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1.
Dyslexia ; 30(3): e1775, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837597

RESUMO

Dyslexia, a neurocognitive difference characterised by poor word-reading, is associated with elevated risk for internalising (e.g., anxiety) and externalising (e.g., aggression) mental health concerns, the reasons are largely unknown. We took a neurodiversity perspective and explored whether school-connectedness mediated these associations. A total of 283 primary school children (87 with dyslexia) and their caregivers (95.4% mothers) completed a battery of well-validated connectedness and mental health measures. Two mediation models (one for child-report and one for caregiver-report) tested direct and indirect effects of dyslexia on anxiety, depression and conduct problems via several domains of school-connectedness. After controlling for gender and neurodevelopmental conditions other than dyslexia, there were no direct effects of dyslexia on child- or caregiver-reported internalising symptoms or child-reported conduct problems. Dyslexia was associated with child and caregiver reported anxiety, depression and conduct problems via low levels of school (but not teacher, friend or peer) connectedness. Findings highlight school-connectedness as an important intervention target for the mental health of children with dyslexia. Future research is needed to test associations between dyslexia, school-connectedness and mental health over time.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Depressão , Dislexia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Criança , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta , Saúde Mental
2.
Dyslexia ; 30(3): e1768, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845553

RESUMO

A systematic literature review (SLR) of seven papers written between 2015 and 2021 explored the educational experiences of learners with dyslexia in mainstream schools in England from an ecosystemic perspective and how to improve the situation. The analysis employed keywords for database searches and followed the PRISMA flow protocol. It synthesised evidence using thematic analysis and identified seven themes: dyslexia challenges; differential treatment; negative stereotypes; early intervention; teachers' training; power dynamics; and collaboration. The results suggest that several factors can influence the learning experiences of learners with dyslexia in English mainstream schools. Similarly, such factors can, in turn, be dependent on education policies. On that premise, this systematic literature review recommends that to promote positive learning experiences for learners with dyslexia, classroom strategies targeting interventions should be supported with broader environmental strategies shaping individuals' learning experience and offer support from different perspectives. A whole-school approach to providing intervention, teachers' training, parents and school partnerships, and professional collaboration can improve learners' educational experiences. A further recommendation is for learning interventions to target all learners, to prevent differential treatment of learners with dyslexia and to avoid them standing out from their peers and creating a negative experience.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Aprendizagem , Instituições Acadêmicas , Humanos , Inglaterra , Inclusão Escolar , Criança , Estudantes/psicologia , Intervenção Educacional Precoce
3.
Cureus ; 16(4): e58309, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38752100

RESUMO

Alexia without agraphia is a striking vascular syndrome of the acquired inability to read words just written down. This syndrome occurs after lesions in the splenium of the corpus callosum that disconnect the angular gyrus from the visual pathway. Most of the time, a lesion in the left occipital lobe is also present, and patients present with a visual field deficit. It is a classic neurological syndrome that is rarely seen. We present two cases of alexia without agraphia seen in our hospital the same week.

4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10096, 2024 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698014

RESUMO

Pou6f2 is a genetic connection between central corneal thickness (CCT) in the mouse and a risk factor for developing primary open-angle glaucoma. POU6F2 is also a risk factor for several conditions in humans, including glaucoma, myopia, and dyslexia. Recent findings demonstrate that POU6F2-positive retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) comprise a number of RGC subtypes in the mouse, some of which also co-stain for Cdh6 and Hoxd10. These POU6F2-positive RGCs appear to be novel of ON-OFF directionally selective ganglion cells (ooDSGCs) that do not co-stain with CART or SATB2 (typical ooDSGCs markers). These POU6F2-positive cells are sensitive to damage caused by elevated intraocular pressure. In the DBA/2J mouse glaucoma model, heavily-labeled POU6F2 RGCs decrease by 73% at 8 months of age compared to only 22% loss of total RGCs (labeled with RBPMS). Additionally, Pou6f2-/- mice suffer a significant loss of acuity and spatial contrast sensitivity along with an 11.4% loss of total RGCs. In the rhesus macaque retina, POU6F2 labels the large parasol ganglion cells that form the magnocellular (M) pathway. The association of POU6F2 with the M-pathway may reveal in part its role in human glaucoma, myopia, and dyslexia.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Glaucoma , Miopia , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dislexia/genética , Dislexia/metabolismo , Dislexia/patologia , Glaucoma/patologia , Glaucoma/metabolismo , Glaucoma/genética , Pressão Intraocular , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Camundongos Knockout , Miopia/patologia , Miopia/metabolismo , Miopia/genética , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
5.
Dyslexia ; 30(3): e1774, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38807032

RESUMO

Working memory (WM) has been consistently linked to reading. However, the mechanism(s) linking WM to reading remain unclear. WM may indirectly exert an effect onto reading through mediators such as phonemic awareness (PA) and/or rapid automatized naming (RAN). In a sample of children with reading difficulty (n = 117), separate mediation analyses tested direct and indirect (through PA and RAN) effects of WM on untimed word decoding and recognition (i.e., basic reading skills) and timed word decoding and recognition (i.e., reading fluency). WM exerted a direct effect on basic reading skills and reading fluency. For basic reading skills, there was a significant indirect effect of WM on reading through the mediation of PA (but not through RAN). By contrast, for reading fluency, there was a significant indirect effect of WM on reading through the mediation of RAN (but not through PA). Findings reinforce the importance of WM, PA, and RAN for broad reading skills, while offering a mechanistic explanation for why poor PA and/or RAN may differentially lead to reading difficulty.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Dislexia , Memória de Curto Prazo , Fonética , Leitura , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Masculino , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Conscientização/fisiologia
7.
Multisens Res ; 37(3): 243-259, 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777333

RESUMO

Auditory speech can be difficult to understand but seeing the articulatory movements of a speaker can drastically improve spoken-word recognition and, on the longer-term, it helps listeners to adapt to acoustically distorted speech. Given that individuals with developmental dyslexia (DD) have sometimes been reported to rely less on lip-read speech than typical readers, we examined lip-read-driven adaptation to distorted speech in a group of adults with DD ( N = 29) and a comparison group of typical readers ( N = 29). Participants were presented with acoustically distorted Dutch words (six-channel noise-vocoded speech, NVS) in audiovisual training blocks (where the speaker could be seen) interspersed with audio-only test blocks. Results showed that words were more accurately recognized if the speaker could be seen (a lip-read advantage), and that performance steadily improved across subsequent auditory-only test blocks (adaptation). There were no group differences, suggesting that perceptual adaptation to disrupted spoken words is comparable for dyslexic and typical readers. These data open up a research avenue to investigate the degree to which lip-read-driven speech adaptation generalizes across different types of auditory degradation, and across dyslexic readers with decoding versus comprehension difficulties.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Leitura Labial , Leitura , Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Ruído , Estimulação Acústica
8.
Genes Brain Behav ; 23(3): e12899, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38752599

RESUMO

Reading disorders (RD) are human-specific neuropsychological conditions associated with decoding printed words and/or reading comprehension. So far only a handful of candidate genes segregated in families and 42 loci from genome-wide association study (GWAS) have been identified that jointly provided little clues of pathophysiology. Leveraging human-specific genomic information, we critically assessed the RD candidates for the first time and found substantial human-specific features within. The GWAS candidates (i.e., population signals) were distinct from the familial counterparts and were more likely pleiotropic in neuropsychiatric traits and to harbor human-specific regulatory elements (HSREs). Candidate genes associated with human cortical morphology indeed showed human-specific expression in adult brain cortices, particularly in neuroglia likely regulated by HSREs. Expression levels of candidate genes across human brain developmental stages showed a clear pattern of uplifted expression in early brain development crucial to RD development. Following the new insights and loci pleiotropic in cognitive traits, we identified four novel genes from the GWAS sub-significant associations (i.e., FOXO3, MAPT, KMT2E and HTT) and the Semaphorin gene family with functional priors (i.e., SEMA3A, SEMA3E and SEMA5B). These novel genes were related to neuronal plasticity and disorders, mostly conserved the pattern of uplifted expression in early brain development and had evident expression in cortical neuroglial cells. Our findings jointly illuminated the association of RD with neuroglia regulation-an emerging hotspot in studying neurodevelopmental disorders, and highlighted the need of improving RD phenotyping to avoid jeopardizing future genetic studies of RD.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neuroglia , Humanos , Dislexia/genética , Neuroglia/metabolismo
9.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 318, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720281

RESUMO

Reading learning disability (RLD) is characterized by a specific difficulty in learning to read that is not better explained by an intellectual disability, lack of instruction, psychosocial adversity, or a neurological disorder. According to the domain-general hypothesis, a working memory deficit is the primary problem. Working memory in this population has recently been linked to altered resting-state functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and frontoparietal network (FPN) compared to that in typically developing individuals. The main purpose of the present study was to compare the within-network functional connectivity of the DMN, SN, FPN, and reading network in two groups of children with RLD: a group with lower-than-average working memory (LWM) and a group with average working memory (AWM). All subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and data were analyzed from a network perspective using the network brain statistics framework. The results showed that the LWM group had significantly weaker connectivity in a network that involved brain regions in the DMN, SN, and FPN than the AWM group. Although there was no significant difference between groups in reading network in the present study, other studies have shown relationship of the connectivity of the angular gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and inferior parietal lobe with the phonological process of reading. The results suggest that although there are significant differences in functional connectivity in the associated networks between children with LWM and AWM, the distinctive cognitive profile has no specific effect on the reading network.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Memória de Curto Prazo , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Dislexia/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Leitura , Estudos de Casos e Controles
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10249, 2024 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704429

RESUMO

Phonological awareness (PA) is at the foundation of reading development: PA is introduced before formal reading instruction, predicts reading development, is a target for early intervention, and is a core mechanism in dyslexia. Conventional approaches to assessing PA are time-consuming and resource intensive: assessments are individually administered and scoring verbal responses is challenging and subjective. Therefore, we introduce a rapid, automated, online measure of PA-The Rapid Online Assessment of Reading-Phonological Awareness-that can be implemented at scale without a test administrator. We explored whether this gamified, online task is an accurate and reliable measure of PA and predicts reading development. We found high correlations with standardized measures of PA (CTOPP-2, r = .80) for children from Pre-K through fourth grade and exceptional reliability (α = .96). Validation in 50 first and second grade classrooms showed reliable implementation in a public school setting with predictive value of future reading development.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Fonética , Leitura , Humanos , Criança , Feminino , Masculino , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Conscientização , Pré-Escolar
11.
Dyslexia ; 30(3): e1773, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38816983

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the effects of a visual praxis-based occupational therapy (VPOT) program on reading and motor skills for children with developmental dyslexia (DD). Forty-two children were included in the study. Additionally, before VPOT, the Reading-Aloud and Reading-Comprehension Test 2 (ORSRC-2) and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Motor-Proficiency-Test-2-Brief Form (BOT2-BF) were applied to the participants. According to the study design, VPOT was applied to two sessions per week for 8 weeks to group A. During this period, group B was accepted as the control group. At the end of these 8 weeks, evaluation tests were applied to both groups. Then, group A was defined as the control group and Group B as the intervention group, and VPOT was applied to Group B. At the end of another 8 weeks, evaluation tests were applied to both groups for the third time. When the final ORSRC-2 results were examined, VPOT was found to be an effective program for improving reading skills. Additionally, when the final BOT2-BF results were examined, VPOT was determined to be effective in improving motor skills (p < 0.05). We believe that it is important to carry out comprehensive studies such as the VPOT program to solve problems in the physical and learning activities of children with DD.


Assuntos
Estudos Cross-Over , Dislexia , Destreza Motora , Terapia Ocupacional , Leitura , Percepção Visual , Humanos , Dislexia/reabilitação , Dislexia/terapia , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Criança , Feminino , Masculino , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Método Simples-Cego , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
12.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 62(6): 548-552, 2024 Jun 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763877

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the optimization of the standardized assessment tool for clinical diagnosis of Chinese developmental dyslexia (DD). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from May to December 2023, in which 130 primary school children in grades 1 to 3 with clinical signs of literacy lag and positive screening results on the screening scales were recruited from the outpatient clinic of Child Health Care Medical Division, Shanghai Children's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. Chinese dyslexia screening behavior checklist for primary students (CDSBC) was used as the screening scales, and supplemented by dyslexia checklist for Chinese children. Referring to the standard procedure of the"expert advice on diagnosis and intervention of Chinese developmental dyslexia", the developmental dyslexia scale for standard mandarin (DDSSM) was used to evaluate the children's literacy-related cognitive abilities and conduct the diagnostic assessment, and divided the children into learning backward group and the DD group. The t-test and χ2 test were used to compare the differences in the distribution of intelligence, literacy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder between the two groups. Spearman's correlation was used to analyze the correlation between the scores for each cognitive ability in the DDSSM and the CDSBC. Results: Of the 130 children, 90 were male, aged (8.3±1.0) years; 40 were female, aged (8.1±0.9) years. A final diagnosis of DD was made in 59 cases, of which 41 were males. There was no statistically significant difference in operational intelligence quotient (101±15 vs.100±15, t=0.53, P>0.05) and statistically significant difference in literacy of DDSSM (32±5 vs.21±4, t=11.56, P<0.001) between the learning backward group and the DD group. Eighteen cases (25.4%) of the learning backward group were children with attention deficit subtype attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-I), and 16 cases (27.1%) in DD group, the difference in incidence between the two groups was not statistically significant (χ2=0.05, P>0.05). There were correlations between the DDSSM (for oral vocabulary, morphological awareness and orthographic awareness) and the CDSBC total score (r=-0.42, -0.32, -0.35, all P<0.01), but the correlations for visuospatial perception and rapid automatized naming with CDSBC total score were not statistically significant (r=-0.09 and -0.20,both P>0.05). Conclusion: For literacy-related cognitive abilities, screening scales CDSBC are not sufficiently useful for assessment, so the introduction of standardized assessment tools DDSSM is an optimization of the clinical diagnosis of Chinese DD, which is crucial for achieving accurate diagnosis and intervention.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Dislexia , Leitura , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , China , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Dislexia/diagnóstico , População do Leste Asiático , Inteligência , Alfabetização , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Estudantes
13.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 244: 105944, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705096

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the impact of an interactive spelling program on reading acquisition of children at risk of developing reading difficulties as well as to assess its effect on spelling and phonemic awareness. From an initial pool of 144 first-grade children attending four Portuguese primary schools, 53 children with low performances in letter knowledge and phonemic awareness tasks, and considered by their teachers to be at risk of developing reading difficulties, were selected. These children were randomly assigned to three groups: an experimental group that underwent an interactive spelling program, a comparison group that underwent a phonological awareness program, and a control group that underwent a copying program. The programs, conducted in pairs, comprised 12 sessions lasting 20 to 30 min twice a week. The pretest and posttest included word reading, word spelling, and phonemic awareness assessments. Data analysis showed that the spelling group significantly outperformed the other groups across all measures except in the phonemic awareness task, where there were no differences with the phonological group. The word copying group consistently yielded the lowest results. Unlike the other two groups, the posttest results of the experimental group also reached the class average in word reading. For ethical reasons, after the final assessments the control group underwent a version of the interactive spelling program. This study suggests that spelling activities can contribute significantly to reading acquisition and can serve as a valuable pedagogical tool to proactively address challenges in learning to read.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Fonética , Leitura , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Criança , Dislexia/psicologia , Portugal , Conscientização
14.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610086

RESUMO

Reading skills and developmental dyslexia, characterized by difficulties in developing reading skills, have been associated with brain anomalies within the language network. Genetic factors contribute to developmental dyslexia risk, but the mechanisms by which these genes influence reading skills remain unclear. In this preregistered study (https://osf.io/7sehx), we explored if developmental dyslexia susceptibility genes DNAAF4, DCDC2, NRSN1, and KIAA0319 are associated with brain function in fluently reading adolescents and young adults. Functional MRI and task performance data were collected during tasks involving written and spoken sentence processing, and DNA sequence variants of developmental dyslexia susceptibility genes previously associated with brain structure anomalies were genotyped. The results revealed that variation in DNAAF4, DCDC2, and NRSN1 is associated with brain activity in key language regions: the left inferior frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and intraparietal sulcus. Furthermore, NRSN1 was associated with task performance, but KIAA0319 did not yield any significant associations. Our findings suggest that individuals with a genetic predisposition to developmental dyslexia may partly employ compensatory neural and behavioral mechanisms to maintain typical task performance. Our study highlights the relevance of these developmental dyslexia susceptibility genes in language-related brain function, even in individuals without developmental dyslexia, providing valuable insights into the genetic factors influencing language processing.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso , Adolescente , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Dislexia/diagnóstico por imagem , Dislexia/genética , Genótipo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Leitura
15.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664864

RESUMO

The Simple View of Reading model suggests that intact language processing and word decoding lead to proficient reading comprehension, with recent studies pointing at executive functions as an important component contributing to reading proficiency. Here, we aimed to determine the underlying mechanism(s) for these changes. Participants include 120 8- to 12-year-old children (n = 55 with dyslexia, n = 65 typical readers) trained on an executive functions-based reading program, including pre/postfunctional MRI and behavioral data collection. Across groups, improved word reading was related to stronger functional connections within executive functions and sensory networks. In children with dyslexia, faster and more accurate word reading was related to stronger functional connections within and between sensory networks. These results suggest greater synchronization of brain systems after the intervention, consistent with the "neural noise" hypothesis in children with dyslexia and support the consideration of including executive functions as part of the Simple View of Reading model.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Função Executiva , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Leitura , Humanos , Criança , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Dislexia/psicologia , Dislexia/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia
16.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38610090

RESUMO

The impact of action video games on reading performance has been already demonstrated in individuals with and without neurodevelopmental disorders. The combination of action video games and posterior parietal cortex neuromodulation by a transcranial random noise stimulation could enhance brain plasticity, improving attentional control and reading skills also in adults with developmental dyslexia. In a double blind randomized controlled trial, 20 young adult nonaction video game players with developmental dyslexia were trained for 15 h with action video games. Half of the participants were stimulated with bilateral transcranial random noise stimulation on the posterior parietal cortex during the action video game training, whereas the others were in the placebo (i.e. sham) condition. Word text reading, pseudowords decoding, and temporal attention (attentional blink), as well as electroencephalographic activity during the attentional blink, were measured before and after the training. The action video game + transcranial random noise stimulation group showed temporal attention, word text reading, and pseudoword decoding enhancements and P300 amplitude brain potential changes. The enhancement in temporal attention performance was related with the efficiency in pseudoword decoding improvement. Our results demonstrate that the combination of action video game training with parietal neuromodulation increases the efficiency of visual attention deployment, probably reshaping goal-directed and stimulus-driven fronto-parietal attentional networks interplay in young adults with neurodevelopmental conditions.


Assuntos
Intermitência na Atenção Visual , Dislexia , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Leitura , Lobo Parietal , Dislexia/terapia
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(21): 31443-31454, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630400

RESUMO

Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) are ubiquitous in the environment, and all of them can cause neurotoxicity. However, the association between BTEX exposure and dyslexia, a disorder with language network-related regions in left hemisphere affected, remains unclear. We aimed to assess the relationship between BTEX exposure and dyslexic odds among school-aged children. A case-control study, including 355 dyslexics and 390 controls from three cities in China, was conducted. Six BTEX metabolites were measured in their urine samples. Logistic regression model was used to explore the association between the BTEX metabolites and the dyslexic odds. Urinary trans,trans-muconic acid (MU: a metabolite of benzene) was significantly associated with an increased dyslexic odds [odds ratio (OR) = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.50], and the adjusted OR of the dyslexic odds in the third tertile was 1.72 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.77) compared to that in the lowest tertile regarding urinary MU concentration. Furthermore, the association between urinary MU level and the dyslexic odds was more pronounced among children from low-income families based on stratified analyses. Urinary metabolite levels of toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene were not found to be associated with the dyslexic odds. In summary, elevated MU concentrations may be associated with an increased dyslexic odds. We should take measures to reduce MU related exposure among children, particularly those with low family income.


Assuntos
Derivados de Benzeno , Benzeno , Dislexia , Tolueno , Xilenos , Humanos , Criança , Xilenos/urina , Tolueno/urina , Masculino , Derivados de Benzeno/urina , China , Feminino , Dislexia/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exposição Ambiental , Ácido Sórbico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Sórbico/metabolismo , Razão de Chances
20.
Dyslexia ; 30(2): e1767, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38684454

RESUMO

Several studies have shown that children with dyslexia (DYS), in addition to their reading and spelling deficits, encounter handwriting difficulties that are still poorly understood in terms of their nature and origin. The present study aimed to better understand the handwriting difficulties of children with DYS by comparing their handwriting quality and speed in two tasks, a dictation task and an alphabet task, which required fewer spelling skills than the dictation task. Twenty-nine French-speaking children (Mage = 9.5 years) participated in the study, including 18 children with DYS and nine typically developing (TD) children matched on chronological age. The children performed control tasks, a dictation task with words varying in graphic and orthographic complexity and an alphabet writing task. Accuracy, handwriting quality (legibility), and fluency (speed, writing and pause time) were carefully measured using a digital tablet. GLMM analysis and t tests showed that children with DYS made more aesthetic errors (handwriting quality) in both the dictation and alphabet task than TD children. They also wrote more slowly than TD children in the alphabet task (speed, pause time). These findings suggest that children with DYS present handwriting difficulties, even in a simple alphabet task. In dictation, they seem to favour speed at the expense of handwriting quality.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Escrita Manual , Humanos , Criança , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Feminino
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