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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: 49596, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1094830

RESUMO

Objetivo: descrever as principais recomendações sobre ações de prevenção de contágio relacionadas à exposição ocupacional dos profissionais de saúde atuantes frente à COVID-19, disponíveis até março de 2020. Conteúdo: A atual pandemia da doença causada pelo novo coronavírus SARS-CoV-2 tem transmissão favorecida pelo contato próximo e desprotegido com secreções ou excreções de pacientes infectados, principalmente por meio de gotículas salivares. Práticas organizacionais de prevenção devem ser previstas antes da chegada do paciente ao serviço de saúde, reduzindo o fluxo de atendimento, no primeiro atendimento e durante as ações assistenciais, para minimizar a exposição ocupacional ao agente biológico. Profissionais de saúde classificados como grupo de risco devem ser afastados de atividades de risco de contaminação. Aqueles contaminados ou adoecidos devem permanecer em quarentena para minimizar a propagação da COVID-19. Considerações finais: os cuidados para prevenção de contaminação de trabalhadores nesta pandemia pelo novo coronavírus devem ser priorizados, evitando impactos negativos na assistência à população que busca atendimento nos serviços de saúde.


Objective: to describe the main recommended actions on prevention actions related to occupational exposure of health professionals working at COVID-19, available until March 2020. Content: The current pandemic disease caused by the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has its transmission favored by close and unprotected contact with secretions or excretions from infected patients, mainly through salivary droplets. Organizational prevention practices should be prioritized, since patient's arrival at the health service, optimizing the flow of care, the first care and during health care actions, to minimize occupational exposure to the biological agent. Health professionals classified as a risk group should be removed from activities at risk of contamination. Those contaminated or adulterated must remain in quarantine to minimize the spread of COVID-19. Final considerations: care to avoid contamination of workers in this pandemic by the new coronavirus must be prioritized, prevented from affecting the assistance to the population that seeks assistance in health services.


Objetivo: describir las principales acciones recomendadas sobre acciones de prevención relacionadas con la exposición ocupacional de los profesionales de la salud que trabajan en COVID-19, disponible hasta marzo de 2020. Contenido: La enfermedad pandémica actual causada por el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 tiene su transmisión favorecida por contacto cercano y sin protección con secreciones o excreciones de pacientes infectados, principalmente a través de gotas salivales. Se deben priorizar las prácticas de prevención organizacional, desde la llegada del paciente al servicio de salud, optimizando el flujo de atención, la primera atención y durante las acciones de atención de salud, para minimizar la exposición ocupacional al agente biológico. Los profesionales de la salud clasificados como grupo de riesgo deben ser retirados de las actividades en riesgo de contaminación. Las personas contaminadas o adulteradas deben permanecer en cuarentena para minimizar la propagación de COVID-19. Consideraciones finales: se debe priorizar la atención para evitar la contaminación de los trabajadores en esta pandemia por el nuevo coronavirus, evitando que afecte la asistencia a la población que busca asistencia en los servicios de salud.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral , Riscos Ocupacionais , Fatores de Risco , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pessoal de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Condições de Trabalho , Enfermagem , Betacoronavirus
2.
Ars pharm ; 61(2): 63-79, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188101

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: En diciembre de 2019, se detectaron los primeros casos de enfermedad respiratoria causada por un coronavirus emergente, al que se denominó SARS-CoV-2, que en los primeros meses de 2020 se ha extendido por todo el mundo con características de pandemia. MÉTODO: Se examinaron las publicaciones más relevantes en relación con los objetivos de la revisión. RESULTADOS: La enfermedad, conocida como COVID-19, cursa con tos, fiebre y dificultad respiratoria. Las formas más graves, que afectan principalmente a personas de edad avanzada y con determinadas comorbilidades, se manifiestan por afectación de la función respiratoria, que requiere ventilación mecánica, y síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica, que puede conducir a un choque séptico con fallo multiorgánico, y altas tasas de mortalidad. En esta revisión se examina el estado actual de conocimientos sobre las características y origen del SARS-CoV-2, su replicación, y la patogénesis, clínica, diagnóstico, tratamiento y prevención de COVID-19. CONCLUSIONES: Las características del SARS-CoV-2 y la clínica de COVID-19 son bien conocidas. La PCR es la técnica de referencia para el diagnóstico de laboratorio; se dispone de ensayos para detección de antígenos y de anticuerpos, con margen de optimización. Los protocolos de tratamiento incluyen la corrección de la respuesta inflamatoria sistémica y administración de agentes antivirales. Existen vacunas en desarrollo


INTRODUCTION: In December 2019, the first cases of respiratory disease caused by an emerging coronavirus were detected. The causative agento f the outbreak was called SARS-CoV-2, and in the first months of 2020 it spread throughout the world as a pandemic. METHOD: The most relevant publications concerned with the aims of the review were examined. RESULTS: The disease, known as COVID-19. Patients show cough, fever, and respiratory distress. The most severe forms, mainly affecting the elderly and associated with various comorbidities, are manifested by impaired respiratory function, requiring mechanical ventilation, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome, which can lead to septic shock with multi-organ failure and high mortality rates. This review examines the current state of knowledge about the characteristics and origin of SARS-CoV-2, its replication, and the pathogenesis, clinical, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are well known. PCR is the reference technique for laboratory diagnosis; assays for the detection of antigens and antibodies are available, with optimization possibilities. Treatment protocols include attenuation of the systemic inflammatory response and administration of antiviral agents. There are vaccines in development


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Pandemias , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
3.
Recurso na Internet em Espanhol | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47527

RESUMO

Sitio web del Ministerio de Salud, con información actualizada sobre el Coronavirus COVID-19 (legislación social y preventiva, qué medidas está tomando el gobierno, qué podemos hacer para cuidarlo, preguntas frecuentes y mucho más


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Isolamento Social , Estratégias de eSaúde
4.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47389

RESUMO

A atual pandemia da doença causada pelo novo coronavírus SARS-CoV-2, denominada pela Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) como COVID-19 (WHO, 2020c), levou os serviços de saúde a um novo cenário que influencia a saúde e segurança dos diversos profissionais envolvidos nos cuidados à população. Esta realidade, já vivenciada em países como China e Itália, traz preocupação social e profissional com a necessidade de reavaliação das ações para prevenção da COVID-19 entre os trabalhadores expostos ao vírus durante suas atividades laborais. A transmissão é favorecida pelo contato próximo e desprotegido com secreções ou excreções de um paciente infectado, principalmente por meio de gotículas salivares. Outros fluidos corporais não estão claramente implicados na transmissão do novo coronavírus, mas se considera que o contato desprotegido com sangue, fezes, vômitos e urina pode colocar o profissional em risco de adoecimento (CDC, 2020c).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pneumonia Viral , Riscos Ocupacionais , Pessoal de Saúde , Saúde do Trabalhador , Cuidados de Enfermagem
5.
Turk J Med Sci ; 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351103

RESUMO

COVID-19 infection, a highly contagious disease caused by the SARS-CoV virus, and the World Health Organization declared this increasingly spreading disease as a global public health emergency (pandemic). In the diagnosis of COVID-19, the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is considered as the reference standard test. In the early stages, thorax CT findings could be present even before the onset of symptoms, thorax CT has quite high sensitivity in COVID-19 patients with false negative RT-PCR results, and it has a great importance not only in diagnosis but also in follow up (6,7). We think that it might be beneficial for our radiologist colleagues in the early diagnosis of the imaging features of this disease, by sharing the experiences we have gained by evaluating the typical and relatively atypical CT findings regarding the natural course of the tomographic findings of COVID-19 and when to control CT.

6.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; : 1-5, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. Because CT plays an important role in diagnosis, isolation, treatment, and effective evaluation of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), infection prevention and control management of CT examination rooms is important. CONCLUSION. We describe modifications to the CT examination process, strict disinfection of examination rooms, arrangement of waiting areas, and efforts to increase radiographers' awareness of personal protection made at our institution during the COVID-19 outbreak. In addition, we discuss the potential of using artificial intelligence in imaging patients with contagious diseases.

9.
NTM ; 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382897

RESUMO

This paper is part of Forum COVID-19: Perspectives in the Humanities and Social Sciences. The Spanish Flu 1918-1920 caused between 50 and 100 million deaths. Despite this, West German officials ignored the pandemics of 1957/1958 and 1968-1970. Patient perseverance seems to be an appropriate label for the lack of any action. The appearance of new viruses had a massive impact on the discourse concerning pandemics: "patient perseverance" became "omnipresent prevention." The actual measures against SARS-CoV­2 exceed the "omnipresent prevention" used during the 2009 swine flu pandemic by far.

10.
Can J Anaesth ; 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in December 2019 causing the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Currently, there is a lack of evidence-based therapies to prevent COVID-19 following exposure to the virus, or to prevent worsening of symptoms following confirmed infection. We describe the design of a clinical trial of hydroxychloroquine for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-emptive therapy (PET) for COVID-19. METHODS: We will conduct two nested multicentre international double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials of hydroxychloroquine for: 1) PEP of asymptomatic household contacts or healthcare workers exposed to COVID-19 within the past four days, and 2) PET for symptomatic outpatients with COVID-19 showing symptoms for less than four days. We will recruit 1,500 patients each for the PEP and PET trials. Participants will be randomized 1:1 to receive five days of hydroxychloroquine or placebo. The primary PEP trial outcome will be the incidence of symptomatic COVID-19. The primary PET trial outcome will be an ordinal scale of disease severity (not hospitalized, hospitalized without intensive care, hospitalization with intensive care, or death). Participant screening, informed consent, and follow-up will be exclusively internet-based with appropriate regulatory and research ethics board approvals in Canada and the United States. DISCUSSION: These complementary randomized-controlled trials are innovatively designed and adequately powered to rapidly answer urgent questions regarding the effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine to reduce virus transmission and disease severity of COVID-19 during a pandemic. In-person participant follow-up will not be conducted to facilitate social distancing strategies and reduce risks of exposure to study personnel. Innovative trial approaches are needed to urgently assess therapeutic options to mitigate the global impact of this pandemic. TRIALS REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04308668); registered 16 March, 2020.

11.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386610
14.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(0): E034, 2020 May 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388938

RESUMO

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, China has adopted a series of prevention and control measures such as case isolation, close contact tracking management, environmental hygiene improvements, disinfection, and personal protection. At present, China has achieved remarkable results in the control of COVID-19. This article outlines the role of environmental hygiene and disinfection in the prevention and control of COVID-19 and analyzes relevant policies and countermeasures, which has been proved effective and deserved for extensive implementation in this combat. Suggestions are also provided for the further development of this field.

15.
Oral Dis ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391651

RESUMO

COVID-19 is an emerging infectious disease caused by the widespread transmission of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Some of those infected become seriously ill. Others do not show any symptoms, but can still contribute to transmission of the virus. SARS-CoV-2 is excreted in the oral cavity and can be spread via aerosols. Aerosol generating procedures in dental health care can increase the risk of transmission of the virus. Due to the risk of infection of both dental health care workers and patients, additional infection control measures for all patients are strongly recommended when providing dental health care. Consideration should be given to which infection control measures are necessary when providing care in both the current situation and in the future.

16.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 102(5): 323-332, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352836

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several articles have been published about the reorganisation of surgical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic but few, if any, have focused on the impact that this has had on emergency and trauma surgery. Our aim was to review the most current data on COVID-19 to provide essential suggestions on how to manage the acute abdomen during the pandemic. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted of the most relevant English language articles on COVID-19 and surgery published between 15 December 2019 and 30 March 2020. FINDINGS: Access to the operating theatre is almost exclusively restricted to emergencies and oncological procedures. The use of laparoscopy in COVID-19 positive patients should be cautiously considered. The main risk lies in the presence of the virus in the pneumoperitoneum: the aerosol released in the operating theatre could contaminate both staff and the environment. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, all efforts should be deployed in order to evaluate the feasibility of postponing surgery until the patient is no longer considered potentially infectious or at risk of perioperative complications. If surgery is deemed necessary, the emergency surgeon must minimise the risk of exposure to the virus by involving a minimal number of healthcare staff and shortening the occupation of the operating theatre. In case of a lack of security measures to enable safe laparoscopy, open surgery should be considered.


Assuntos
Abdome Agudo/cirurgia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Salas Cirúrgicas/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Abdome Agudo/complicações , Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumoperitônio Artificial/efeitos adversos , Prática Profissional/organização & administração , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353991

RESUMO

On 31 December 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) was notified of a novel coronavirus disease in China that was later named COVID-19. On 11 March 2020, the outbreak of COVID-19 was declared a pandemic. The first instance of the virus in Nigeria was documented on 27 February 2020. This study provides a preliminary epidemiological analysis of the first 45 days of COVID-19 outbreak in Nigeria. We estimated the early transmissibility via time-varying reproduction number based on the Bayesian method that incorporates uncertainty in the distribution of serial interval (time interval between symptoms onset in an infected individual and the infector), and adjusted for disease importation. By 11 April 2020, 318 confirmed cases and 10 deaths from COVID-19 have occurred in Nigeria. At day 45, the exponential growth rate was 0.07 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05-0.10) with a doubling time of 9.84 days (95% CI: 7.28-15.18). Separately for imported cases (travel-related) and local cases, the doubling time was 12.88 days and 2.86 days, respectively. Furthermore, we estimated the reproduction number for each day of the outbreak using a three-weekly window while adjusting for imported cases. The estimated reproduction number was 4.98 (95% CrI: 2.65-8.41) at day 22 (19 March 2020), peaking at 5.61 (95% credible interval (CrI): 3.83-7.88) at day 25 (22 March 2020). The median reproduction number over the study period was 2.71 and the latest value on 11 April 2020, was 1.42 (95% CrI: 1.26-1.58). These 45-day estimates suggested that cases of COVID-19 in Nigeria have been remarkably lower than expected and the preparedness to detect needs to be shifted to stop local transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coronavirus , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Viagem , Teorema de Bayes , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
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