Goals era.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 91, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413261

RESUMO

High quality, representative data from HIV surveillance systems that have country ownership and commitment are critical for guiding national HIV responses, especially among key and priority populations given their disproportionate role in the transmission of the virus. Between 2011 to 2013, the Mozambique Ministry of Health has conducted five Biobehavioral Surveillance Surveys among key populations (female sex workers, men who has sex with men and people who inject drugs) and priority populations (long distance truck drives and miners) as part of the national HIV surveillance system. We describe the experience of strengthening the HIV surveillance system among those populations through the implementation of these surveys in Mozambique. We document the lessons learned through the impact on coordination and collaboration; workforce development and institutional capacity building; data use and dissemination; advocacy and policy impact; financial sustainability and community impact. Key lessons learned include the importance of multisectoral collaboration, vital role of data to support key populations visibility and advocacy efforts, and institutional capacity building of government agencies and key populations organizations. Given that traditional surveillance methodologies from routine data often do not capture these hidden populations, it will be important to ensure that Biobehavioral Surveillance Surveys are an integral part of ongoing HIV surveillance activities in Mozambique.

6.
Malar J ; 20(1): 26, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical durability of long-lasting-insecticidal nets (LLIN) is an important aspect of the effectiveness of LLIN as a malaria prevention tool, but there is limited data on performance across locations and products. This secondary analysis of data from the VectorWorks project from 10 sites in four African countries involving six LLIN brands provides such data. METHODS: A total of 4672 campaign nets from 1976 households were recruited into prospective cohort studies 2-6 months after distribution through campaigns and followed for 3 years in Mozambique, Nigeria, DRC and Zanzibar, Tanzania. LLIN products included two 100 denier polyester LLIN (DawaPlus® 2.0, PermaNet® 2.0) distributed in five sites and four 150 denier polyethylene LLIN (Royal Sentry®, MAGNet®, DuraNet©, Olyset™ Net) distributed in five sites. Primary outcome was LLIN survival in serviceable condition and median survival in years. Net use environment and net care variables were collected during four household surveys. Determinants of physical durability were explored by survival analysis and Cox regression models with risk of failure starting with the first hanging of the net. RESULTS: Definite outcomes for physical durability were obtained for 75% of study nets. After 31 to 37 months survival in serviceable condition varied between sites by 63 percentage-points, from 17 to 80%. Median survival varied by 3.7 years, from 1.6 to 5.3 years. Similar magnitude of variation was seen for polyethylene and polyester LLIN and for the same brand. Cox regression showed increasing net care attitude in combination with exposure to net related messages to be the strongest explanatory variable of survival. However, differences between countries also remained significant. In contrast, no difference was seen for LLIN material types. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in net use environment and net care is the main reason for differences in the physical durability of LLIN products in different locations. While some of these factors have been identified to work across countries, other factors remain poorly defined and further investigation is needed in this area. Grouping LLIN brands by similar textile characteristics, such as material or yarn strength, is insufficient to distinguish LLIN product performance suggesting a more differentiated, composite metric is needed.

7.
PLoS Med ; 18(1): e1003482, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a WHO-recommended HIV prevention method for people at high risk for acquiring HIV, is being increasingly implemented in many countries. Setting programmatic targets, particularly in generalised epidemics, could incorporate estimates of the size of the population likely to be eligible for PrEP using incidence-based thresholds. We estimated the proportion of men and women who would be eligible for PrEP and the number of HIV infections that could be averted in Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia using prioritisation based on age, sex, geography, and markers of risk. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed the latest nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia to determine the proportion of adults who report behavioural markers of risk for HIV infection. We used prevalence ratios (PRs) to quantify the association of these factors with HIV status. Using a multiplier method, we combined these proportions with the number of new HIV infections by district, derived from district-level modelled HIV estimates. Based on these numbers, different scenarios were analysed for the minimum number of person-years on PrEP needed to prevent 1 HIV infection (NNP). An estimated total of 38,000, 108,000, and 46,000 new infections occurred in Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia in 2016, corresponding with incidence rates of 0.43, 0.63, and 0.57 per 100 person-years. In these countries, 9%-20% of new infections occurred among people with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the past 12 months and 40%-42% among people with either an STI or a non-regular sexual partner (NP) in the past 12 months (STINP). The models estimate that around 50% of new infections occurred in districts with incidence rates ≥1.0% in Mozambique and Zambia and ≥0.5% in Malawi. In Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia, 35.1%, 21.9%, and 12.5% of the population live in these high-incidence districts. In the most parsimonious scenario, if women aged 15-34 years and men 20-34 years with an STI in the past 12 months living in high-incidence districts were to take PrEP, it would take a minimum of 65.8 person-years on PrEP to avert 1 HIV infection per year in Malawi, 35.2 in Mozambique, and 16.4 in Zambia. Our findings suggest that 3,300, 5,200, and 1,700 new infections could be averted per year in the 3 countries, respectively. Limitations of our study are that these values are based on modelled estimates of HIV incidence and self-reported behavioural risk factors from national surveys. CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of new HIV infections in these 3 African countries were estimated to occur among people who had either an STI or an NP in the past year, providing a straightforward means to set PrEP targets. Greater prioritisation of PrEP by district, sex, age, and behavioural risk factors resulted in lower NNPs thereby increasing PrEP cost-effectiveness, but also diminished the overall impact on reducing new infections.

8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 117, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438116

RESUMO

In the present work, the population diversity and structure of three populations of native Mozambican cattle were studied, to develop knowledge that is required for sound conservation and genetic improvement programs of these genetic resources. A total of 228 animals (Landim, Angone, and Tete) were genotyped using the International Dairy and Beef version three (IDBV3) SNP BeadChip array. Population parameters varied within a limited scope, with the average minor allele frequency (MAF) ranging from 0.228 ± 0.154 in the Angone to 0.245 ± 0.145 in the Tete population, while estimates of expected heterozygosities varied from 0.304 ± 0.166 in the Angone to 0.329 ± 0.148 in the Tete population. Low positive (0.065 ± 0.109) inbreeding rates were detected in the three cattle groups. Population structure and admixture analyses indicated low genetic differentiation and various degrees of admixture among the populations. The effective population size has decreased over time and at 12 generations ago ranged between 349 (Tete) and 929 (Landim). The average linkage disequilibrium (LD) of the studied populations ranged from 0.400 ± 0.213 (Tete) to 0.434 ± 0.232 (Landim). The findings of this study will be valuable for formulating management and conservation strategies for indigenous Mozambican cattle populations.

9.
Int J Drug Policy ; 90: 103095, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People who use drugs (PWUD) which includes both people who inject drugs (PWID) and non-injection drug users (NIDU) are marginalized, experience high levels of stigma and discrimination, and are likely to have challenges with accessing health services. Mozambique implemented the first drop-in center (DIC) for PWUD in Maputo City in 2018. This analysis aims to assess the prevalence of HIV, viral hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) and tuberculosis (TB) among PWUD, and assess their linkage to care and associated correlates. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional retrospective analysis of routine screening data collected from the first visit at the drop-in center (DIC) during the period of May 2018 to November 2019 (18 months). Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analysis were conducted to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of HIV, HBV, HCV and TB infections among PWID and NIDU. Cox proportional hazards models of determinants were used to estimate time from HIV diagnosis to linkage to care for PWUD. RESULTS: A total of 1,818 PWUD were screened at the DIC, of whom 92.6% were male. The median age was 27 years (range:14-63). Heroin was the most consumed drug (93.8%), and among people who used it, 15.5% injected it. Prevalence of HIV (43.9%), HCV (22.6%) and HBV (5.9%) was higher among PWID (p<0.001). Linkage to HIV care was observed in 40.5% of newly diagnosed PWID. Factors associated with shorter time to linkage to care included drug injection (aHR=1.6) and confirmed TB infection (aHR=2.9). CONCLUSION: This was the first analysis conducted on the implementation of the DIC in Mozambique and highlights the importance of targeted services for this high-risk population. Our analysis confirmed a high prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV, and highlight the challenges with linkage to care among PWID. The expansion of DIC locations to other high-risk localities to enhance HIV testing, treatment services and linkage to care to reduce ongoing transmission of HIV, HBV, HCV and TB and improve health outcomes.

10.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 21(1): 11, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rapid growth of mobile technology has given rise to the development of mobile health (mHealth) applications aimed at treating and preventing a wide range of health conditions. However, evidence on the use of mHealth in high disease burdened settings such as sub-Sharan Africa is not clear. Given this, we systematically mapped evidence on mHealth for disease diagnosis and treatment support by health workers in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review study guided by the Arksey and O'Malley's framework, Levac et al. recommendations, and Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. We thoroughly searched the following databases: MEDLINE and CINAHL with full text via EBSCOhost; PubMed; Science Direct and Google Scholar for relevant articles from the inception of mHealth technology to April 2020. Two reviewers independently screened abstracts and full-text articles using the eligibility criteria as reference. This study employed the mixed methods appraisal tool version 2018 to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. RESULTS: Out of the 798 articles identified, only 12 published articles presented evidence on the availability and use of mHealth for disease diagnosis and treatment support by health workers in SSA since 2010. Of the 12 studies, four studies were conducted in Kenya; two in Malawi; two in Nigeria; one in South Africa; one in Zimbabwe; one in Mozambique, and one in Lesotho. Out of the 12 studies, one reported the use of mHealth for diseases diagnosis; three reported the use of mHealth to manage HIV; two on the management of HIV/TB; two on the treatment of malaria; one each on the management of hypertension; cervical cancer; and three were not specific on any disease condition. All the 12 included studies underwent methodological quality appraisal with a scored between 70 and 100%. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that there is limited research on the availability and use of mHealth by health workers for disease diagnosis and treatment support in sub-Saharan Africa. We, therefore, recommend primary studies focusing on the use of mHealth by health workers for disease diagnosis and treatment support in sub-Saharan Africa.

12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 146, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mozambique has a generalized HIV epidemic of 13.5% among the general population. Early modeling exercises in Mozambique estimate that key populations (KP), defined as men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSW), and people who inject drugs (PWID), along with their partners account for about one third of all new infections. There is limited data describing the engagement of KP living with HIV in testing, care and treatment services. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis of HIV-positive participants in the first Bio-behavioral Surveillance (BBS) surveys in Mozambique conducted 2011-2014 in order to assess service uptake and progress though the HIV treatment cascade among MSM, FSW, and PWID. Unweighted pooled estimates were calculated for each key population group. RESULTS: Among HIV-positive MSM, 63.2% of participants had ever received an HIV test, 8.8% were aware of their status, 6.1% reported having been linked to care, while 3.5% initiated ART and were currently on treatment. Of the HIV-infected FSW participants, 76.5% reported a previous HIV test and 22.4% were previously aware of their status. Linkage to care was reported by 20.1%, while 12.7% reported having initiated ART and 11.8% reported being on treatment at the time of the survey. Among HIV-infected PWID participants, 79.9% had previously received an HIV test, 63.2% were aware of their HIV status, and 49.0% reported being linked to care for their HIV infection. ART initiation was reported by 42.7% of participants, while 29.4% were on ART at the time of the survey. CONCLUSION: Among the three high risk populations in Mozambique, losses occurred throughout critical areas of service uptake with the most alarming breakpoint occurring at knowledge of HIV status. Special attention should be given to increasing HIV testing and linkage to ART treatment. Future surveys will provide the opportunity to monitor improvements across the cascade in line with global targets and should include viral load testing to guarantee a more complete picture of the treatment cascade.

13.
AIDS Res Ther ; 18(1): 3, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric tuberculosis (TB), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and TB-HIV co-infection are health problems with evidence-based diagnostic and treatment algorithms that can reduce morbidity and mortality. Implementation and operational barriers affect adherence to guidelines in many resource-constrained settings, negatively affecting patient outcomes. This study aimed to assess performance in the pediatric HIV and TB care cascades in Mozambique. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of routine PEPFAR site-level HIV and TB data from 2012 to 2016 was performed. Patients 0-14 years of age were included. Descriptive statistics were used to report trends in TB and HIV indicators. Linear regression was done to assess associations of site-level variables with performance in the pediatric TB and HIV care cascades using 2016 data. RESULTS: Routine HIV testing and cotrimoxazole initiation for co-infected children in the TB program were nearly optimal at 99% and 96% in 2016, respectively. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation was lower at 87%, but steadily improved from 2012 to 2016. From the HIV program, TB screening at the last consultation rose steadily over the study period, reaching 82% in 2016. The percentage of newly enrolled children who received either TB treatment or isoniazid preventive treatment (IPT) also steadily improved in all provinces, but in 2016 was only at 42% nationally. Larger volume sites were significantly more likely to complete the pediatric HIV and TB care cascades in 2016 (p value range 0.05 to < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Mozambique has made significant strides in improving the pediatric care cascades for children with TB and HIV, but there were missed opportunities for TB diagnosis and prevention, with IPT utilization being particularly problematic. Strengthened TB/HIV programming that continues to focus on pediatric ART scale-up while improving delivery of TB preventive therapy, either with IPT or newer rifapentine-based regimens for age-eligible children, is needed.

14.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; Publish Ahead of Print2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Timely viral load (VL) results during pregnancy and the postpartum period are crucial for HIV disease management and for preventing mother-to-child transmission. Point-of-Care (POC) VL testing could reduce turnaround times and streamline patient management. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the novel m-PIMA HIV-1/2 Viral Load assay (Abbott, Chicago, Illinois, USA) in Mozambique. SETTING: The study was conducted in prenatal and postpartum consultation rooms in two primary healthcare clinics. Sample collection and testing on m-PIMA were done by trained nurses. METHODS: HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women on antiretroviral treatment (ART) or ART naive were tested using both on-site m-PIMA POC and referral laboratory-based real time VL assays. Linear regression analysis and Bland-Altman plots were used to calculate the agreement between both. FINDINGS: Correlation between venous blood plasma POC and plasma laboratory-based VL was strong (r2=0.850, p-value< 0.01), with good agreement between the methods [overall bias 0.202 log copies/mL (95% CI: 0.366-0.772 log copies/mL)]. Using the threshold of 1,000 copies/mL which is used to determine ART failure, the sensitivity and specificity of the POC VL assay were 95.0% (95% CI: 91.6-97.3%) and 96.5% (95% CI: 94.2-98.0%), respectively. The correlation coefficient between the venous and capillary sample types was 0.983 (r2=0.966). CONCLUSIONS: On-site, nurse-performed POC VL testing is feasible and accurate in resource limited primary healthcare settings. The operational challenge of plasma separation within clinics for POC-testing was successfully overcome using mini-centrifuges. The use of capillary blood could simplify the execution of the assay in a clinical environment.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The chemical quality of drinking water is widely unknown in low-income countries. OBJECTIVE: We conducted an exploratory study in Manhiça district (Mozambique) to evaluate drinking water quality using chemical analyses and cell-based assays. METHODS: We measured nitrate, fluoride, metals, pesticides, disinfection by-products, and industrial organochlorinated chemicals, and conducted the bioassays Ames test for mutagenicity, micronuclei assay (MN-FACS), ER-CALUX, and antiAR-CALUX in 20 water samples from protected and unprotected sources. RESULTS: Nitrate was present in all samples (median 7.5 mg/L). Manganese, cobalt, chromium, aluminium, and barium were present in 90-100% of the samples, with median values of 32, 0.6, 2.0, 61, 250 µg/l, respectively. Manganese was above 50 µg/l (EU guideline) in eight samples. Arsenic, lead, nickel, iron, and selenium median values were below the quantification limit. Antimony, cadmium, copper, mercury, zinc and silver were not present. Trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles and haloketones were present in 5-28% samples at levels ≤4.6 µg/l. DDT, dieldrin, diuron, and pirimiphos-methyl were quantified in 2, 3, 3, and 1 sample, respectively (range 12-60 ng/L). Fluoride was present in one sample (0.11 mg/l). Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene were not present. Samples were negative in the in vitro assays. SIGNIFICANCE: Results suggest low exposure to chemicals, mutagenicity, genotoxicity and endocrine disruption through drinking water in Manhiça population. High concentration of manganese in some samples warrants confirmatory studies, given the potential link to impaired neurodevelopment.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 142256, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207491

RESUMO

The present study used red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticusas) as the model fish to compare the interactive effects between aged and virgin microplastics (MPs) with the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and the ß-blocker propranolol (PRP). To this end, the ultraviolet irradiation was used to simulate the MP aging in the environment. The accumulations of MPs and pharmaceuticals, and changes in enzyme activities and genes expressions in tilapia were also evaluated. Some physical properties of MPs changed during the aging process, reflected by 0.27- and 0.16-fold increases in the specific surface area and average pore volume, respectively. And more carbonyl formation was observed on the surface of aged MPs. Compared to the 14-d coexposure with virgin MPs, the MP aging increased the accumulation of PRP by 82.3% in the brain, whereas decreased the concentration of SMX by 46.1% in the gills. The stress on tilapia caused by the MPs and PRP was alleviated by the aging process, largely related to the lower neurotoxicity and reduced lipid peroxidation damages. However, the coexposure to aged MPs and SMX would result in higher inhibitions of cytochrome P450 enzymes activities. The results of the transcriptomics showed that the MP aging mainly influenced the expression of genes related to the metabolic process, immune system process, and the genetic information process in tilapia under the coexposure to MPs and pharmaceuticals. Collectively, our results suggest that the MP aging could induce complex changes in the interactive effects between MPs and pharmaceuticals on aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Tilápia , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Envelhecimento , Animais , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
17.
Int Q Community Health Educ ; 41(2): 119-123, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252586

RESUMO

Researchers have identified cancer, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases as being the principal pathologies of increased aged standardized death rates (ASDRs) among noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). The objective of this study was to compare the change in the ASDR of these principal NCDs between the years 2010 and 2016 in Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. ASDR data were collected from the 2016 Global Health Estimate. Among the selected Southern African countries for both 2010 and 2016, the order of prevalence of NCDs linked to increased ASDR was cardiovascular diseases (both cardiac and stroke), cancer, diabetes mellitus, and chronic respiratory diseases. The percentage of the total number of NCDs linked to increased ASDR in relation to total deaths increased from 43.8% (in 2010) to 51.0% (in 2016) from (p < .0001). The percentage of principal NCDs in relation to total ASDR increased from 33.0% (in 2010) to 38.2% (in 2016; p < .0001).

18.
Matern Child Nutr ; 17(1): e13060, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678488

RESUMO

Factors associated with acute malnutrition are complex and wide-ranging particularly in developing countries. In Mozambique, contextual factors associated to children acute malnutrition are yet to be fully investigated and the evidences used to better inform prevention programme. The objective of this study is to identify key factors associated with acute malnutrition among 6- to 59-month-old children living in nine districts in rural Mozambique assessed in the 2018 seasonal nutrition assessment. We analysed Standardized Monitoring and Assessment for Relief and Transition (SMART) nutrition survey data of 1,116 children from three districts and rapid nutrition assessment (RNA) data of 3,884 children from six districts of Mozambique. We used a multiple logistic regression analysis to respond to the research question. Experiencing diarrhoea [odds ratio (OR) = 4.54; P = 0.001] was the only variable associated with acute malnutrition from the SMART survey dataset, whereas in the RNA, fever (OR = 3.0; P = 0.000) access to sanitation (OR = 0.118; P = 0.037), experiencing shock in the household (OR = 0.5; P = 0.020), diarrhoea (OR = 2.41; P = 0.001) and cough (OR = 1.75; P = 0.030) were the variables with significant association to acute malnutrition. We believe that the findings were influenced by the proportion of acute malnutrition in each survey type. Study findings confirm the association between acute malnutrition and child's health outcomes that are generally linked to poor living conditions and independent effects of shocks. This highlights the need for policy and programme to implement integrated, cross-sectoral approaches to tackling child acute malnutrition, particularly addressing community level conditions such as water and sanitation.

19.
Infect Genet Evol ; 87: 104637, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232806

RESUMO

Rotavirus A (RVA) is an important pathogen causing gastroenteritis in many species, including humans and pigs. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of RVA in pigs from smallholdings and commercial farms in southern Mozambique and characterize the complete genomes of selected strains. RVA was detected at a rate of 11.8% (n = 288), of which 7.6% was detected at commercial farms and 4.2% at smallholdings. The whole genomes of eight rotavirus strains were determined using an Illumina MiSeq platform. Seven displayed a G9P[13] and one a G4P[6] genotype combination, all with a typical porcine backbone (I1/5-R1-C1-M1-A1/8-N1-T1/7-E1-H1). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the seven G9P[13] strains were in fact one strain that circulated on a commercial pig farm. The genome segments of this strain clustered with diverse segments of human and porcine RVA strains from various Asian countries. Analysis of the G4P[6] strain revealed four distinct genome segments (VP2, VP4, VP6 and VP7) and five genome segments closely related to South African porcine rotavirus strains (NSP1, NSP3, NSP4, NSP5 and VP1). These results suggest that both the G4P[6] and the G9P[13] strains possibly emerged through multiple reassortment events. The presence of these strains on the commercial farms and smallholdings calls for a more in-depth surveillance of rotavirus in Mozambique.

20.
Talanta ; 221: 121555, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076111

RESUMO

Both Raman spectroscopy and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) were cooperatively utilized to improve the geographical origin identification of raw sapphires from five different countries (Mozambique, Laos, Australia, Rwanda, and Congo). A hierarchical support vector machine (H-SVM) was used for multi-group identification. Initially, accuracy improved to 87.5% using merged Raman-LIBS data compared to those of using only Raman (82.8%) or LIBS (71.9%) information. This improvement was attributed to incorporating two complimentary spectroscopic datasets that provided molecular vibrational and elemental information. However, merging both spectroscopic datasets is may not be the best choice since it would make distinct and sample-descriptive information in one spectroscopic dataset less recognized for analysis by the inclusion of less characteristic information in another spectroscopic dataset; using only Raman or LIBS information at each discrimination stage would be more effective. When Raman information was utilized during the first three discrimination stages followed by LIBS data during the fourth (last) discrimination stage in H-SVM, the accuracy improved to 90.6%. The proper selection of molecular vibrational or elemental sample information at different discrimination stages is attributed to this improvement.

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