Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 209.922
Filtrar
1.
J Headache Pain ; 25(1): 49, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565983

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The series of population-based studies conducted by the Global Campaign against Headache has, so far, included Pakistan and Saudi Arabia from the Eastern Mediterranean Region. The Maghreb countries of North Africa, also part of this Region, are geographically apart and culturally very different from these countries. Here we report a study in Morocco. METHODS: We applied the standardised methodology of Global Campaign studies, with cluster-randomized sampling in regions of Morocco selected to be representative of its diversities. In three of these regions, in accordance with this methodology, we made unannounced visits to randomly selected households and, from each, interviewed one randomly selected adult member (aged 18-65 years) using the HARDSHIP structured questionnaire translated into Moroccan Arabic and French. In a fourth region (Fès), because permission for such sampling was not given by the administrative authority, people were randomly stopped in streets and markets and, when willing, interviewed using the same questionnaire. This was a major protocol violation. RESULTS: We included 3,474 participants, 1,074 (41.7%) from Agadir, 1,079 (41.9%) from Marrakech, 422 (16.4%) from Tétouan and 899 from Fès. In a second protocol violation, interviewers failed to record the non-participating proportion. In the main analysis, excluding Fès, observed 1-year prevalence of any headache was 80.1% among females, 68.2% among males. Observed 1-day prevalence (headache yesterday) was 17.8%. After adjustment for age and gender, migraine prevalence was 30.8% (higher among females [aOR = 1.6]) and TTH prevalence 32.1% (lower among females [aOR = 0.8]). Headache on ≥ 15 days/month (H15+) was very common (10.5%), and in more than half of cases (5.9%) associated with acute medication overuse (on ≥ 15 days/month) and accordingly diagnosed as probable medication-overuse headache (pMOH). Both pMOH (aOR = 2.6) and other H15+ (aOR = 1.9) were more common among females. In the Fès sample, adjusted prevalences were similar, numerically but not significantly higher except for other H15+. CONCLUSIONS: While the 1-year prevalence of headache among adults in Morocco is similar to that of many other countries, migraine on the evidence here is at the upper end of the global range, but not outside it. H15 + and pMOH are very prevalent, contributing to the high one-day prevalence of headache.


Asunto(s)
Cefaleas Primarias , Cefaleas Secundarias , Trastornos Migrañosos , Adulto , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Cefaleas Primarias/diagnóstico , Prevalencia , Estudios Transversales , Marruecos/epidemiología , Trastornos Migrañosos/epidemiología , Cefaleas Secundarias/epidemiología , Cefalea/epidemiología
2.
J Headache Pain ; 25(1): 48, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566009

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Global Campaign against Headache is conducting a series of population-based studies to fill the large geographical gaps in knowledge of headache prevalence and attributable burden. One major region not until now included is South America. Here we present a study from Peru, a country of 32.4 million inhabitants located at the west coast of South America, notable for its high Andes mountains. METHODS: The study was conducted in accordance with the standardized methodology used by the Global Campaign. It was a cross-sectional survey using cluster randomised sampling in five regions to derive a nationally representative sample, visiting households unannounced, and interviewing one randomly selected adult member (aged 18-65 years) of each using the Headache-Attributed Restriction, Disability, Social Handicap and Impaired Participation (HARDSHIP) questionnaire translated into South American Spanish. The neutral screening question ("Have you had headache in the last year?") was followed by diagnostic questions based on ICHD-3 and demographic enquiry. RESULTS: The study included 2,149 participants from 2,385 eligible households (participating proportion 90.1%): 1,065 males and 1,084 females, mean age 42.0 ± 13.7 years. The observed 1-year prevalence of all headache was 64.6% [95% CI: 62.5-66.6], with age-, gender- and habitation-adjusted prevalences of 22.8% [21.0-24.6] for migraine (definite + probable), 38.9% [36.8-41.0] for tension-type headache (TTH: also definite + probable), 1.2% [0.8-1.8] for probable medication-overuse headache (pMOH) and 2.7% [2.1-3.5] for other headache on ≥ 15 days/month (H15+). One-day prevalence of headache (reported headache yesterday) was 12.1%. Migraine was almost twice as prevalent among females (28.2%) as males (16.4%; aOR = 2.1; p < 0.001), and strongly associated with living at very high altitude (aOR = 2.5 for > 3,500 versus < 350 m). CONCLUSION: The Global Campaign's first population-based study in South America found headache disorders to be common in Peru, with prevalence estimates for both migraine and TTH substantially exceeding global estimates. H15 + was also common, but with fewer than one third of cases diagnosed as pMOH. The association between migraine and altitude was confirmed, and found to be strengthened at very high altitude. This association demands further study.


Asunto(s)
Cefaleas Primarias , Cefaleas Secundarias , Trastornos Migrañosos , Adulto , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cefaleas Primarias/diagnóstico , Estudios Transversales , Prevalencia , Perú/epidemiología , Cefalea/epidemiología , Trastornos Migrañosos/epidemiología , Cefaleas Secundarias/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
J Gerontol Nurs ; 50(4): 25-33, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569101

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The current study compared prevalence of opioid or benzodiazepine (BZD) prescription and co-prescription of opioids and BZD at discharge and return to a community hospital within 30 days, as well as identified clinical characteristics associated with hospital return in patients aged ≥75 years. METHOD: A secondary analysis of a database created during implementation of the Safe Transitions for At Risk Patients program at a 400-bed community teaching hospital in south Florida was conducted. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify significant demographic and clinical characteristics associated with return to the hospital within 30 days of discharge. RESULTS: A total of 24,262 participants (52.6% women) with a mean age of 85.3 (SD = 6.42) years were included. More than 20% in each central nervous system prescription group (i.e., opioids only, BZD only, opioids and BZD) returned to the hospital within 30 days of discharge. Demographic and chronic conditions (e.g., congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes) and poly-pharmacy were significant factors of a 30-day return to the hospital. CONCLUSION: Findings highlight the importance of hospital nurses' role in identifying high-risk patients, educating patients and caregivers, monitoring them closely, communicating with primary care physicians and specialists, and conducting intensive follow up via telephone to avoid 30-day rehospitalization. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 50(4), 25-33.].


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides , Benzodiazepinas , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Masculino , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapéutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Análisis de Datos Secundarios , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina , Hospitales , Estudios Retrospectivos
4.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e49527, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578676

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the United States, both drug overdose mortality and injection-involved drug overdose mortality have increased nationally over the past 25 years. Despite documented geographic differences in overdose mortality and substances implicated in overdose mortality trends, injection-involved overdose mortality has not been summarized at a subnational level. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the annual number of injection-involved overdose deaths in each US state from 2000 to 2020. METHODS: We conducted a stratified analysis that used data from drug treatment admissions (Treatment Episodes Data Set-Admissions; TEDS-A) and the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) to estimate state-specific percentages of reported drug overdose deaths that were injection-involved from 2000 to 2020. TEDS-A collects data on the route of administration and the type of substance used upon treatment admission. We used these data to calculate the percentage of reported injections for each drug type by demographic group (race or ethnicity, sex, and age group), year, and state. Additionally, using NVSS mortality data, the annual number of overdose deaths involving selected drug types was identified by the following specific multiple-cause-of-death codes: heroin or synthetic opioids other than methadone (T40.1, T40.4), natural or semisynthetic opioids and methadone (T40.2, T40.3), cocaine (T40.5), psychostimulants with abuse potential (T43.6), sedatives (T42.3, T42.4), and others (T36-T59.0). We used the probabilities of injection with the annual number of overdose deaths, by year, primary substance, and demographic groups to estimate the number of overdose deaths that were injection-involved. RESULTS: In 2020, there were 91,071 overdose deaths among adults recorded in the United States, and 93.1% (84,753/91,071) occurred in the 46 jurisdictions that reported data to TEDS-A. Slightly less than half (38,253/84,753, 45.1%; 95% CI 41.1%-49.8%) of those overdose deaths were estimated to be injection-involved, translating to 38,253 (95% CI 34,839-42,181) injection-involved overdose deaths in 2020. There was large variation among states in the estimated injection-involved overdose death rate (median 14.72, range 5.45-31.77 per 100,000 people). The national injection-involved overdose death rate increased by 323% (95% CI 255%-391%) from 2010 (3.78, 95% CI 3.33-4.31) to 2020 (15.97, 95% CI 14.55-17.61). States in which the estimated injection-involved overdose death rate increased faster than the national average were disproportionately concentrated in the Northeast region. CONCLUSIONS: Although overdose mortality and injection-involved overdose mortality have increased dramatically across the country, these trends have been more pronounced in some regions. A better understanding of state-level trends in injection-involved mortality can inform the prioritization of public health strategies that aim to reduce overdose mortality and prevent downstream consequences of injection drug use.


Asunto(s)
Cocaína , Sobredosis de Droga , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Analgésicos Opioides , Salud Pública , Metadona
5.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301863, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578818

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Opioid overdose deaths in the United States remain a major public health crisis. Little is known about counties with high rates of opioid overdose mortality but low availability of opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment facilities. We sought to identify characteristics of United States (US) counties with high rates of opioid overdose mortality and low rates of opioid treatment facilities. METHODS: Rates of overdose mortality from 3,130 US counties were compared with availability of opioid treatment facilities that prescribed or allowed medications for OUD (MOUD), from 2018-2019. The outcome variable, "risk-availability mismatch" county, was a binary indicator of a high rate (above national average) of opioid overdose mortality with a low (below national average) rate of opioid treatment facilities. Covariates of interest included county-level sociodemographics and rates of insurance, unemployment, educational attainment, poverty, urbanicity, opioid prescribing, depression, heart disease, Gini index, and Theil index. Multilevel logistic regression, accounting for the clustering of counties within states, was used to determine associations with being a "risk-availability mismatch" county. RESULTS: Of 3,130 counties, 1,203 (38.4%) had high rates of opioid overdose mortality. A total of 1,098 counties (35.1%) lacked a publicly-available opioid treatment facility in 2019. In the adjusted model, counties with an additional 1% of: white residents (odds ratio, OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03), unemployment (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.05-1.19), and residents without insurance (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.08) had increased odds of being a mismatch county. Counties that were metropolitan (versus non-metropolitan) had an increased odds of being a mismatch county (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.45-2.38). CONCLUSION: Assessing mismatch between treatment availability and need provides useful information to characterize counties that require greater public health investment. Interventions to reduce overdose mortality are unlikely to be effective if they do not take into account diverse upstream factors, including sociodemographics, disease burden, and geographic context of communities.


Asunto(s)
Sobredosis de Droga , Sobredosis de Opiáceos , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/tratamiento farmacológico , Sobredosis de Opiáceos/tratamiento farmacológico , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina , Sobredosis de Droga/tratamiento farmacológico
7.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 154: 3535, 2024 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579298

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate claims patterns for metamizole and other non-opioid analgesics in Switzerland. To characterise users of these non-opioid analgesics regarding sex, age, comedications and canton of residence. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective descriptive study using administrative claims data of outpatient prescribed non-opioid analgesics of the Swiss health insurance company Helsana between January 2014 and December 2019. First, we evaluated the number of claims and defined daily doses  per year of metamizole, ibuprofen, diclofenac and paracetamol in adults aged 18 years or over. Second, we characterised new users of these non-opioid analgesics in terms of sex, age, claimed comedications and canton of residence. RESULTS: From 2014 to 2019, among the investigated non-opioid analgesics, metamizole showed the highest increase in claims (+9545 claims, +50%) and defined daily doses (+86,869 defined daily doses, +84%) per 100,000 adults. Metamizole users had the highest median age (62 years [IQR: 44-77]) compared to ibuprofen (47 years [IQR: 33-62]), diclofenac (57 years [IQR: 43-71]) and paracetamol (58 years [IQR: 39-75]) users. Metamizole users also more frequently claimed proton pump inhibitors, anticoagulants, platelet aggregation inhibitors and antihypertensive drugs than users of other non-opioid analgesics. While metamizole was most frequently claimed in German-speaking regions of Switzerland, ibuprofen and paracetamol were most frequently claimed in the French-speaking regions and diclofenac in German- and Italian-speaking regions. CONCLUSION: In Switzerland, metamizole was increasingly claimed between 2014 and 2019. Metamizole was most frequently claimed by older adults and patients with comedications suggestive of underlying conditions, which can be worsened or caused by use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The lack of studies regarding the effectiveness and safety of metamizole in this population warrants further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos no Narcóticos , Humanos , Anciano , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dipirona/uso terapéutico , Acetaminofén/uso terapéutico , Suiza , Ibuprofeno/uso terapéutico , Diclofenaco/uso terapéutico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/uso terapéutico , Analgésicos Opioides , Seguro de Salud
8.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 154: 3352, 2024 Feb 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579293

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To eliminate chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection by 2030, 90% of those infected must be diagnosed and 80% treated. In Switzerland, >40% of the estimated 32,000 infected people are still undiagnosed. In the canton of St Gallen, HCV prevalence and cascade of care have only been studied in the centralised opioid agonist therapy (OAT) setting (institutions), although about 80% of OAT patients are treated decentrally (general practitioner [GP] or pharmacy). AIM: To describe HCV prevalence and cascade of care among patients in the decentralised OAT programme of the canton of St Gallen, Switzerland, and compare it to contemporaneous data from the centralised setting. METHODS: For each patient receiving his/her OAT from a GP or pharmacy on 1 April 2021, the cantonal medical office sent a questionnaire to the prescribing GP. Patient characteristics, HCV antibody (Ab)/RNA screening uptake, HCV Ab/RNA prevalence and HCV treatment uptake were obtained and compared to those of patients of the Medizinisch-soziale Hilfsstelle 1 in St Gallen (centralised setting). RESULTS: Of the 563 OAT patients under the care of 127 GPs, 107 patients from 41 GPs could be analysed (median age: 48 years [IQR: 40-56]; ongoing intravenous drug use: 25%; OAT provider: 66% GP, 34% pharmacy). HCV Ab screening uptake was 68% (73/107) with an HCV Ab prevalence of 68% (50/73) among those tested. Of the HCV Ab-positive patients, 84% (42/50) were HCV RNA-tested, among whom 57% (24/42) were viraemic. HCV treatment uptake was 83% (20/24), with 95% (19/20) achieving a sustained virological response. Non-uptake of HCV screening and treatment tended to be higher among patients receiving OAT at the pharmacy vs at the GP's office: 37% vs 26% (p = 0.245) for screening and 30% vs 7% (p = 0.139) for treatment. The proportion never HCV Ab-tested and the proportion of HCV Ab-positives never HCV RNA-tested was significantly higher in the decentralised compared to the centralised setting: 32% vs 3% (p <0.001) never Ab-tested and 16% vs 0% (p = 0.002) never RNA-tested. In contrast, HCV treatment uptake (83% vs 78%), sustained virological response rate (95% vs 100%) and residual HCV RNA prevalence among the HCV Ab-positive (12% vs 14%) were comparable for both settings. CONCLUSION: In the decentralised OAT setting of the canton of St Gallen, HCV Ab prevalence is high. Since HCV Ab and RNA screening uptake are markedly lower than in the centralised setting, potentially >40% of patients with chronic HCV are not diagnosed yet. HCV screening in the decentralised setting needs improvement, e.g. by increasing awareness and simplifying testing. High HCV treatment uptake and cure rates are possible in centralised and decentralised settings.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis C Crónica , Hepatitis C , Abuso de Sustancias por Vía Intravenosa , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Hepatitis C Crónica/diagnóstico , Hepatitis C Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Hepatitis C Crónica/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Suiza/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Hepatitis C/diagnóstico , Hepatitis C/tratamiento farmacológico , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Hepacivirus/genética , Abuso de Sustancias por Vía Intravenosa/epidemiología , ARN
9.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 76, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580997

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Understanding current substance use practices is critical to reduce and prevent overdose deaths among individuals at increased risk including persons who use and inject drugs. Because individuals participating in harm reduction and syringe service programs are actively using drugs and vary in treatment participation, information on their current drug use and preferred drugs provides a unique window into the drug use ecology of communities that can inform future intervention services and treatment provision. METHODS: Between March and June 2023, 150 participants in a harm reduction program in Burlington, Vermont completed a survey examining sociodemographics; treatment and medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) status; substance use; injection information; overdose information; and mental health, medical, and health information. Descriptive analyses assessed overall findings. Comparisons between primary drug subgroups (stimulants, opioids, stimulants-opioids) of past-three-month drug use and treatment participation were analyzed using chi-square and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Most participants reported being unhoused or unstable housing (80.7%) and unemployed (64.0%) or on disability (21.3%). The drug with the greatest proportion of participants reporting past three-month use was crack cocaine (83.3%). Fentanyl use was reported by 69.3% of participants and xylazine by 38.0% of participants. High rates of stimulant use were reported across all participants independent of whether stimulants were a participant's primary drug. Fentanyl, heroin, and xylazine use was less common in the stimulants subgroup compared to opioid-containing subgroups (p < .001). Current- and past-year MOUD treatment was reported by 58.0% and 77.3% of participants. Emergency rooms were the most common past-year medical treatment location (48.7%; M = 2.72 visits). CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate high rates of polysubstance use and the underrecognized effects of stimulant use among people who use drugs-including its notable and increasing role in drug-overdose deaths. Crack cocaine was the most used stimulant, a geographical difference from much of the US where methamphetamine is most common. With the increasing prevalence of fentanyl-adulterated stimulants and differences in opioid use observed between subgroups, these findings highlight the importance and necessity of harm reduction interventions (e.g., drug checking services, fentanyl test strips) and effective treatment for individuals using stimulants alongside MOUD treatment.


Asunto(s)
Estimulantes del Sistema Nervioso Central , Cocaína Crack , Sobredosis de Droga , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides , Humanos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Reducción del Daño , Vermont/epidemiología , Xilazina , Fentanilo , Sobredosis de Droga/prevención & control , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/terapia , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/prevención & control
10.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 19(1): 25, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581022

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Long-acting injectable buprenorphine (LAIB) formulations are a novel treatment approach in opioid agonist treatment (OAT), which provide patients with a steady dose administered weekly or monthly and thus reduce the need for frequent clinic visits. Several studies have analyzed patient experiences of LAIB but the perspective of OAT staff is unknown. This study aimed to explore how healthcare staff working in OAT clinics in Sweden perceive and manage treatment with LAIB. METHODS: Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with OAT physicians (n = 10) in tandem with nine focus group sessions with OAT nurses and other staff categories (n = 41). The data was analyzed with thematic text analysis. RESULTS: Five central themes were identified in the data: (1) advantages and disadvantages of LAIB, (2) patient categories that may or may not need LAIB, (3) patients' degrees of medication choice, (4) keeping tabs, control and treatment alliance, and (5) LAIB's impact on risk and enabling environments in OAT. Overall staff found more advantages than disadvantages with LAIB and considered that patients with ongoing substance use and low adherence were most likely to benefit from LAIB. However, less frequent visits were viewed as problematic in terms of developing a treatment alliance and being able to keep tabs on patients' clinical status. Clinics differed regarding patients' degrees of choice in medication, which varied from limited to extensive. LAIB affected both risk and enabling environments in OAT. CONCLUSIONS: LAIB may strengthen the enabling environment in OAT for some patients by reducing clinic visits, exposure to risk environments, and the pressure to divert medication. A continued discussion about the prerequisites and rationale for LAIB implementation is needed in policy and practice.


Asunto(s)
Buprenorfina , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides , Humanos , Buprenorfina/uso terapéutico , Tratamiento de Sustitución de Opiáceos , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/tratamiento farmacológico , Atención a la Salud , Investigación Cualitativa , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Metadona/uso terapéutico
11.
J Med Case Rep ; 18(1): 202, 2024 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581074

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Considering the enormous burden represented by the opioid use disorder (OUD), it is important to always consider, when implementing opioid agonist therapy (OAT), the potential impact on patient's adherence, quality of life, and detoxification. Thus, the purpose of the study is to evaluate how the introduction of a novel OAT approach influences these key factors in the management of OUD. CASE PRESENTATION: This article marks the pioneering use of OAT through buprenorphine implant in Europe and delves into the experience of six patients diagnosed with OUD at a relatively young age. The patients, comprising both males and a female, are of Caucasian Italian and African Italian ancestry (case 4) and exhibit an age range from 23 to 63, with an average drug abuse history of 19 ± 12 years. All patients were on stable traditional OAT before transitioning to buprenorphine implants. Despite the heterogeneity in social and educational backgrounds, health status, and drug abuse initiation histories, the case series reveals consistent positive treatment outcomes such as detoxification, absence of withdrawal symptoms and of side effects. Notably, all patients reported experiencing a newfound sense of freedom and improved quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: These results emphasise the promising impact of OAT via buprenorphine implants in enhancing the well-being and quality of life in the context of OUD.


Asunto(s)
Buprenorfina , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Buprenorfina/uso terapéutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Tratamiento de Sustitución de Opiáceos/métodos , Calidad de Vida , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/tratamiento farmacológico
12.
Mymensingh Med J ; 33(2): 501-508, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557533

RESUMEN

Palliative care is a valued aspect of clinical care which is an urgent humanitarian need for people worldwide with cancer and other chronic fatal diseases. Patients experience many different symptoms including severe pain in advanced cancer. Palliative care focuses on relief from symptoms, pain and stress by using different analgesics and adjuvant. The goal of palliative care is to improve the quality of life. So, this prospective observational study was carried out to assess pattern of drugs used and their response to pain in cancer patients attending out-patient department of palliative care service in two teaching hospitals of Bangladesh. One hundred forty (140) cancer patients were purposively selected who attended in out-patient department of palliative care unit in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) and Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) from July 2018 to June 2019. Outcome variables were commonly presenting complaints, pain intensity, commonly prescribed drugs and analgesic prescription according to WHO three-step analgesic ladder, etc. The mean age ±SD of the respondents was 51.30±15.38 years, male-female ratio 1:1. Common sites of cancer were alimentary origin (20.0%), genitourinary system (17.86%), hepatobiliary system (11.43%), respiratory system (10.71%). The prescribed drugs were analgesics (96.4%), PPIs (74.3%), laxatives (62.1%), anti-emetics (38.6%), multivitamins (32.9%), H2 antagonists (17.1%), sedatives (17.1%), and corticosteroids (8.6%). Level 1 analgesics (Paracetamol or other NSAIDs) were prescribed to 42.65%, level 2 analgesics (Tramadol) were prescribed to 50.00% patients and level 3 analgesics (Morphine) were prescribed to 51.42% patients. The relation between and receiving three levels of analgesic prescriptions was statistically significant. The association between level of analgesic prescription was significant with site of cancer (p<0.001) and intensity of pain (p<0.001). This study showed that morphine was prescribed to more than half of the patients. Other level of analgesics were also used either single or in combination. Younger and male patients were treated more with level III analgesics. Prescribing analgesics were dependent on sites of cancer and intensity of pain.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias , Pacientes Ambulatorios , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Analgésicos/uso terapéutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Bangladesh , Hospitales de Enseñanza , Derivados de la Morfina/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias/complicaciones , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Dolor , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Prospectivos
13.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 24(1): 133, 2024 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582852

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Transversus abdominis plane block (TAPB) guided by laparoscopy and ultrasound showed promise in enhancing the multimodal analgesic approach following several abdominal procedures. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety between Laparoscopic (LAP) TAP block (LTAP) and ultrasound-guided TAP block (UTAP) block in patients undergoing LAP bariatric surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This non-inferiority randomized controlled single-blind study was conducted on 120 patients with obesity scheduled for LAP bariatric surgeries. Patients were allocated into two equal groups: LTAP and UTAP, administered with 20 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine on each side. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the total morphine consumption, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score at all times of measurements, and time to the first rescue analgesia (p > .05) between both groups. The duration of anesthesia and duration of block performance were significantly shorter in the LTAP group than in the UTAP group (p < .001). Both groups had comparable post-operative heart rate, mean arterial pressure, adverse effects, and patient satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: In LAP bariatric surgery, the analgesic effect of LTAP is non-inferior to UTAP, as evidenced by comparable time to first rescue analgesia and total morphine consumption with similar safety blocking through the low incidence of post-operative complications and patient satisfaction. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered in Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR) (ID: PACTR202206871825386) on June 29, 2022.


Asunto(s)
Cirugía Bariátrica , Laparoscopía , Humanos , Método Simple Ciego , Dolor Postoperatorio/tratamiento farmacológico , Laparoscopía/métodos , Morfina , Músculos Abdominales/diagnóstico por imagen , Cirugía Bariátrica/efectos adversos , Ultrasonografía Intervencional , Analgésicos/uso terapéutico , Analgésicos Opioides
14.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 28(4): 483-487, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583899

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that preoperative opioid use is associated with increased postoperative opioid use and surgical site infection (SSI) in patients undergoing ventral hernia repair (VHR). Orthopedic surgery literature cites increased resource utilization with opioid use. This study aimed to determine the effect of preoperative opioid use on resource utilization after open VHR. METHODS: A retrospective institutional review board-approved study of VHRs from a single tertiary care practice between 2013 and 2020 was performed. Medical records, the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, and Kentucky All Schedule Prescription Electronic Reporting data were reviewed for patient demographics, comorbidities, dispensed opiate prescriptions, hernia characteristics, and outcomes. Univariate logistic regression analyses assessed the effect of each patient's demographic and clinical characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression models analyzed significant factors from the univariate analyses. The primary outcome was resource utilization measured as readmission, emergency department visit, or >2 postoperative clinic visits within 45 days after VHR. RESULTS: Overall, 381 patients who underwent VHR were identified; of which 101 patients had preoperative dispensed opioids. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that patient gender at birth, any new-onset SSI, and any preoperative opioid use were associated with increased postoperative resource utilization (odds ratio, 1.76; P = .026). CONCLUSION: Preoperative opioid use was determined as a risk factor that increased resource utilization after open VHR. An understanding of the drivers of the increased use of resources is essential in developing strategies to improve healthcare value. Future research will focus on strategies to reduce the utilization of resources among patients who use opioids.


Asunto(s)
Hernia Ventral , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica/etiología , Hernia Ventral/complicaciones , Prescripciones , Herniorrafia/efectos adversos
15.
Ann Palliat Med ; 13(2): 428-432, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584476

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many of the drugs used for the treatment and alleviation of symptoms in cancer patients are known to inhibit or induce cytochrome P450 (CYP). Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the drug interactions of opioid analgesics that are metabolized by CYPs, because for example when using oxycodone metabolized by CYP3A4, it is possible that the effect will be attenuated or enhanced by the concomitant use of drugs that induce or inhibit CYP3A4. Aprepitant, an antiemetic drug used in many patients receiving anticancer drugs, is known as a moderate competitive inhibitor of CYP3A4. We experienced a case of respiratory depression caused by opioids, which was suspected to be caused by a drug interaction with antiemetics especially aprepitant. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient was a 72-year-old man. He had been treated with continuous oxycodone infusion for perianal pain associated with the rectal invasion of prostate cancer. No comorbidities other than renal dysfunction were observed. Oxycodone treatment was started at 48 mg/day, and was increased to 108 mg/day, and then the pain decreased. Once the pain was controlled, chemotherapy was planned. Antiemetics (dexamethasone, palonosetron, and aprepitant) were administered before anticancer drug administration. Approximately 3 hours after antiemetics administration and before the administration of the anticancer drugs, a ward nurse noticed that oversedation and respiratory depression had occurred. When the patient was called, he immediately woke up and was able to talk normally, so the anticancer drugs were administered as scheduled. About 2 hours after the nurse noticed oversedation, the attending physician reduced the dose of oxycodone infusion to 48 mg/day. After that, his drowsiness persisted, but his respiratory condition improved. Despite reducing the dose of oxycodone to less than half, the pain remained stable at numeric rating scale (NRS) 0-1, without the use of a rescue dose. The patient was discharged from the hospital 36 days after the administration of anticancer drugs, without any problems. CONCLUSIONS: The cause of respiratory depression in this case was thought to be a combination of factors, including drug interactions between oxycodone and antiemetics, and oxycodone accumulation due to renal dysfunction.


Asunto(s)
Antieméticos , Antineoplásicos , Enfermedades Renales , Neoplasias de la Próstata , Insuficiencia Respiratoria , Masculino , Humanos , Anciano , Antieméticos/uso terapéutico , Aprepitant/uso terapéutico , Analgésicos Opioides/efectos adversos , Oxicodona/efectos adversos , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/uso terapéutico , Morfolinas/farmacología , Morfolinas/uso terapéutico , Antineoplásicos/efectos adversos , Interacciones Farmacológicas , Neoplasias de la Próstata/tratamiento farmacológico , Dolor/tratamiento farmacológico , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades Renales/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades Renales/tratamiento farmacológico
16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 244, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566055

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia (SZ) or bipolar disorder (BD) may have increased risk of complications from prescribed opioids, including opioid-induced respiratory depression. We compared prescription opioid pain medication dispensing for patients with SZ or BD versus controls over 5 years to assess dispensing trends. METHODS: This retrospective, observational study analysed US claims data from the IBM® MarketScan® Commercial and Multi-State Medicaid databases for individuals aged 18-64 years with prevalent SZ or BD for years 2015-2019 compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Baseline characteristics, comorbidities, and medication use were assessed. Proportions of individuals dispensed prescription opioids chronically (ie, ≥70 days over a 90-day period or ≥ 6 prescriptions annually) or nonchronically (≥1 prescription, chronic definition not met) were assessed. RESULTS: In 2019, the Commercial and Medicaid databases contained records for 4773 and 30,179 patients with SZ and 52,780 and 63,455 patients with BD, respectively. Patients with SZ or BD had a higher prevalence of comorbidities, including pain, versus controls in each analysis year. From 2015 to 2019, among commercially insured patients with SZ, chronic opioid-dispensing proportions decreased from 6.1% (controls: 2.7%) to 2.3% (controls: 1.2%) and, for patients with BD, from 11.4% (controls: 2.7%) to 6.4% (controls: 1.6%). Chronic opioid dispensing declined in Medicaid-covered patients with SZ from 15.0% (controls: 14.7%) to 6.7% (controls: 6.0%) and, for patients with BD, from 27.4% (controls: 12.0%) to 12.4% (controls: 4.7%). Among commercially insured patients with SZ, nonchronic opioid dispensing decreased from 15.5% (controls: 16.4%) to 10.7% (controls: 11.0%) and, for patients with BD, from 26.1% (controls: 17.5%) to 20.0% (controls: 12.2%). In Medicaid-covered patients with SZ, nonchronic opioid dispensing declined from 22.5% (controls: 24.4%) to 15.1% (controls: 12.7%) and, for patients with BD, from 32.3% (controls: 25.9%) to 24.6% (controls: 13.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The proportions of individuals dispensed chronic or nonchronic opioid medications each year were similar between commercially and Medicaid-insured patients with SZ versus controls and were higher for patients with BD versus controls. From 2015 to 2019, the proportions of individuals who were dispensed prescription opioids chronically or nonchronically decreased for patients with SZ or BD and controls.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Bipolar , Esquizofrenia , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Trastorno Bipolar/tratamiento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Prescripciones , Dolor , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina
17.
BMC Neurol ; 24(1): 107, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566063

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Migraine is a leading cause of disability, estimated to affect one-in-ten people in Spain. This study aimed to describe the management of migraine in Spain and identify improvement areas. METHODS: Non-interventional, retrospective, cross-sectional cohort study conducted using an electronic medical records database covering visits to public healthcare providers for 3% of the Spanish population. Patients with a migraine diagnosis (ICD-9 346) between 01/2015 and 04/2022 were included, as well as their demographic and clinical characteristics, prescribed migraine treatments and the specialty of the prescribing physicians. RESULTS: The database included 61,204 patients diagnosed with migraine. A migraine treatment had been prescribed to 50.6% of patients over the last 24 months (only acute to 69.5%, both acute and preventive to 24.2%, and only preventive to 6.3%). The most frequently prescribed treatments were NSAIDs (56.3%), triptans (44.1%) and analgesics (28.9%). Antidepressants were the most common preventive treatment (prescribed to 17.9% of all treated patients and 58.7% of those treated with a preventive medication), and anti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies the least prescribed (1.7%; 5.7%). In 13.4% of cases, preventive medications were the first treatment: alone in 5.8% of cases and together with an acute medication in 7.6%. A fifth of patients who were initially prescribed with only acute treatment were later prescribed a preventive medication (20.7%). On average, it took 29.4 months for this change to occur. Two-thirds of patients started their preventive treatment in primary care (64.2%). The percentage of patients treated by a neurologist increased with the number of received preventive medications. However, 28.8% of patients who had already been prescribed five or more distinct preventive treatments were not treated by a neurologist. Migraine patients had between 1.2- and 2.2-times higher prevalence of comorbidities than the general population, age-gender adjusted. CONCLUSIONS: Our study emphasizes the need for improved management of migraine in Spain to reduce the risk of chronification and improve patient outcomes. More training and coordination across healthcare professionals is necessary to recognize and address risk factors for migraine progression, including multiple associated comorbidities and several lines of treatment, and to provide personalized treatment plans that address the complex nature of the condition.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Migrañosos , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios Transversales , España/epidemiología , Trastornos Migrañosos/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastornos Migrañosos/epidemiología , Trastornos Migrañosos/diagnóstico , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/uso terapéutico
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e244617, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568691

RESUMEN

Importance: Given the high number of opioid overdose deaths in the US and the complex epidemiology of opioid use disorder (OUD), systems models can serve as a tool to identify opportunities for public health interventions. Objective: To estimate the projected 3-year association between public health interventions and opioid overdose-related outcomes among persons with OUD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This decision analytical model used a simulation model of the estimated US population aged 12 years and older with OUD that was developed and analyzed between January 2019 and December 2023. The model was parameterized and calibrated using 2019 to 2020 data and used to estimate the relative change in outcomes associated with simulated public health interventions implemented between 2021 and 2023. Main Outcomes and Measures: Projected OUD and medications for OUD (MOUD) prevalence in 2023 and number of nonfatal and fatal opioid-involved overdoses among persons with OUD between 2021 and 2023. Results: In a baseline scenario assuming parameters calibrated using 2019 to 2020 data remained constant, the model projected more than 16 million persons with OUD not receiving MOUD treatment and nearly 1.7 million persons receiving MOUD treatment in 2023. Additionally, the model projected over 5 million nonfatal and over 145 000 fatal opioid-involved overdoses among persons with OUD between 2021 and 2023. When simulating combinations of interventions that involved reducing overdose rates by 50%, the model projected decreases of up to 35.2% in nonfatal and 36.6% in fatal opioid-involved overdoses among persons with OUD. Interventions specific to persons with OUD not currently receiving MOUD treatment demonstrated the greatest reduction in numbers of nonfatal and fatal overdoses. Combinations of interventions that increased MOUD initiation and decreased OUD recurrence were projected to reduce OUD prevalence by up to 23.4%, increase MOUD prevalence by up to 137.1%, and reduce nonfatal and fatal opioid-involved overdoses among persons with OUD by 6.7% and 3.5%, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: In this decision analytical model study of persons with OUD, findings suggested that expansion of evidence-based interventions that directly reduce the risk of overdose fatality among persons with OUD, such as through harm reduction efforts, could engender the highest reductions in fatal overdoses in the short-term. Interventions aimed at increasing MOUD initiation and retention of persons in treatment projected considerable improvement in MOUD and OUD prevalence but could require a longer time horizon for substantial reductions in opioid-involved overdoses.


Asunto(s)
Sobredosis de Droga , Sobredosis de Opiáceos , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides , Humanos , Sobredosis de Opiáceos/epidemiología , Salud Pública , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Sobredosis de Droga/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides/epidemiología
19.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e079434, 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569709

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Postoperative pain after thoracic surgery impairs patients' quality of life and increases the incidence of respiratory complications. Optimised analgesia strategies include minimally invasive incisions, regional analgesia and early chest tube removal. However, little is known about the optimal analgesic regimen for uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (uVATS). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a single-centre, prospective, single-blind, randomised trial. The effects of postoperative analgesia will be tested using thoracic paravertebral block (PVB) in combination with patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PVB+PCIA), erector spinae plane block (ESPB) in combination with patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (ESPB+PCIA) or PCIA alone; 102 patients undergoing uVATS will be enrolled in this study. Patients will be randomly assigned to the PVB group (30 mL of 0.33% ropivacaine with dexamethasone), ESPB group (40 mL of 0.25% ropivacaine with dexamethasone) or control groups. PCIA with sufentanil will be administered to all patients after surgery. The primary outcome will be total opioid consumption after surgery. Secondary outcomes include postoperative pain score; postoperative chronic pain at rest and during coughing; sensations of touch and pain in the chest wall, non-opioid analgesic consumption; length of stay; ambulation time, the total cost of hospitalisation and long-term postoperative analgesia. Adverse reactions to analgesics and adverse events related to the regional blocks will also be recorded. The statisticians will be blinded to the group allocation. Comparison of the continuous data among the three groups will be performed using a one-way analysis of variance to assess differences among the means. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The results will be published in patient education courses, academic conferences and peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT06016777.


Asunto(s)
Calidad de Vida , Cirugía Torácica Asistida por Video , Humanos , Ropivacaína , Cirugía Torácica Asistida por Video/métodos , Estudios Prospectivos , Método Simple Ciego , Analgésicos , Dolor Postoperatorio/tratamiento farmacológico , Dolor Postoperatorio/prevención & control , Dolor Postoperatorio/etiología , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapéutico , Analgesia Controlada por el Paciente , Dexametasona , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
20.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 13(1): 17, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570850

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite Israel's increased use of prescription opioids, reported deaths resulting or associated with opioids have decreased, in fact dramatically, since 2005. This contrast is unique and difficult to explain. We sought to examine whether higher prescribed opioid dosages among adults without oncologic diagnoses were associated with higher all-cause mortality rates. METHODS: A historical cohort study in Clalit Health Services, using a data repository including all adult patients prescribed opiates between 2010 and 2020, excluding patients with oncologic diagnoses. Patients were classified into three groups according to opioid use: below 50 Morphine milligram equivalents (MME) per day, 50 to 90 MME per day, and above 90 MME per day. Sex, Charlson comorbidity score, age and socioeconomic status were recorded. Mortality rates were compared between the dosage groups and compared to age-standardized mortality rates in the general population. RESULTS: On multivariate analysis, patients receiving 90 or more MME per day were 2.37 (95%CI 2.1 to 2.68) more likely to have died compared to patients receiving below 50 MME per day. The respective hazard ratio among patients receiving between 50 and 90 MME per day was 2.23 (2.01 to 2.46). Among patients aged 18 to 50, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) compared to the general population ranged between 5.4 to 8.6 among women, receiving between 50 and 90 MME per day, and between 8.07 and 10.7 among women receiving 90 or more MME per day. The respective SMRs among men were 1.2 to 3.8 and 2.7 to 5.4. CONCLUSION: Increased opioid use is independently associated with increased all-cause mortality among non-oncological patients. This result is most notable among young adults with little or no known comorbidities. These findings are consistent with results in other countries and seem more credible than previous Israeli reports. Healthcare regulators and providers should, therefore, act to curtail the increasing opioid prescriptions and devise and enhance controls in the healthcare system, which, until 2020, had very limited mechanisms in place.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides , Endrín/análogos & derivados , Medicamentos bajo Prescripción , Masculino , Adulto Joven , Humanos , Femenino , Analgésicos Opioides/efectos adversos , Estudios de Cohortes , Israel/epidemiología , Prescripciones
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...