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1.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 159(4): 408, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795085

Assuntos
Má Oclusão , Humanos
2.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 159(4): 409, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795088

Assuntos
Má Oclusão , Humanos
3.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 159(4): 512-521, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795092

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of a newly constructed computer-based decision support system (DSS) on the basis of artificial intelligence technology and designed to plan treatment for patients with a deep overbite. METHODS: With the help of information technology, a DSS was developed specifically for treatment planning of deepbite malocclusion. The program inputs were the components and the contributing factors used commonly by the orthodontic clinicians in deepbite diagnosis. The program outputs were the treatment planning options for deepbite treatment. A total of 357 decisions made by the algorithm were evaluated for accuracy by comparing them to the actual treatment changes of 51 patients with a well-treated deepbite. RESULTS: The decisions made by the algorithm were precise, with 94.4% having a very good agreement with actual treatment changes determined using Cohen's kappa coefficient. CONCLUSIONS: The constructed DSS was shown to be an efficient tool for planning treatment of deep overbite malocclusion in the permanent dentition; thus, the artificial intelligence could be used to formulate a customized plan for orthodontic clinicians.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Má Oclusão , Algoritmos , Cefalometria , Dentição Permanente , Humanos , Má Oclusão/terapia , Mandíbula
4.
West Afr J Med ; 38(3): 201-205, 2021 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the retention practices following orthodontic treatment in a tertiary health institution in Nigeria. METHODS: A retrospective study conducted in the Orthodontic Clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital over a 3-year-period. Data on the type of retainers used and the retention practices in the upper and lower arches were obtained from case files of patients who had completed orthodontic treatment in the institution. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS software version 23. RESULTS: The demographic variables comprised of 136 subjects; 93 females (68.4%) and 43 males (31.6%). Their ages ranged from 9-44 years with a mean age of 18.96 ± 6.75. Class I malocclusion was the most common malocclusion pattern (84.6%), followed by Class II (10.3%) and Class III (5.1%). Removable retainers were more commonly used and accounted for retention carried out in 85.3% of the study population. There was a preference for the use of removable retainers in the upper arch; the Hawley retainer being the most used (79.4%). In the lower arch however, no form of retention was carried out for majority of the patients after orthodontic treatment (86.8%). However, when done, the fixed lingual retainer was the most frequently used (13.2%). CONCLUSION: The Hawley retainer was the predominant retainer in this study. The fixed lingual retainer was the most frequently used in the lower arch. Longitudinal studies are required to determine efficacy of different types of retention following orthodontic treatment.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão , Contenções Ortodônticas , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão/terapia , Nigéria , Ortodontia Corretiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Med Life ; 14(1): 21-31, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767781

RESUMO

Patients whose with facial appearance involves dental anomalies and malocclusion face an increased prevalence of various psychosocial problems such as a high level of social anxiety, social avoidance, and low quality of life. This study investigates the patients with craniofacial anomalies and their psychological adjustment concerning the facial and dental appearance. It also evaluates the expectations of this patient group from the orthodontic treatment. Two steps were done in this study. In the first step, translation and validation of the Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS59), The Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ), and Patient Expectation from the Orthodontic Treatment (PEOTQ) questionnaires into Maithili were done, and then the main study was conducted using these valid questionnaires. This was a cross-sectional study conducted on the patients with congenital craniofacial anomalies visiting the orthodontics department of Patna Dental College and Hospital, Patna (Bihar). All the patients received the Maithili DAS, Maithili PIDAQ and Patients' Expectation from the orthodontic treatment questionnaires. The Maithili version of DAS59, PIDAQ and PEOTQ were developed with outstanding reliability and validity. A significant difference between PIDAQ (p<0.001) and DAS59 scores (p<0.001) was found. In females, the total PIDAQ score was significantly higher as compared to males, but there was no association of DAS scores with gender. Place of residence showed no association with PIDAQ and DAS59 scores in patients. Patients and controls had significant differences between various items, and a comparison was made in terms of expectation from the orthodontic treatment. Altered facial and dental appearance in patients with craniofacial anomalies showed a significant psychological impact.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão/psicologia , Anormalidades Maxilofaciais/psicologia , Ortodontia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Estética Dentária , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão/terapia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Dental Press J Orthod ; 26(1): e21bbo1, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729292

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Orthodontic treatment in patients with traumatized teeth is a condition that needs good planning in order to achieve satisfactory results. OBJECTIVE: To discuss approaches to orthodontic treatment of malocclusions associated with trauma followed by avulsion of anterior teeth, reimplanted after a short period of time. CASE REPORT: The treatment started with the distalization of upper posterior teeth, with the aid of mini-implants and sliding jigs, followed by the inclusion of anterior teeth in the arch, followed by intrusion of these teeth. RESULTS: With the treatment, improved mobility of the anterior teeth was achieved, with better insertion into bone tissue. The most important factor for satisfactory treatment and a good prognosis for avulsion is the time the tooth remains outside the socket. Orthodontic treatment in patients with traumatized teeth is not contraindicated; however, clinical and radiographic aspects must be considered. CONCLUSION: Among the feasible orthodontic treatment options, the conservative approach can be a very favorable treatment alternative.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão , Avulsão Dentária , Adulto , Tratamento Conservador , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incisivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Avulsão Dentária/complicações , Avulsão Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem , Avulsão Dentária/terapia , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária
7.
J Prosthodont ; 30(S1): 61-63, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783089

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of this Critically Appraised Topic was to determine the level of evidence relative to the usefulness of the Frankfort mandibular plane angle in prosthodontic treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Patient Intervention Comparison Outcome (PICO) mesh heading received zero PubMed references, as did Frankfort Mandibular Plane Angle (FMA) as a determinant for dental occlusion and Frankfort Mandibular Plane Angle as a determinant of the occlusal scheme. Frankfort Mandibular Plane Angle alone received 168 PubMed citations that highlighted 2 DiPietro articles and a third from the orthodontics literature which was a Randomized Controlled Trial not relevant to the PICO. Four others, three prosthodontic and one orthodontic publication, were related to the PICO. A Google search revealed one additional article, which was a narrative review. RESULTS: Nine articles were related to the search, 2 of which were clinical trials that revealed no evidence to support the use of FMA as a diagnostic test. CONCLUSION: Based on the limited data presented above, there is a lack of evidence to support the use of FMA as a diagnostic procedure to predict outcomes, or dictate prosthodontic treatment.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão , Mandíbula , Prostodontia , Cefalometria , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente
10.
Eur J Paediatr Dent ; 22(1): 80-81, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719489

RESUMO

Culture, industrialisation and the shrinking human face: Why is it important? Over the past 300,000 years, not only has the way we consume food from birth through our lifetime changed, there have also been changes related to the methods of food preparation, availability, processing, and storage. These diet-related factors, along with other epigenetic factors, have led to a widespread increase in orofacial myofunctional disorders (OMDs) and resultant human malocclusion phenotypes (HMPs) worldwide. Currently there is an increasing need for resolution of HMPs in early childhood and associated OMDs. This review will include reports of cases and describe the nature of the problem and strategies for effective solutions.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão , Terapia Miofuncional , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
11.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 49(289): 84-87, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713101

RESUMO

Recently surgery first became more popular alternative for treatment of dentofacial deformities. In this approach treatment starts from orthognathic surgery. Immediately after othognathic surgery facial aesthetics and oral function are improved. Thus main complaints of the orthognathic patients are resolved early during treatment period. Indications for surgery first approach are wider than years ago and include: skeletal Class II and III malocclusion, skeletal open bite, bimaxillary protrusion, even cases with severe facial asymmetry are reported. The key point for gaining stable results and total treatment time shortening is an appropriate surgical occlusion. For higher precision of treatment 3D virtual planning is recommended. Total treatment time depends on: number of contact points in surgical occlusion, number of extracted teeth and postsurgical midline deviation. Surgery first is a good alternative approach in some patients treated for dentofacial deformities. Stability in this approach is similar to conventional method of treatment and both methods result in quality of life improvement. As there is lack of presurgical orthodontics in surgery first approach patients avoid transient deterioration in facial aesthetics and oral function that results in higher satisfaction and shorter total treatment time.


Assuntos
Deformidades Dentofaciais , Má Oclusão , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos , Deformidades Dentofaciais/cirurgia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Prog Orthod ; 22(1): 8, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33718992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This review synthesizes the available evidence about the predisposition of individuals with asthma or allergies to orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) and possible factors related to root resorption that were investigated in the included studies, such as the type of malocclusion, duration of orthodontic treatment, and tooth units. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six electronic databases and partial gray literature were searched without date or language restrictions until September 2020. Prospective and retrospective observational cohort and case-control studies were included. The risk of bias (RoB) was assessed using the checklists from the Joanna Briggs Institute and the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE tool. To complement the case-control studies, the odds ratio (OR) of the individuals with allergies/asthma to develop root resorption was calculated. RESULTS: Six studies were included. One study with low RoB, one with moderate, and one with high RoB stated that allergic patients did not report a greater chance of developing OIIRR (OR = 1.17 to 2.10, p = 0.1 to 1), while only one study with low RoB reported that individuals with allergies tend to develop root resorption (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.08-5.37). Three studies with low RoB and one with moderate showed no significant association between asthma and OIIRR (OR = 1.05 to 3.42, p = 0.12 to 0.94). No association was identified between the type of malocclusion and the degree of OIIRR. Uniradicular dental units and a prolonged treatment time seem to be associated with an increased risk of resorption. The certainty of the evidence was considered low for both exposure factors. CONCLUSION: Evidence with a low level of certainty indicates that individuals with allergies or asthma are not more predisposed to OIIRR. Uniradicular teeth and long-term orthodontic treatments are associated with a higher risk of OIIRR. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020188463.


Assuntos
Asma , Má Oclusão , Reabsorção da Raiz , Asma/complicações , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reabsorção da Raiz/etiologia , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária
13.
Head Face Med ; 17(1): 4, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between body posture and sagittal dental overjet in children before and after early orthodontic treatment with removable functional orthodontic appliances. METHODS: Angle Class II patients (mean age 8.2 ± 1.2 years; 29 males and 25 females) with a distinctly enlarged overjet (> 9 mm) were retrospectively examined regarding body posture parameters before and after early orthodontic treatment. In addition, changes in overjet were investigated with the aid of plaster models. Forms of transverse dysgnathism (crossbite, lateral malocclusions) and open bite cases were excluded. Body posture parameters kyphosis, lordosis, surface rotation, pelvic tilt, pelvic torsion and trunk imbalance were analyzed by means of rasterstereographical photogrammetry to determine, if the orthodontic overjet correction is associated with specific changes in posture patterns. RESULTS: In nearly all patients an overjet correction and an improvement regarding all body posture and back parameters could be noted after early orthodontic treatment. Overjet reduction (- 3.9 mm ± 2.1 mm) and pelvic torsion (- 1.28° ± 0,44°) were significantly (p < 0.05) and moderately correlated (R = 0.338) with no significant associations found for the other posture and back parameters (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Overjet reduction during early orthodontic treatment may be associated with a detectable effect on pelvic torsion.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II , Má Oclusão , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Funcionais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão/diagnóstico por imagem , Má Oclusão/terapia , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II/diagnóstico por imagem , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe II/terapia , Postura , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 159(4): 453-459, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573897

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The effects of Invisalign clear aligner treatment with and without Dental Monitoring (DM) were compared for treatment duration, number of appointments, refinements and refinement aligners, and accuracy of Invisalign in achieving predicted tooth positions (aligner tracking). The null hypothesis was that there are no differences between Invisalign with and without DM in these parameters. METHODS: A sample of 90 consecutively treated Invisalign patients (45 control, 45 DM) fitted the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Treatment duration, number of refinements, number of refinement aligners, time to first refinement, number of appointments, number of emergency visits, and accuracy of predicted tooth movement were observed for differences. RESULTS: The 2 groups were homogeneous (P >0.05) for sample size, age, gender, Angle classification, maxillary and mandibular irregularity index, and the number of initial aligners. There was a significant (P = 0.001) reduction in the number of appointments by 3.5 visits (33.1%) in the DM group. There was also a significant (P = 0.001) reduction in the time to the first refinement (1.7 months) in the DM group. Compared with Invisalign predicted tooth positions, actual tooth positions were statistically (P <0.05) more accurate for the DM group for the maxillary anterior dentition in rotational movements and mandibular anterior dentition for buccal-lingual linear movement. Invisalign therapy without DM was closer to predicted tooth positions for the maxillary posterior dentition for the tip. None of these differences surpassed the clinically significant thresholds (>0.5 mm or >2°); however, the DM group achieved this in 1.7 fewer months. CONCLUSIONS: DM with Invisalign therapy resulted in a reduced number of appointments by 3.5 visits (33.1%). The DM group also achieved a clinically similar accuracy in obtaining predicted tooth movements compared with the control group in 1.7 fewer months, indicating improved aligner tracking in the DM group.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Removíveis , Humanos , Má Oclusão/terapia , Mandíbula , Estudos Retrospectivos , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária
15.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 159(4): e363-e375, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573898

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rapid palatal expansion is a common therapy during orthodontic treatment and could be a preliminary step for correcting different malocclusions; furthermore, this treatment could be necessary at any age. Different anchorage approaches have been proposed to obtain an effective skeletal result, although every device produces both dental and skeletal effects. This study aimed to compare the dentoskeletal effects of a bone-borne palatal expander considering 2 groups of patients of different ages. METHODS: Twenty-four patients consecutively treated were included in the study; patients were divided into 2 groups according to their age: group 1 with age ≤16 years and group 2 patients >16 years. All patients had a preexpansion cone-beam computed tomography scan; a second scan was required at the end of activations. All patients received a bone-borne appliance anchored on 4 miniscrews. RESULTS: Significant intragroup differences were found for maxillary width and dental diameters. No significant differences were found between groups with regard to longitudinal changes, except for the maxillary right plane. CONCLUSIONS: The use of bone-borne maxillary expansion was effective in generating palatal widening both in growing and young adult patients. No significant skeletal or dental differences were found between groups.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão , Técnica de Expansão Palatina , Adolescente , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Humanos , Má Oclusão/diagnóstico por imagem , Má Oclusão/terapia , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Desenho de Aparelho Ortodôntico , Adulto Jovem
17.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(2): 161-167, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605904

RESUMO

Aims: This study aimed to assess parents' awareness and attitude regarding their children's malocclusion compared with professional assessments and to measure the prevalence of malocclusion among children in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study population consisted of 377 randomly selected children (aged 8-12 years) from five schools in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was used to assess parents' awareness using the Aesthetic Component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and knowledge about preventive orthodontics. A clinical examination was performed by two calibrated examiners to measure the prevalence of malocclusion using both the AC and dental health component (DHC) of IOTN. Results: The most common Angle's molar relationship was Class I (78.2%), followed by Class II (17.5%) and Class III (4.2%). The DHC (score 3-5), which indicated the need for orthodontic treatment, was 55.4%. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between AC from examiners and parents, whereby the parents tended to underestimate their children's malocclusion by a factor of 1.45. Surprisingly, many parents (67.4%) lacked knowledge about preventive orthodontics. Conclusions: Class I malocclusion was most prevalent among children in the area of Dammam. A moderate percentage (55.4%) of the study subjects required treatment based on the DHC. Based on the lack of knowledge about preventive orthodontics in the majority of parents in our study, it is recommended that oral health-promoting programs be implemented to improve the awareness of malocclusion in the region.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão , Ortodontia Corretiva , Criança , Estética Dentária , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Índice de Necessidade de Tratamento Ortodôntico , Má Oclusão/epidemiologia , Pais , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
18.
Bull Tokyo Dent Coll ; 62(1): 27-39, 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583878

RESUMO

Aggressive periodontitis during adolescence has a poor prognosis due to rapid alveolar bone resorption. Few studies have investigated long-term follow-up after surgical orthodontic treatment performed in conjunction with that for invasive periodontitis. Here, we report a case of mandibular prognathism accompanied by generalized aggressive periodontitis and crowding. A 31-year-old woman was referred to our department for treatment of masticatory dysfunction due to reverse overjet. The patient exhibited a class III molar relationship, protrusion of the ANB of -6.0°, and severe maxillary crowding. Initial periodontal examination revealed deep periodontal pockets and extensive inflammation. Mandibular prognathism accompanied by generalized aggressive periodontitis and crowding was diagnosed. Therefore, it was necessary to adopt an interdisciplinary approach involving surgical, orthodontic, and periodontal treatment. Prior to commencement of orthodontic treatment, plaque control, scaling, and root planing of all teeth were performed by a periodontist to suppress inflammation and reduce probing depth. During pre-surgical orthodontic treatment, the maxillary first premolars were extracted to reduce crowding of the maxillary incisors. To correct the mandibular prognathism, the mandible was repositioned by sagittal split ramus osteotomy. Proper occlusion of the incisors and maximum intercuspation were achieved by post-surgical orthodontic treatment. After completion of active orthodontic treatment, acceleration of inflammation was observed together with aggravated resorption of the alveolar bone surrounding the molars. However, reduction of probing depth and inflammation were observed after scaling and root planing. The surgical-orthodontic treatment time was 1 year and 11 months, which was followed by a 2-year retention period. There was no tooth loss due to periodontitis, and an overall satisfactory outcome was achieved.


Assuntos
Periodontite Agressiva , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe III , Má Oclusão , Prognatismo , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe III/cirurgia , Mandíbula , Prognatismo/cirurgia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528458

RESUMO

Orthodontic therapy could lead to marginal bone resorption in cases where the teeth are moved outside the envelope of bone. The purpose of this case series was to test corticotomy with a guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedure to regenerate bone in the direction of movement outside the original bony housing. Ten adult patients (60 anterior teeth), all presenting with severe anterior crowding, were enrolled in the study. Orthodontic therapy in all investigated sites was associated with selective surgical corticotomies and a simultaneous GBR procedure. CBCT examinations were performed before starting orthodontic treatment (T0) and at the end of treatment (T1; mean: 7 months; range: 6 to 9 months). Pre- and postoperative CBCTs were superimposed with a DICOM viewer (3D Slicer) and studied with an image-processing software (ImageJ, National Institutes of Health) to measure the area of interest of the buccal plate. The average area was found to be 0.58 ± 0.22 mm2 at T0 and 1.76 ± 0.4 mm2 at T1, with a statistically significant difference (P < .05). The combination of corticotomy and a regenerative procedure seems to have the ability to augment the original osseous anatomy when the root is moved outside of the original bony envelope.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão , Ortodontia , Adulto , Regeneração Óssea , Humanos , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária
20.
Clin Oral Investig ; 25(4): 1587-1612, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550467

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present systematic review aims to report and critically assess the findings of the available scientific evidence from genetic association studies examining the genetic variants underlying skeletal class III malocclusion and its sub-phenotypes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A pre-piloted protocol was registered and followed. The PubMed, Scopus, WOS, Cochrane Library, Gray Open literature, and CADTH databases were explored for genetic association studies following PICOS-based selection criteria. The research was reported in accordance with PRISMA statement and HuGE guidelines. The Q-genie tool was applied to assess the quality of genetic studies. Meta-analysis of genetic association studies was done by means of Meta-Genyo tool. RESULTS: A total of 8258 articles were retrieved, of which 22 were selected for in-depth analysis. Most of the studies did not differentiate between sub-phenotypes, and the cohorts were heterogeneous regarding ethnicity. Four to five principal components of class III malocclusion explained the phenotypic variation, and gene variants at MYO1H(rs10850110), BMP3(rs1390319), GHR (rs2973015,rs6184, rs2973015), FGF7(rs372127537), FGF10(rs593307), and SNAI3(rs4287555) (p < .05) explained most of the variation across the studies, associated to vertical, horizontal, or combined skeletal discrepancies. Meta-analysis results identified a statistically significant association between risk of class III malocclusion of A allele of the FBN3 rs7351083 [OR 2.13; 95% CI 1.1-4.1; p 0.02; recessive model]. CONCLUSION: Skeletal class III is a polygenic trait substantially modulated by ethnicity. A multicentric approach should be considered in future studies to increase sample sizes, applying multivariate analysis such as PCA and cluster analysis to characterize existing sub-phenotypes warranting a deeper analysis of genetic variants contributing to skeletal class III craniofacial disharmony. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Grasping the underlying mechanisms of this pathology is critical for a fuller understanding of its etiology, allowing generation of preventive strategies, new individualized therapeutic approaches and more accurate treatment planification strategies.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão de Angle Classe III , Má Oclusão , Alelos , Cefalometria , Grupos Étnicos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe III/genética , Fenótipo
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