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1.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-11-01. (OPS/NMH/MH/21-0033).
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55093

RESUMEN

El Fondo Estratégico para Suministros de Salud Pública de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (Fondo Estratégico) ayuda a asegurar la disponibilidad de los medicamentos esenciales para las enfermedades no transmisibles, incluidos los medicamentos para cuidados paliativos, a un precio competitivo para todos los países. El Fondo Estratégico es un mecanismo integrado de adquisiciones mancomunado, y los productos adquiridos cumplen las normas internacionales de seguridad, eficacia y calidad. En este folleto se presenta información sobre los medicamentos y formulaciones disponibles para las enfermedades no transmisibles mediante el Fondo Estratégico, agrupados por categorías: enfermedades cardiovasculares, diabetes, cáncer, enfermedades respiratorias crónicas y cuidados paliativos. Incluye ejemplos de los descuentos logrados por el Fondo Estratégico para los medicamentos esenciales, con el objetivo de procurar precios competitivos para América Latina y el Caribe.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Cuidados Paliativos , Diabetes Mellitus , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Enfermedades Respiratorias , Medicina , Medicamentos Esenciales , Acceso a Medicamentos Esenciales y Tecnologías Sanitarias
2.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-11-01. (PAHO/NMH/MH/21-0033).
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55092

RESUMEN

The Pan American Health Organization’s Revolving Fund for Strategic Public Health Supplies (Strategic Fund) helps ensure the availability of essential medicines for noncommunicable diseases, including palliative care medicines, at a competitive price for all countries. The Strategic Fund is an integrated pooled procurement mechanism, and the products purchased through the Strategic Fund meet international standards in safety, efficacy, and quality. This brochure presents information on the medications and their formulations available through the Strategic Fund for noncommunicable diseases, summarized by category: cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and palliative care. The brochure includes examples of price reductions achieved by the Strategic Fund for key essential medicines, ensuring competitive prices for these for Latin America and the Caribbean.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Medicina , Acceso a Medicamentos Esenciales y Tecnologías Sanitarias , Cuidados Paliativos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Neoplasias , Enfermedades Respiratorias , Medicamentos Esenciales
3.
Washington D.C; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; 1 ed; Nov. 2021. 14 p. ilus.
Monografía en Español | LIPECS, MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1344724

RESUMEN

En la presente publicación se detalla la información sobre los medicamentos y formulaciones disponibles para las enfermedades no transmisibles mediante el Fondo Estratégico, agrupados por categorías: enfermedades cardiovasculares, diabetes, cáncer, enfermedades respiratorias crónicas y cuidados paliativos. Incluye ejemplos de los descuentos logrados por el Fondo Estratégico para los medicamentos esenciales, con el objetivo de procurar precios competitivos para América Latina y el Caribe


Asunto(s)
Cuidados Paliativos , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Medicamentos Esenciales , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Acceso a Medicamentos Esenciales y Tecnologías Sanitarias , Fondo Estratégico
4.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-10-14.
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54995

RESUMEN

The acquisition of antimicrobials without a prescription is a global concern. This practice is thriving in countries that lack adequate legislation or where regulations are not properly enforced. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and its member states in the Region of the Americas approved the Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance, which recognizes antimicrobial resistance as a threat to global public health that requires a multisectoral response. To tackle antimicrobial resistance, a worldwide change in behavior is needed in terms of how these drugs are used and acquired. National approaches are required to address the indiscriminate use and over-prescription of antimicrobials, and to enforce regulations on prescription and acquisition practices. The objective of this communication handbook is to help communication professionals and health program officials develop strategies to raise awareness and promote the importance of the appropriate use of antimicrobials among different stakeholders; raise public awareness about the importance of obtaining antimicrobials with a prescription in order to achieve multisectoral collaboration to ensure compliance with laws and regulations on this issue; and promote a change in behavior regarding the appropriate use and acquisition of antimicrobials by everyone involved. The target audiences for this handbook are the general population (including adolescents, children, and child caregivers/parents of children), healthcare professionals (including pharmacists and pharmacy staff), and various stakeholders (government officials, professional societies, medical organizations, the private sector, local leaders, and health-influencers, among others).


Asunto(s)
Resistencia a Medicamentos , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Medicina , Acceso a Medicamentos Esenciales y Tecnologías Sanitarias , Gestión de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación en Salud , Sistemas de Salud , Salud Pública , Programas Nacionales de Salud
6.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 12(7, supl 1): 110-114, out. 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1337857

RESUMEN

Objetivo: descrever a experiência da implantação de protocolos de Enfermagem para a ampliação do acesso na atenção primária à saúde, mediante a qualificação da prática clínica do Enfermeiro. Método: estudo descritivo em formato de relato de experiência. O cenário de estudo é o Estado Santa Catarina, tendo como população alvo as Secretarias Municipais de Saúde do Estado. O Coren/SC firmou parceria com a Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de Florianópolis para utilização dos Protocolos de Enfermagem, criando um Programa de Adesão para os municípios. Resultados: Desde a implantação, o programa recebeu 225 solicitações de adesão dentre os 295 municípios catarinenses. Atingiu um total de 135 municípios com os protocolos de enfermagem implantados e 1.708 Enfermeiros capacitados. A oferta de Consultas de Enfermagem onde não havia atendimento do Enfermeiro, ampliação do acesso dos pacientes, com redução significativa de filas de espera, além do aumento das consultas de Enfermagem e resolutividade das mesmas. Conclusão: Os Protocolos de Enfermagem constituem-se como ferramenta primordial para a efetivação do modelo de Atenção Primária no Estado e como inovação e diferencial para as pessoas atendidas. A adesão aos protocolos permite a valorização e o protagonismo da Enfermagem na Atenção Primária. (AU)


Objective: To describe the experience of implementing nursing protocols to expand access to primary health care, through the qualification of nurses' clinical practice. Methods: Descriptive study in experience report format. The study setting is the State of Santa Catarina, with the Municipal Health Secretariats of the State as the target population. Coren/SC signed a partnership with the Municipal Health Department of Florianópolis for the use of Nursing Protocols, creating an Adhesion Program for the municipalities. Results: Since its implementation, the program has received 225 requests for membership among the 295 municipalities in Santa Catarina. It reached a total of 135 municipalities with implemented nursing protocols and 1,708 trained nurses. The offer of Nursing Appointments where there was no care provided by the Nurse, expansion of access for patients, with a significant reduction in waiting lines, in addition to the increase in Nursing appointments and their resoluteness. Conclusion: The Nursing Protocols constitute a primordial tool for the realization of the Primary Care model in the State and as an innovation and differential for the people served. Adherence to protocols allows the enhancement and protagonism of Nursing in Primary Care. (AU)


Objetivo: Describir la experiencia de implementación de protocolos de enfermería para ampliar el acceso a la atención primaria de salud, a través de la calificación de la práctica clínica del enfermero. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo en formato de relato de experiencia. El escenario del estudio es el Estado de Santa Catarina, con las Secretarías Municipales de Salud del Estado como población objetivo. Coren / SC firmó una alianza con el Departamento de Salud Municipal de Florianópolis para el uso de Protocolos de Enfermería, creando un Programa de Adhesión para los municipios. Resultados: Desde su implementación, el programa ha recibido 225 solicitudes de membresía entre los 295 municipios de Santa Catarina. Llegó a un total de 135 municipios con protocolos de enfermería implementados y 1,708 enfermeras capacitadas. La oferta de Citas de Enfermería donde no hubo atención por parte de la Enfermera, ampliación del acceso de los pacientes, con una reducción significativa de las filas de espera, además del aumento de las citas de Enfermería y su resolución. Conclusión: Los Protocolos de Enfermería constituyen una herramienta primordial para la realización del modelo de Atención Primaria en el Estado y como innovación y diferencial para las personas atendidas. La adherencia a los protocolos permite la potenciación y protagonismo de la Enfermería en Atención Primaria. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Enfermería , Atención Primaria de Salud , Protocolos Clínicos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud
7.
Cad. Ibero Am. Direito Sanit. (Impr.) ; 10(3): 211-224, jul.-set.2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291462

RESUMEN

Objetivo: identificar os principais aspetos inovadores do Regulamento relativo aos ensaios clínicos de medicamentos para uso humano, em termos de oportunidades para a investigação e desenvolvimento e refletir sobre os desafios éticos deste novo quadro legal. Metodologia: estudo documental, descritivo, comparativo, do Regulamento face à Diretiva 2001/20/CE, e leitura de bibliografia publicada no PubMed, usando termos de pesquisa combinados ou simples como clinical, trials, European, Regulation, Directive, opportunities, challenges e innovation. Resultados: os principais aspetos inovadores identificados foram o Portal da União Europeia para submissão do dossiê do ensaio clínico e avaliação conjunta entre os Estados-Membros envolvidos num ensaio clínico; disponibilização pública de informação, resultados dos ensaios e um sumário de resultados para leigos; foram criadas a figura do copromotor, categorias de ensaios em função do risco; estabelecidos novos procedimentos para obtenção de consentimento informado e requisitos para uma maior proteção para os indivíduos mais vulneráveis; e definido o quadro normativo para a realização de ensaios clínicos em situação de emergência. Discussão: estão previstos procedimentos que visam contrariar a perda de competitividade da Europa, promovendo a inovação, alguns dos quais não estão isentos de questionamento ético. Conclusão: a simplificação, harmonização e maior transparência em todo o processo de submissão e condução dos ensaios clínicos tem o potencial de promover a investigação, mas traz alguns aspetos inquietantes em matéria de proteção dos participantes nos ensaios clínicos.


Objective: to identify the main innovative aspects of the Regulation on clinical trials of medicines for human use, in terms of opportunities for research and development and to reflect on the ethical challenges of this new legal framework. Methods: documentary, descriptive, comparative study of the Regulation in regard with the Directive 2001/20/EC, reading bibliography published in PubMed, using combined or simple research terms such as clinical, trials, European, Regulation, Directive, opportunities, challengesand innovation. Results: the main innovative aspects identified were the Portal for submission of the clinical trial dossier and joint evaluation between the Member States involved in a clinical trial; public dissemination of clinical trial ́s information, results and lay summary. The idea of co-sponsor and new categories of trials depending on to the risks were created; new procedures for obtaining informed consent and requirements for the protection of the most vulnerable individuals, and the regulatory framework for conducting clinical trials in an emergency were established. Discussion:in order to counteract the loss of competitiveness in Europe, some procedures were implemented in order to promote innovation, some of which are not exempt from ethical questioning. Conclusion: simplification, harmonization and transparency for the submission and conduction of clinical trials have the potential to boost research, but brings some concerns regarding the protection of participants in clinical trials.


Objetivo: identificar los principales aspectos innovadores del Reglamento sobre ensayos clínicos de medicamentos de uso humano, en términos de oportunidades de investigación y desarrollo y reflexionar sobre los desafíos éticos de este nuevo marco legal. Metodología: estudio documental, descriptivo, comparativo del Reglamento en relación con la Directiva 2001/20/CE, y lectura de bibliografía publicada en PubMed, utilizando términos de investigación combinados o simples como clinical, trials, European, Regulation, Directive, opportunities, challengesy innovation. Resultados: los principales aspectos innovadores identificados fueron el Portal de presentación del expediente de ensayo clínico y evaluación conjunta entre los Estados miembros implicados en un ensayo clínico; disponibilidad pública de información, resultados de pruebas y un resumen de resultados para laicos; se creó la figura del co-promotor, categorías de pruebas según el riesgo; se han establecido nuevos procedimientos para obtener el consentimiento informado y requisitos para una mayor protección de las personas más vulnerables; y definió el marco regulatorio para la realización de ensayos clínicos en una situación de emergencia. Discusión:se prevén procedimientos para contrarrestar la pérdida de competitividad en Europa, promoviendo la innovación, algunas de las cuales no están exentas de cuestionamientos éticos. Conclusión: la simplificación, armonización y mayor transparencia en todo el proceso de envío y realización de ensayos clínicos tiene el potencial de promover la investigación, pero trae algunos aspectos inquietantes en términos de protección de los participantes en los ensayos clínicos.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445293

RESUMEN

In this research, we synthesize and characterize poly(glycerol sebacate) pre-polymer (pPGS) (1H NMR, FTiR, GPC, and TGA). Nano-hydroxyapatite (HAp) is synthesized using the wet precipitation method. Next, the materials are used to prepare a PGS-based composite with a 25 wt.% addition of HAp. Microporous composites are formed by means of thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) followed by thermal cross-linking (TCL) and salt leaching (SL). The manufactured microporous materials (PGS and PGS/HAp) are then subjected to imaging by means of SEM and µCT for the porous structure characterization. DSC, TGA, and water contact angle measurements are used for further evaluation of the materials. To assess the cytocompatibility and biological potential of PGS-based composites, preosteoblasts and differentiated hFOB 1.19 osteoblasts are employed as in vitro models. Apart from the cytocompatibility, the scaffolds supported cell adhesion and were readily populated by the hFOB1.19 preosteoblasts. HAp-facilitated scaffolds displayed osteoconductive properties, supporting the terminal differentiation of osteoblasts as indicated by the production of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and osteopontin. Notably, the PGS/HAp scaffolds induced the production of significant amounts of osteoclastogenic cytokines: IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α, which induced scaffold remodeling and promoted the reconstruction of bone tissue. Initial biocompatibility tests showed no signs of adverse effects of PGS-based scaffolds toward adult BALB/c mice.


Asunto(s)
Sustitutos de Huesos/síntesis química , Decanoatos/química , Durapatita/química , Glicerol/análogos & derivados , Polímeros/química , Ingeniería de Tejidos/métodos , Andamios del Tejido/química , Animales , Materiales Biocompatibles/síntesis química , Materiales Biocompatibles/química , Materiales Biocompatibles/farmacología , Regeneración Ósea/efectos de los fármacos , Sustitutos de Huesos/química , Sustitutos de Huesos/farmacología , Sustitutos de Huesos/uso terapéutico , Huesos/efectos de los fármacos , Huesos/fisiología , Células Cultivadas , Femenino , Glicerol/química , Humanos , Invenciones , Masculino , Ensayo de Materiales , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Osteoblastos/efectos de los fármacos , Osteoblastos/fisiología , Osteogénesis/efectos de los fármacos , Polímeros/síntesis química , Porosidad , Ingeniería de Tejidos/tendencias
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16185, 2021 08 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376746

RESUMEN

Converging evidence suggests that oxytocin (OT) is associated with creative thinking (CT) and that release of OT depends on ADP ribosyl-cyclases (CD38 and CD157). Neural mechanisms of CT and OT show a strong association with dopaminergic (DA) pathways, yet the link between CT and CD38, CD157, dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) peripheral gene expression remain inconclusive, thus limiting our understanding of the neurobiology of CT. To address this issue, two principal domains of CT, divergent thinking (AUT), were assessed. In men, both AUT is associated with gene expression of CD38, CD157, and their interaction CD38 × CD157. There were no significant associations for DA expression (DRD2, COMT, DRD2 × COMT) on both CT measures. However, analysis of the interactions of OT and DA systems reveal significant interactions for AUT in men. The full model explained a sizable 39% of the variance in females for the total CT score. The current findings suggest that OT and DA gene expression contributed significantly to cognition and CT phenotype. This provides the first empirical foundation of a more refined understanding of the molecular landscape of CT.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/efectos de los fármacos , Creatividad , Dopamina/farmacología , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Oxitocina/farmacología , Saliva/metabolismo , ADP-Ribosil Ciclasa/genética , ADP-Ribosil Ciclasa/metabolismo , ADP-Ribosil Ciclasa 1/genética , ADP-Ribosil Ciclasa 1/metabolismo , Adulto , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Catecol O-Metiltransferasa/genética , Catecol O-Metiltransferasa/metabolismo , Dopaminérgicos/farmacología , Femenino , Proteínas Ligadas a GPI/genética , Proteínas Ligadas a GPI/metabolismo , Interacción Gen-Ambiente , Humanos , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Oxitócicos/farmacología , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , Receptores de Dopamina D2/metabolismo , Saliva/efectos de los fármacos , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
11.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-07-01. (OPS/HSS/SF/21-0007).
No convencional en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54473

RESUMEN

El informe anual del Fondo Estratégico de la OPS correspondiente al 2020 describe los progresos realizados durante el período para ayudar a garantizar el acceso a medicamentos e insumos de salud pública esenciales, al tiempo que se respondía a la pandemia de COVID‑19. En el informe se abarcan diversos aspectos del Fondo Estratégico, como los beneficios ofrecidos, los interesados directos que participan, las ofertas de productos y algunas iniciativas clave. Asimismo, se presentan datos útiles, información, estadísticas y ejemplos de formas en que el Fondo Estratégico ha facilitado la cooperación técnica en toda la Región de las Américas. Este informe tiene por objeto resumir la labor crítica realizada por el Fondo Estratégico en el 2020 y ofrecer información sobre sus principios y objetivos operativos para el fortalecimiento y apoyo a largo plazo de los sistemas de salud de la Región.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Pandemias , Acceso a Medicamentos Esenciales y Tecnologías Sanitarias , Equipos y Suministros , Américas
12.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(8): 1075-1086, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243049

RESUMEN

The development of remdesivir has been a breakthrough for COVID-19 treatment. It has been approved in about 50 countries, including Saudi Arabia, since 2020. The generic structure of remdesivir was first disclosed in 2009. This patent review summarizes the remdesivir based inventions to treat/prevent COVID-19 and other disorders from 2009 to May 16, 2021, emphasizing the patents related to medical and pharmaceutical sciences. The primary patents/patent applications of remdesivir are related to its compositions, new combinations with other therapeutic agents, delivery systems, and new indications. The inventive combinations have displayed synergistic effects against COVID-19, whereas the delivery systems/compositions have improved patient compliance. The inventions related to new indications of remdesivir to treat Ebola, hepatitis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, diabetic nephropathy, and cardiovascular complications enhance its therapeutic area. Many new innovative combinations and delivery systems of remdesivir are anticipated to provide better treatment for COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , COVID-19/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Invenciones , SARS-CoV-2 , Arabia Saudita
13.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 44, 2021 06 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211830

RESUMEN

During the COVI9-19 pandemic, Pakkred hospital in Thailand implemented innovative practices to ensure the continuation of essential medical services for non-communicable disease patients. These practices included decentralized care, telemedicine, home blood pressure monitoring, community delivery of medicines, and facility infrastructure changes. Despite the decrease in hospital visits by hypertension patients during the pandemic, our results suggest that this package of interventions may have contributed to sustained hypertension and diabetes control rates in Pakkred district.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Atención a la Salud/organización & administración , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Hipertensión/terapia , Monitoreo Ambulatorio de la Presión Arterial/métodos , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud , Continuidad de la Atención al Paciente , Instituciones de Salud , Ambiente de Instituciones de Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/terapia , Innovación Organizacional , Equipo de Protección Personal , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicina/organización & administración , Tailandia , Ventilación
14.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(7): 499-503, 2021.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263876

RESUMEN

Access to vaccines against covid-19 is a very topical issue. On the one hand, we are suffering from supply problems and inadequate availability of doses both nationally and internationally. On the other hand, public health needs do not coincide with those of the market economy: the need to vaccinate the entire world population to overcome the pandemic cannot be satisfied due to market rules and limits in production processes. The result is a radical inequality in access to vaccines. We are aware of the delicate balance between health and economy: the latter cannot ignore the former. Also for this reason, the demand for greater equity in access to vaccines is growing: the race for innovation may not be hindered by a targeted relaxation of the rules on intellectual property during a pandemic health emergency.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19/provisión & distribución , COVID-19/prevención & control , Desarrollo de Medicamentos , Propiedad Intelectual , Investigación Biomédica/economía , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/economía , Difusión de Innovaciones , Salud Global , Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Humanos , Italia , Evaluación de Necesidades , Patentes como Asunto , Salud Pública , Apoyo a la Investigación como Asunto/economía , Cobertura de Vacunación
16.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 31(7): 457-463, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283939

RESUMEN

Objectives: Our goal was to develop an open access nationally disseminated online curriculum for use in graduate and continuing medical education on the topic of pediatric telepsychiatry to enhance the uptake of telepsychiatry among child psychiatry training programs and improve access to mental health care for youth and families. Methods: Following Kern's 6-stage model of curriculum development, we identified a core problem, conducted a needs assessment, developed broad goals and measurable objectives in a competency-based model, and developed educational content and methods. The curriculum was reviewed by experts and feedback incorporated. Given the urgent need for such a curriculum due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the curriculum was immediately posted on the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training websites. Further evaluation will be conducted over the next year. Results: The curriculum covers the six areas of core competence adapted for pediatric telepsychiatry and includes teaching content and resources, evaluation tools, and information about other resources. Conclusion: This online curriculum is available online and provides an important resource and set of standards for pediatric telepsychiatry training. Its online format allows for ongoing revision as the telepsychiatry landscape changes.


Asunto(s)
Psiquiatría del Adolescente/educación , COVID-19 , Psiquiatría Infantil/educación , Curriculum/tendencias , Educación Médica Continua , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina , Acceso a la Información , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Niño , Educación/métodos , Educación/organización & administración , Educación Médica Continua/métodos , Educación Médica Continua/organización & administración , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/métodos , Educación de Postgrado en Medicina/organización & administración , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Servicios de Salud Mental/normas , Servicios de Salud Mental/tendencias , Innovación Organizacional , Objetivos Organizacionales , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicina/métodos
17.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-06-15. (PAHO/HSS/SF/21-0007).
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54292

RESUMEN

The PAHO Strategic Fund Annual Report 2020 outlines progress made over the past year in helping ensure access to essential medicines and public health supplies while responding to the COVID-19 pandemic. The report covers various aspects of the Strategic Fund, including benefits offered, participating stakeholders, product offerings, and key initiatives. It also provides useful data, information, statistics, and examples of ways in which the Strategic Fund has facilitated technical cooperation across the Region of the Americas. This report aims to summarize the critical work undertaken by the Strategic Fund during 2020 and offer insight into its operating principles and goals for long-term strengthening and support of health systems in the Region.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Acceso a Medicamentos Esenciales y Tecnologías Sanitarias , Equipos y Suministros
18.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-06-11. (OPS-W/FPL/IM/COVID-19/21-0028).
No convencional en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54270

RESUMEN

En este documento se presenta orientación provisional sobre las mejores prácticas para evaluar la efectividad de las vacunas contra la COVID-19 usando el diseño de estudio observacional. Se examinan las consideraciones esenciales del diseño, el análisis y la interpretación de las evaluaciones de la efectividad de las vacunas contra la COVID-19, dado que se pueden obtener resultados sesgados aun en entornos en los que la exhaustividad y la calidad de los datos son altas. Esta orientación se dirige principalmente a las evaluaciones realizadas en los países de ingresos bajos o medianos, pero la mayoría de los conceptos también son aplicables en entornos de ingresos altos.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Vacunas , Enfermedades Prevenibles por Vacunación , Vacunación , Acceso a Medicamentos Esenciales y Tecnologías Sanitarias
19.
AIDS Behav ; 25(10): 3145-3158, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152531

RESUMEN

PrEP adoption among African-American men-who-have-sex-with-men (AAMSM) remains low. We applied Diffusion-of-Innovations (DOI) theory to understand PrEP adoption processes among young HIV-negative/status unknown AAMSM (AAYMSM; N = 181; 17-24 years). Quantitative and qualitative analyses were used to examine predictors of PrEP diffusion stages. Most AAYMSM were in the persuasion stage (PrEP-aware, hadn't adopted; 72.4%). Our results suggest that model antecedents are DOI stage-specific. PrEP awareness (knowledge stage) was associated with lower levels of social stigma (p < .03) and greater health literacy (p < .05), while sexual risk (p < .03) and education (p < .03) predicted PrEP adoption (12.2%). PrEP efficacy and side effects were primary innovation characteristics influencing adoption receptivity in the persuasion stage. Interventions to improve PrEP diffusion should be tailored to stage-specific antecedents depending on how a community is stratified across the DOI stages.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074011

RESUMEN

Divisive faultlines caused by the uneven distribution of relationship strength play an essential role in knowledge search in the technological innovation network, which serves as an important requirement for the technological innovation network's macro level to expand to the meso-subgroup level and promote its healthy development. Given that the biopharmaceutical industry, as a high-tech industry, plays a vital role in promoting healthy development, this paper uses the joint patent applications of global biopharmaceutical firms from 2003 to 2018 as a sample to construct a technological innovation network, to explore the relationship between divisive faultlines and knowledge search in the technological innovation network. We also study the moderating effect of structural holes in this relationship. The empirical results show that divisive faultlines significantly affect the depth of knowledge search in the technological innovation network. Divisive faultlines have an inverted U-shaped effect on the breadth of knowledge search in the technological innovation network. Structural holes positively moderate the relationship between divisive faultlines and depth of knowledge search but negatively moderate the inverted U-shaped relationship between divisive faultlines and breadth of knowledge search. This research reveals the relationship between divisive faultlines and the knowledge search in the technological innovation network. The research results provide a theoretical basis and management enlightenment to improve biopharmaceutical firms' knowledge search ability and promote healthy and sustainable development.


Asunto(s)
Productos Biológicos , Invenciones , Investigación Empírica , Industrias
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