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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954243

RESUMO

Oral microorganisms are closely related to oral health, the occurrence of some oral diseases is associated with changes in the oral microbiota, and many studies have demonstrated that traditional smoking can affect the oral microbial community. However, due to the short time since the emergence of e-cigarettes, fewer studies are comparing oral microorganisms for users of e-cigarettes versus cigarettes. We collected saliva from 40 non-smokers (NS), 46 traditional cigarette smokers (TS), and 27 e-cigarette consumers (EC), aged between 18 and 35 years. We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on the saliva samples collected to study the effects of e-cigarettes versus traditional cigarettes on the oral microbiome. The results showed that compared with the NS group, the alpha diversity of oral flora in saliva was altered in the TS group, with no significant change in the e-cigarette group. Compared with the NS and EC groups, the relative abundance of Actinomyces and Prevotella was increased in the TS group. However, compared with the NS and TS groups, the relative abundance of Veillonella was increased, and the relative abundance of Porphyromonas and Peptostreptococcus was decreased in the EC group. These results showed that both e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes could alter the structure and composition of oral microbiota. The use of traditional cigarettes promotes the growth of some anaerobic bacteria, which may contribute to dental decay and bad breath over time. E-cigarettes have a different effect on the structure and composition of the oral microbial community compared to conventional cigarettes. In order to better understand the effects of e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes on users' mouths, future studies will investigate the relationship between diseases such as dental caries and periodontitis and changes in oral microbial species levels.

2.
J Oral Microbiol ; 16(1): 2372861, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38979478

RESUMO

Background: Gingivitis in response to biofilm formation may exhibit different trajectories. The purposes of the present study were to characterize the composition of the supragingival microbiota and salivary cytokine and protein levels in healthy individuals with different gingivitis patterns, to test the hypothesis that manifestations of gingivitis associate with specific profiles in terms of supragingival microbiota, salivary cytokines, and proteins. Methods: Forty orally and systemically healthy individuals refrained from all oral hygiene procedures for a period of 14 days, followed by a resolution period of 14 days with regular oral care. Supragingival plaque level and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded, and supragingival plaque as well as saliva samples were collected at baseline, day 14, and day 28. Based on change in BOP% from baseline to day 14, rapid (n = 15), moderate (n = 10), and slow (n = 15) responders were identified. Supragingival microbiota composition, salivary cytokine, and protein levels were compared between groups at baseline, day 14, and day 28. Results: A significantly higher baseline abundance of Capnocytophaga, Eikenella, and Campylobacter species were recorded in rapid responders, whereas a significantly higher baseline abundance of Streptococcus species were detected in slow responders. Slow responders expressed a high degree of resilience, with minimal difference in microbial composition at baseline and after 14 days of resolution (day 28). On the contrary, significant differences in relative abundance of members of the core microbiota, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, and Rothia species, was noted in baseline samples versus day 28 samples in rapid responders. Comparable baseline cytokine and protein levels were recorded in all groups. Conclusion: Supragingival microbiota composition, but not saliva cytokine and protein profiles, seems to influence the extent of the inflammatory response during development of gingivitis in systemically healthy individuals.


Baseline composition of the supragingival microbiota might predict different gingivitis trajectories.Microbial resilience after gingivitis might augment oral homeostasis in individuals with a slow gingivitis trajectory.

3.
Fitoterapia ; : 106121, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38992476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myrsine (the family Primulaceae) contains flowering species. Pharmacologically, the plants of this genus belong to a list of medicinal plants that induce infectious and inflammatory treatments. There are no scientific publications that review phytochemistry and pharmacological activities. OBJECTIVE: The compilation and classification of phytochemicals, chromatographic information, essential oils, and pharmacological reviews are the ultimate aim. METHODS: References on phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of Myrsine species were collected from various sources, such as Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science from the 1990s to present. The main keyword "Myrsine" was used alone or in combination with others to search for references. RESULTS: Chromatographic procedure of Myrsine extracts led to the purification of 134 compounds. Flavonoids, mono-phenols, saponins, quinones, megastigmanes, and lignans were the main phytochemical classes. Myrsine Volatile compounds are monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and aliphatic compounds. Myrsine constituents established a widespread panel of pharmacological activities, such as cytotoxicity, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-parasite, tyrosine inhibition, and hepatoprotection, especially anti-inflammation. Novel flavonoids myrsininones A-B are better than the standard triclosan against bacteria Staphylococcus warneri, S. mutan, S. sanguis, and Actinomyces naeslundii. M. seguinii aerial part ethanolic extract inhibited LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-stimulated inflammatory Raw 264.7 cells via Src/Syk/NF-κB (sarcoma kinase/spleen tyrosine kinase/ nuclear factor-kappa B) and IRAK-1/AP-1 (interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1/activating protein-1) signaling inhibition. Generally, Myrsine plant extracts showed no toxicity. CONCLUSION: Myrsine constituents are good antimicrobial, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory agents. However, the majority of earlier research focuses on the pharmacological analyses of M. africana. Thus, comprehensive findings for the remaining species are needed.

4.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 14(13)2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39001311

RESUMO

Pulmonary actinomycosis is an uncommon clinical entity that can be challenging to diagnose due to its non-specific symptomatology. Misdiagnosis and delayed treatment may result in invasive procedures and extended antimicrobial treatment courses. We report a case involving a 65-year-old female with poor oral dentition admitted for acute respiratory failure subsequently found to have a left-sided pleural effusion and perihepatic abscess formation. Cytopathology examination and microbiology studies confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary actinomycosis.

5.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0305537, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39008450

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Endodontic microbiota appears to undergo evolutionary changes during disease progression from inflammation to necrosis and post-treatment. The aim of this study was to compare microbiome composition and diversity in primary and post-treatment endodontic infections from a cohort of patients from the UAE. DESIGN: Intracanal samples were collected from primarily infected (n = 10) and post-treatment infected (n = 10) root canals of human teeth using sterile paper points. Bacterial DNA was amplified from seven hypervariable regions (V2-V4 and V6-V9) of the 16S rRNA gene, then sequenced using next-generation sequencing technology. The data was analyzed using appropriate bioinformatic tools. RESULTS: Analyses of all the samples revealed eight major bacterial phyla, 112 genera and 260 species. Firmicutes was the most representative phylum in both groups and was significantly more abundant in the post-treatment (54.4%) than in primary (32.2%) infections (p>0.05). A total of 260 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified, of which 126 (48.5%) were shared between the groups, while 83 (31.9%) and 51 (19.6%) disparate species were isolated from primary and post-treatment infections, respectively. A significant difference in beta, but not alpha diversity was noted using several different indices (p< 0.05). Differential abundance analysis indicated that, Prevotella maculosa, Streptococcus constellatus, Novosphigobium sediminicola and Anaerococcus octavius were more abundant in primary infections while Enterrococcus faecalis, Bifidobacterium dentium, Olsenella profusa and Actinomyces dentalis were more abundant in post-treatment infections (p <0.05). CONCLUSION: Significant differences in the microbiome composition and diversity in primary and post-treatment endodontic infections were noted in our UAE cohort. Such compositional differences of microbiota at various stages of infection could be due to both intrinsic and extrinsic factors impacting the root canal ecosystem during disease progression, as well as during their therapeutic management. Identification of the key microbiota in primarily and secondarily infected root canals can guide in the management of these infections.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Humanos , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Adulto , Microbiota/genética , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos de Coortes , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Adulto Jovem , Filogenia , Biodiversidade
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 16300, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39009605

RESUMO

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare, usually slow-growing yet aggressive head and neck malignancy. Despite its clinical significance, our understanding of the cellular evolution and microenvironment in ACC remains limited. We investigated the intratumoral microbiomes of 50 ACC tumor tissues and 33 adjacent normal tissues using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This allowed us to characterize the bacterial communities within the ACC and explore potential associations between the bacterial community structure, patient clinical characteristics, and tumor molecular features obtained through RNA sequencing. The bacterial composition in the ACC was significantly different from that in adjacent normal salivary tissue, and the ACC exhibited diverse levels of species richness. We identified two main microbial subtypes within the ACC: oral-like and gut-like. Oral-like microbiomes, characterized by increased diversity and abundance of Neisseria, Leptotrichia, Actinomyces, Streptococcus, Rothia, and Veillonella (commonly found in healthy oral cavities), were associated with a less aggressive ACC-II molecular subtype and improved patient outcomes. Notably, we identified the same oral genera in oral cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. In both cancers, they were part of shared oral communities associated with a more diverse microbiome, less aggressive tumor phenotype, and better survival that reveal the genera as potential pancancer biomarkers for favorable microbiomes in ACC and other head and neck cancers. Conversely, gut-like intratumoral microbiomes, which feature low diversity and colonization by gut mucus layer-degrading species, such as Bacteroides, Akkermansia, Blautia, Bifidobacterium, and Enterococcus, were associated with poorer outcomes. Elevated levels of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron were independently associated with significantly worse survival and positively correlated with tumor cell biosynthesis of glycan-based cell membrane components.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Adenoide Cístico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Humanos , Carcinoma Adenoide Cístico/microbiologia , Carcinoma Adenoide Cístico/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/microbiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Idoso , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação
7.
Indian Dermatol Online J ; 15(3): 496-499, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845663

RESUMO

Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative bacterial infection commonly seen in the tropics, caused by gram-positive, anaerobic bacilli of the genus Actinomyces. There are very few reported cases of primary cutaneous actinomycosis. It can mimic mycetoma, tuberculosis, nocardiosis, and botryomycosis. A high index of clinical suspicion is required for diagnosis in the absence of sinuses. Even with repeated attempts, cultures are mostly negative; and hence, histology reveals the diagnosis in most cases. Here, we report an unusual case of primary cutaneous actinomycosis in a 21-year-old female patient, following a road traffic accident (RTA). A positive Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon and special stains demonstrated the ray fungus and helped us reach the diagnosis. The patient was started on oral penicillin G and showed good response.

8.
Clin Case Rep ; 12(6): e8984, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845797

RESUMO

Bronchopulmonary sequestration, a rare congenital anomaly, involves a nonfunctioning lung tissue mass supplied by anomalous vessels. It is rarely infected by Actinomyces, further complicating the clinical presentation, with limited reported cases. This case highlights the distinctive clinical aspects, diagnostic challenges, and successful management strategies of such a rare clinical entity.

9.
Radiol Case Rep ; 19(8): 3334-3338, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38860267

RESUMO

Actinomycosis is a rare chronic suppurative granulomatous disease. Surgical biopsy is often performed in patients with chest actinomycosis because malignancy is suspected in most cases. A 62-year-old man presented to our hospital with fever and exertional dyspnea that had persisted for several months. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed an irregularly shaped mass with contrast enhancement in the anterior mediastinum and consolidation in the left upper lung lobe contiguous with this mass, as well as multiple nodules in both lungs. The pulmonary artery trunk was stenotic and surrounded by the mass, and the right heart system was enlarged. Thoracoscopic biopsy was performed but failed to yield a diagnosis. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography after one month revealed an increased mass and worsening right heart strain. 18F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) positron emission tomography/computed tomography and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging also suggested a malignant tumor, and an open chest biopsy was performed. No malignant cells were identified and actinomycetes were detected by histopathology and bacterial culture. The patient was treated with antibiotics, following which his contrast-enhanced computed tomography findings and general condition improved.

10.
Cureus ; 16(5): e59694, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38841036

RESUMO

Fungal rhino-orbital-cerebral infections present significant treatment challenges, especially in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with diabetes. These infections seldom occur with bacterial co-infections, which complicate their management. This report presents the case of a 74-year-old diabetic male with a long-standing history of left malar pain who experienced rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, and confusion. Diagnostic imaging revealed angioinvasive fungal sinusitis, ultimately attributed to chronic mucormycosis (CM) with concurrent Actinomyces infection, a rarely reported occurrence. We employed a comprehensive treatment strategy, which resulted in a successful recovery after 24 days. Although CM is rare, accounting for approximately 5.6% of cases with mucormycosis, it requires thorough diagnostic evaluation and prolonged treatment. The rarity of co-infections like the one we describe underscores the need for an integrated management approach. Histopathological analysis serves as the gold standard for diagnosis, with treatment typically involving surgical and extensive antifungal interventions.

11.
Genes Genomics ; 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since most of the commonly known oral diseases are explained in link with balance of microbial community, an accurate bacterial taxonomy profiling for determining bacterial compositional network is essential. However, compared to intestinal microbiome, research data pool related to oral microbiome is small, and general 16S rRNA screening method has a taxonomy misclassification issue in confirming complex bacterial composition at the species level. OBJECTIVE: Present study aimed to explore bacterial compositional networks at the species level within saliva of 39 oral disease patients (Dental Caries group: n = 26 and Periodontitis group: n = 13) through comparison with public Korean-specific healthy oral microbiome data. METHODS: Here, we applied comprehensive molecular diagnostics based on qRT-PCR and Sanger sequencing methods to complement the technical limitations of NGS-based 16S V3-V4 amplicon sequencing technology. RESULTS: As a result of microbiome profiling at the genus level, relative frequencies of many nitrate-reducing bacteria within each oral disease group were found to be significantly low compared to the healthy group. In addition, the molecular diagnostics-based bacterial identification method allowed the determination of the correct taxonomy of screened primary colonizers (Streptococcus and Actinomyces unclassification clusters) for each oral disease. Finally, as with the results of microbiome profiling at the genus level, many core-species classified within the saliva of each oral disease group were also related to nitrate-reduction, and it was estimated that various pathogens associated with each disease formed a bacterial network with the core-species. CONCLUSION: Our study introduced a novel approach that can compensate for the difficulty of identifying an accurate bacterial compositional network at the species level due to unclear taxonomy classification by using the convergent approach of NGS-molecular diagnostics. Ultimately, we suggest that our experimental approach and results could be potential reference materials for researchers who intend to prevent oral disease by determining the correlation between oral health and bacterial compositional network according to the changes in the relative frequency for nitrate-reducing species.

12.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 121: 109975, 2024 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38941730

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND IMPORTANCE: Actinomycosis is a rare, chronic bacterial infection caused by Actinomyces species. While it commonly affects the cervicofacial region, thorax, and abdomen, appendicular involvement is extremely uncommon. This case report details the presentation, diagnosis, and management of a 45-year-old female patient with acute appendicitis secondary to actinomycosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 45-year-old woman, with an 8-year intrauterine device history, presented with three-day right iliac fossa pain, vomiting, and stable vital signs. Laboratory tests revealed an inflammatory syndrome. Suspecting acute appendicitis, a CT scan confirmed a swollen 10 mm appendix. Laparoscopic surgery revealed a phlegmonous appendix, leading to an uncomplicated appendectomy. Pathological examination confirmed actinomycotic granules, supporting the diagnosis of actinomycosis appendicitis. The patient received 18 million units of intravenous penicillin G daily for 6 weeks followed by a 6-month course of oral amoxicillin (1 g three times daily) thereafter, showing favorable progression with no symptoms. Normal clinical and ultrasound follow-ups were observed at one year. CLINICAL DISCUSSION: Appendiceal actinomycosis is a rare condition. Women, especially those with intrauterine contraceptives, experience an increase in cases due to chronic inflammation. Typically underdiagnosed, actinomycosis mimics other conditions, presenting with nonspecific symptoms. Laboratory results offer limited assistance, and histological confirmation is crucial. Histopathological examination is mandatory for diagnosis confirmation. Management involves surgical resection and prolonged penicillin-based antibiotics, providing a favorable prognosis with low mortality. CONCLUSION: This case underscores the importance of considering rare etiologies, such as actinomycosis, in the differential diagnosis of appendicitis. Timely recognition and management are crucial for optimal patient outcomes.

13.
Heliyon ; 10(10): e31559, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831830

RESUMO

Disturbances in the oral microbiota may be due to several mechanisms and factors, such as smoking. An imbalance in oral bacteria may result in changes to the innate immune system and the development of periodontal disease. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of oral microbiota in smokers and non-smokers in a South African population using subgingival plaque samples. From the 128 recruited participants, 57 were identified as smokers (serum cotinine: >15 ng/ml). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated significant differences between the two groups with a reduced abundance of Actinobacteria in smokers. Fusobacterium and Campylobacter were found in higher abundance, while a lower abundance of Leptotrichia, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, and Lautropia were observed. This study highlighted significant differences in the oral microbiota of smokers, indicating an abundance of anaerobic gram-negative bacteria. These findings suggest that smoking allows certain oral microorganisms to gain dominance, thereby predisposing individuals to periodontal disease development and progression.

14.
J Immunother Cancer ; 12(6)2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between gut bacteria and the response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been studied; however, multi-kingdom gut microbiome alterations and interactions in ICI-treated HCC cohorts are not fully understood. METHODS: From November 2018 to April 2022, patients receiving ICI treatment for advanced HCC were prospectively enrolled. Herein, we investigated the multi-kingdom microbiota characterization of the gut microbiome, mycobiome, and metabolome using metagenomic, ITS2, and metabolomic data sets of 80 patients with ICI-treated HCC. RESULTS: Our findings demonstrated that bacteria and metabolites differed significantly between the durable clinical benefit (DCB) and non-durable clinical benefit (NDB) groups, whereas the differences were smaller for fungi. The overall diversity of bacteria and fungi before treatment was higher in the DCB group than in the NDB group, and the difference in diversity began to change with the use of immunotherapy after 6-8 weeks. We also explored the alterations of gut microbes in the DCB and NDB groups, established 18 bacterial species models as predictive biomarkers for predicting whether immunotherapy is of sustained benefit (area under the curve=75.63%), and screened two species of bacteria (Actinomyces_sp_ICM47, and Senegalimassilia_anaerobia) and one metabolite (galanthaminone) as prognostic biomarkers for predicting survival in patients with HCC treated with ICI. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the status and characterization of the multi-kingdom microbiota, including gut bacteria, fungi, and their metabolites, were described by multiomics sequencing for the first time in patients with HCC treated with ICI. Our findings demonstrate the potential of bacterial taxa as predictive biomarkers of ICI clinical efficacy, and bacteria and their metabolites as prognostic biomarkers.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/microbiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/microbiologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/classificação , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Eur J Med Res ; 29(1): 328, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877601

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The use of probiotics could promote the balance of the subgingival microbiota to contribute to periodontal health. This study aimed to identify the potential of bacteria commonly associated with healthy periodontal tissues as probiotic candidates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines using the PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, ProQuest, and Ovid databases as well as the combination of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and non-MeSH terms. Based on the selection criteria, original studies published in English and identifying the microorganisms present in the periodontium of healthy individuals and patients with periodontitis using the high-throughput 16S ribosomal gene sequencing technique were included. RESULTS: Out of 659 articles, 12 met the criteria for this review. These articles were published from 2012 to 2020 and mainly originated from the United States, China, and Spain. Most of these studies reported adequate criteria for selecting participants, using standardized clinical criteria, and compliance with quality based on the tools used. In periodontal healthy tissue were identified species like Actinomyces viscosus, Actinomyces naeslundii, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Rothia dentocariosa, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus intermedius, and Prevotella nigrescens which have recognized strains with a capacity to inhibit periodontopathogens. CONCLUSIONS: S. sanguinis, S. oralis, S. mitis, and S. gordonii are among the bacterial species proposed as potential probiotics because some strains can inhibit periodontopathogens and have been reported as safe for humans.


Assuntos
Periodonto , Probióticos , Humanos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Periodonto/microbiologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota
16.
J Oral Microbiol ; 16(1): 2366056, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38882240

RESUMO

Introduction: Gingivitis is a prevalent complication in adolescents undergoing fixed orthodontic treatments. However, changes in the supragingival microbiome associated with gingivitis and the impact of Candida albicans remain elusive. Therefore, we investigated supragingival microbiome discrepancy and C. albicans colonization in adolescent orthodontic patients with gingivitis. Methods: Dental plaques were collected from 30 gingivitis patients and 24 healthy adolescents, all undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. The supragingival microbiome composition was analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing. C. albicans colonization was determined using fungal culture and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: Our analysis revealed significantly heightened microbial diversity in the Gingivitis group. Notably, patients with gingivitis exhibited an enrichment of periodontal pathogens, such as Saccharibacteria (TM7) [G-1], Selenomonas, Actinomyces dentalis, and Selenomonas sputigena. Additionally, 33% of the gingivitis patients tested positive for C. albicans, exhibiting significantly elevated levels of absolute abundance, while all healthy patients tested negative. Significant differences in microbial composition were also noted between C. albicans-positive and -negative samples in the Gingivitis group. Conclusion: Significant disparities were observed in the supragingival microbiome of adolescent orthodontic patients with and without gingivitis. The presence of C. albicans in the supragingival plaque may alter the microbiome composition and potentially contribute to gingivitis pathogenesis.


• Adolescent patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment, with and without gingivitis, show significant differences in their marginal supragingival plaque microbiomes. • Adolescent patients with gingivitis exhibit a significantly higher rate of Candida albicans colonization than healthy individuals. • The colonization of C. albicans alters the composition of the marginal supragingival plaque microbiome in patients with gingivitis.

17.
J Pharm Bioallied Sci ; 16(Suppl 2): S1414-S1416, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38882894

RESUMO

Herbal extracts have evoked interest owing to the small number of terpenoids and phenolic compounds, which impart antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of four herbal extracts (lemon grass oil, basil oil, peppermint oil, and Obicure tea extract) against endodontic pathogens along with the MIC: MBC/MFC ratio were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity by detecting the MIC of three essential oils and tea extract was evaluated against eight common endodontic pathogens by the broth dilution method, while MBC was detected by subculturing onto blood agar from the first -three to five tubes from the MIC dilution tubes (showing no turbidity), which were plated on blood agar. All herbal extracts proved to be effective antimicrobials against tested endodontic pathogens. Basil oil had a bacteriostatic effect on all the organisms (P < 0.05). Mint oil showed bacteriostatic activity on Enterococcus (E.) faecalis and Peptostreptococcus (P > 0.05). Tea extract had a bacteriostatic effect (P > 0.05) against all tested microbes except Actinomyces, Lactobacilli, Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, and Fusobacterium (F.) nucleatum. Lemon grass oil had a bactericidal effect against all the organisms and a bacteriostatic effect against Peptostreptococcus (P > 0.05). It can be concluded that basil oil showed a strong bactericidal effect on the test organisms. The MIC for the organisms ranged from 0.2 to 50 µg/ml.

18.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 668, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD)-associated periodontitis is common. However, the role of periodontal pathogens in the Coexistence of CD and periodontal disease remains unclear. METHODS: To investigate the potential relationship mediated by periodontal pathogens between periodontitis and CD, we collected salivary samples from healthy participants (H group, n = 12), patients with CD (Ch group, n = 10), patients with periodontitis (Ps group, n = 12), and patients with Coexistence of CD and periodontal disease (Cp group, n = 12) and analyzed them by 16 S rRNA sequencing. RESULTS: Patients with Coexistence of CD and periodontal disease had increased levels of Fusobacterium, Actinomyces, Leptotrichia, and Prevotella, which correlated with the severity of periodontitis. Conversely, the levels of Streptococcus, Neisseria, Haemophilus, and Gemella, which decreased in Coexistence of CD and periodontal disease, were negatively correlated with the severity of periodontitis. To further investigate the role of periodontal pathogens in CD development, representative periodontal pathogens causing periodontitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum, were administered to mice. These pathogens migrate to, and colonize, the gut, accelerating CD progression and aggravating colitis, and even systemic inflammation. In vitro experiments using a Caco-2/periodontal pathogen coculture revealed that P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum increased intestinal permeability by directly disrupting the tight junctions of intestinal epithelial cells. CONCLUSION: Our findings strongly suggest that periodontal pathogens play a role in the relationship between periodontitis and CD. These results provide a basis for understanding the pathogenesis of Coexistence of CD and periodontal disease and may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Periodontite , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Humanos , Doença de Crohn/microbiologia , Doença de Crohn/complicações , Periodontite/microbiologia , Periodontite/complicações , Animais , Camundongos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Fusobacterium nucleatum/isolamento & purificação , Células CACO-2 , Saliva/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
19.
J Dent Res ; : 220345241251784, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828615

RESUMO

Bacteria on the tongue dorsum (TD) form consortia tens to hundreds of microns in diameter organized around a core of epithelial cells. Whole-mount preparations have been instrumental in revealing their organization and specific microbial associations. However, their thickness and intricate 3-dimensional complexity present challenges for a comprehensive spatial analysis. To overcome these challenges, we employed a complementary approach: embedding in hydrophilic plastic followed by sectioning and postsectioning labeling. Samples were labeled by hybridization with multiplexed fluorescent oligonucleotide probes and visualized by spectral imaging and linear unmixing. Application of this strategy to TD biofilms improved the visualization of bacteria that were difficult to resolve in whole-mount imaging. Actinomyces, previously detected as patches, became resolved at the single-cell level. The filamentous taxa Leptotrichia and Lachnospiraceae, located at the core of the consortium, were regularly visualized whereas previously they were rarely detected when using whole mounts. Streptococcus salivarius, heterogeneously detected in whole mounts, were regularly and homogenously observed. Two-dimensional images provide valuable information about the organization of bacterial biofilms. However, they offer only a single plane of view for objects that can extend to hundreds of microns in thickness, and information obtained from such images may not always reflect the complexity of a 3-dimensional object. We combined serial physical sectioning with optical sectioning to facilitate the 3-dimensional reconstruction of consortia, spanning over 100 µm in thickness. Our work showcases the use of hydrophilic plastic embedding and sectioning for examining the structure of TD biofilms through spectral imaging fluorescence in situ hybridization. The result was improved visualization of important members of the human oral microbiome. This technique serves as a complementary method to the previously employed whole-mount analysis, offering its own set of advantages and limitations. Addressing the spatial complexity of bacterial consortia demands a multifaceted approach for a comprehensive and effective analysis.

20.
Cancer Invest ; 42(6): 478-490, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845533

RESUMO

Biliary dysbiosis is associated with gallbladder cancer (GBC). We aimed to look for biliary bacteria specifically detected in GBC patients. We used 16S rRNA-based metagenomic analysis to elucidate biliary microbiota in 30 GBC and 30 gallstones-associated chronic cholecystitis patients. Relative abundance of five genera, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Halomonas, Escherichia and Caulobacter was significantly associated with GBC. Of 15-species, 7 were detected significantly higher in GBC, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus, Streptococcus intermedius, Actinomyces bowdenii, Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces gerencseriae, and Escherichia fergusonii were biosafety level-2 infectious bacteria; other 8 species were biosafety level-1 bacteria. These bacterial species may be involved in pathogenesis of GBC.


Assuntos
Colecistite , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar , Cálculos Biliares , Metagenômica , Humanos , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/microbiologia , Colecistite/microbiologia , Cálculos Biliares/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Metagenômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Doença Crônica , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Adulto , Disbiose/microbiologia
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