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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240840, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285602

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of this study was to report the first record of Trichodina heterodentata in banded knifefish Gymnotus carapo. Banded knifefish cultivated in the municipality of Jataí, state of Goiás, in the central western region of Brazil, experienced fish mortality rates of 3-4% per tank. Macroscopic analysis found that fish had lesions on their skin and gills. Smears of the integument and gills were confectioned and air-dried at room temperature and impregnated with silver nitrate to identify the Trichodinidae species causing the lesions. The trichodinid were identified as T. heterodentata, and their characteristics were compared to those from T. heterodentata recorded from other species of host fish. It was observed that the presence of T. heterodentata was associated with inadequate fish management, low water quality, high rates of stocking density, and inadequate nutritional management.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar o primeiro registro de Trichodina heterodentata em tuviras Gymnotus carapo. Um cultivo de tuviras no município de Jataí, estado de Goiás, na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil, apresentou taxas de mortalidade de peixes de 3-4% por tanque. A análise macroscópica constatou que os peixes tinham lesões na pele e brânquias. Raspados do tegumento e brânquias foram confeccionadas e secas ao ar à temperatura ambiente e impregnadas com nitrato de prata para identificar as espécies de Trichodinidae causadoras das lesões. Os tricodinídeos foram identificados como T. heterodentata, e suas características foram comparadas com as de T. heterodentata registradas para outras espécies de peixes hospedeiros. Observou-se que a presença de T. heterodentata estava associada ao manejo inadequado dos peixes, baixa qualidade da água, altas taxas de densidade de estocagem e manejo nutricional inadequado.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240840, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249283

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of this study was to report the first record of Trichodina heterodentata in banded knifefish Gymnotus carapo. Banded knifefish cultivated in the municipality of Jataí, state of Goiás, in the central western region of Brazil, experienced fish mortality rates of 3-4% per tank. Macroscopic analysis found that fish had lesions on their skin and gills. Smears of the integument and gills were confectioned and air-dried at room temperature and impregnated with silver nitrate to identify the Trichodinidae species causing the lesions. The trichodinid were identified as T. heterodentata, and their characteristics were compared to those from T. heterodentata recorded from other species of host fish. It was observed that the presence of T. heterodentata was associated with inadequate fish management, low water quality, high rates of stocking density, and inadequate nutritional management.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar o primeiro registro de Trichodina heterodentata em tuviras Gymnotus carapo. Um cultivo de tuviras no município de Jataí, estado de Goiás, na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil, apresentou taxas de mortalidade de peixes de 3-4% por tanque. A análise macroscópica constatou que os peixes tinham lesões na pele e brânquias. Raspados do tegumento e brânquias foram confeccionadas e secas ao ar à temperatura ambiente e impregnadas com nitrato de prata para identificar as espécies de Trichodinidae causadoras das lesões. Os tricodinídeos foram identificados como T. heterodentata, e suas características foram comparadas com as de T. heterodentata registradas para outras espécies de peixes hospedeiros. Observou-se que a presença de T. heterodentata estava associada ao manejo inadequado dos peixes, baixa qualidade da água, altas taxas de densidade de estocagem e manejo nutricional inadequado.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150590, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597581

RESUMO

In this study, we employed Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Multi-Linear Regression (MLR) to identify the most significant sources contributing to the toxicity of PM10 in the city center of Riyadh. PM10 samples were collected using a medium-volume air sampler during cool (December 2019-March 2020) and warm (May 2020-August 2020) seasons, including dust and non-dust events. The collected filters were analyzed for their chemical components (i.e., water-soluble ions, metals, and trace elements) as well as oxidative potential and elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC) contents. Our measurements revealed comparable extrinsic oxidative potential (P-value = 0.30) during the warm (1.2 ± 0.1 nmol/min-m3) and cool (1.1 ± 0.1 nmol/min-m3) periods. Moreover, we observed higher extrinsic oxidative potential of PM10 samples collected during dust events (~30% increase) compared to non-dust samples. Our PCA-MLR analysis identified soil and resuspended dust, secondary aerosol (SA), local industrial activities and petroleum refineries, and traffic emissions as the four sources contributing to the ambient PM10 oxidative potential in central Riyadh. Soil and resuspended dust were the major source contributing to the oxidative potential of ambient PM10, accounting for 31% of the total oxidative potential. Secondary aerosols (SA) were the next important source of PM10 toxicity in the area as they contributed to about 20% of the PM10 oxidative potential. Results of this study revealed the major role of soil and resuspended road dust on PM10 toxicity and can be helpful in adopting targeted air quality policies to reduce the population exposure to PM10.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127326, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597933

RESUMO

Organic films were widely found on indoor impermeable surfaces exposed to gaseous organic compounds, but few studies have addressed the film growth details on different indoor substrates. In this study, we observed the topography evolution of phthalic acid ester (PAE) organic films on three impermeable substrates: polished glass (G-P), mirror-polished stainless steel (SS-M) and drawn stainless steel (SS-D). PAE organic films were preferentially formed upon the flat surface with sparse inherent nano-peaks of substrate G-P and in valleys of substrate SS-M and SS-D. Surface uniformity of substrates and viscosity of PAE molecules were inferred as critical parameters determining the surface average adhesion forces. We obtained the partition coefficients of DEP, DnBP, BBP and DEHP on substrate G-P, SS-M and SS-D by fitting the initial monolayer adsorption process. Organic films continuously grew instead of reaching adsorption equilibrium after long-term PAE exposure, indicating that multilayer adsorption may occur. The organic film growth rates in saturated gas-phase PAE concentrations were quantified as about one-tenth of the results in previous studies where substrates were simultaneously exposed to multiple pollutants. To sum up, the results outline PAE adsorption details on impermeable materials and provide a reference for better estimation on PAE exposure assessment.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150550, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601179

RESUMO

This research focusses on assessing the environmental performance of European Ports based on a wide representation of EcoPorts members. The data is extracted from the Self-Diagnosis Method (SDM), a concise checklist against which port managers can self-assess the environmental management of their port in relation to the performance of the EcoPorts membership. A total number of 97 ports from 18 different European Maritime States contributed to this evaluation. They have answered questions related to the main components of internationally recognized Environmental Management System (EMS) standards. Similar periodic assessments have been carried out since 2013, allowing for the identification of benchmark performance. The geographical representation and characteristics of the participating ports are given along with the perceived ranking of priority environmental issues based on regular reviews. Air quality has been the top environmental priority for many years, followed by climate change, which has risen rapidly to the second position. Most of the ports have an environmental policy in place (96%) and a compilation of an inventory of significant environmental aspects (92%). Transparency is also very important to ports, with 91% of ports communicating their environmental policy to stakeholders, and 86% of ports making it publicly available on their website. Around 80% of ports have set up an environmental monitoring program, with port waste being the most monitored issue. With regard to services to shipping, more than half of the responding ports are offering on shore power supply (OPS), and one third of them have made LNG bunkering available. In parallel, an increasing number of ports compared with previous exercises (57%) provide differentiated dues for ships that go beyond regulatory standards, with air emissions, waste and climate change being the main target of these discounts. In general, trends over the years have shown a clear improvement of the environmental port performance.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; : 150792, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619192

RESUMO

Owing to the implementation of air pollution control actions, anthropogenic emissions in Beijing have changed in recent years. Understanding the impact of changes in anthropogenic emissions on O3 and PM2.5 trends is helpful for developing air quality management strategies. Herein, we investigated the variations of air pollutants in summer over Beijing using long-term data sets from 2014 to 2019, and explored the responses of O3 and PM2.5 trends to changes in anthropogenic emissions based on multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis and WRF-Chem model. The results indicated a significant decrease in PM2.5, but a near constant level of O3 during 2014-2019. The decrease rate of PM2.5, which was lower than that of SO2, might be due to the effect of NO2 on atmospheric PM2.5. Both the slightly increasing correlations between PM2.5 and NO2 and the WRF-Chem model simulations implied that atmospheric PM2.5 in Beijing is trending to be more sensitive to NOx than SO2. The emissions of NOx and VOCs from industry and transportation were found to make great contribution to O3 production in Beijing. Due to the titration of NOx in VOC-limited regime, the relatively low emission ratios of NOx and VOCs from industry and transportation in Beijing provided convincing evidence for the persistently high O3 concentrations during 2014-2019. However, the noticeable increase of the O3 trends in other areas (e.g., Hebei, Tianjin) could be explained by the significant decline in the emission ratios of NOx and VOCs from anthropogenic emissions especially industry during 2014-2019. Controlling the emission of NOx can substantially reduce PM2.5 pollution, but may aggravate O3 pollution, and thus effective VOC emission control strategies need to be considered for simultaneously controlling O3 and PM2.5 pollution in Beijing and other regions of China.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; : 150783, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619221

RESUMO

To evaluate the influence of anthropogenic emission reductions since 2013 in China, a long-term trend analysis of the particle number size distribution (PNSD) and new particle formation (NPF) events in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region was conducted based on the PNSD measurement (diameter ranging from 3 to 850 nm) at the Lin'an (LAN) regional background station from 2013 to 2019. A modified Mann-Kendall test and a Theil-Sen estimator were used to calculate the overall trend of particle number concentrations in different modes and the relevant influencing factors. We observed a significant decreasing trend in the Aitken and accumulation mode number concentrations, with annual decrease rates of approximately 5.6% and 8.2%, respectively, resulting in an approximately 6.0% decline in total particles annually. However, the nucleation mode particle number concentration showed no significant trend from 2013 to 2016, but an increasing trend from 2016 to 2019, which was related to the NPF events occurrence frequency. The regional NPF events of "banana shape" accounted for an increasing fraction of all NPF events. As a key parameter influencing the NPF event, the condensation sink decreased by approximately 63% from 2013 to 2019. Moreover, the estimated sulfuric acid concentration decreased by approximately 50%, with a higher reduction rate occurring during 2013-2016 as result of the effective SO2 reduction. Surface meteorological factors (including the air temperature, relative humidity, air pressure, and wind) and the air masses origin were found to played minor roles in the long-term trend of NPF events. As PNSD and NPF events are closely related to changes in the particle emissions and regional air pollution levels, studies concerning PNSD and NPF are necessary to provide important information regarding air quality improvements and evaluating the efficacy of climate change mitigation strategies.

8.
J Hosp Infect ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619268

RESUMO

Surgical site infections after total hip and knee replacement are linked to the quality of the operating room (OR) air. Wearing tight occlusive clothing, effective ventilation, and correct working methods, are key interventions to obtain low bacterial concentrations in the OR air. The dry penetration test referred to the European standard (EN 13795-2:2019) is a screening method for materials used in operating clothes and can be used when selecting and comparing products. Source strength defined as the dispersal of bacteria-carrying particles from persons during activity, is a functional test of the products and has been calculated in a dispersal chamber and in operating rooms. We compared the results of dry penetration tests for five surgical clothing systems available on the Swedish market. We report experimental data on the function of the same products expressed as source strength calculated from results in dispersal chambers and in ORs during orthopaedic operations. All materials tested with dry penetration ≤ 50 cfu gave source strength values < 3 cfu/s for one person in the dispersal chamber, whereas the material of one product when laundered more than a hundred times gave a source strength in the dispersal chamber of up to 11 cfu/s. Source strength results in ORs were half the value of that in the dispersal chamber. The dry penetration test could predict the performance of clean air suits of the same design, but more studies are needed to obtain a more valid correlation. Requirements of source strength should be included in standards.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  Parenteral nutrition (PN) is essential to support premature infants' growth and varies with enteral nutrition (EN) advancement rates. Data on PN duration's impact on premature infants' growth is limited. The aim of this multicenter observational study was to determine early PN duration effect on body composition at term corrected gestation (CGA) in very low birth weight (VLBW) premature infants. METHODS:   VLBW infants exposed to PN in the first week of life and exposed to significantly different EN regimens, were divided into two groups per early PN duration. Infants with a birth weight (BW) < 1000g and PN duration < 28 days, and those with a BW 1000-1500g and PN duration < 14 days were assigned to the 'Short-PN' group. Infants receiving PN for longer durations were assigned to the 'Long-PN' group. Body composition was assessed at term CGA or prior to discharge via air displacement plethysmography. RESULTS: 62 and 53 infants were assigned to the short- and long- PN groups respectively. The two groups were significantly different in BW and gestational age (GA), so a nested case-control study was conducted after matching 36-infant pairs. Infants in the long-PN group had significantly lower fat-free mass (FFM) z-scores but both groups had comparable fat mass (FM) z-scores. Long-PN was a significant negative predictor of FFM z-score in the multivariate regression analysis. CONCLUSION:  In VLBW premature infants, PN duration is negatively associated with FFM z-scores at term CGA without affecting FM z-scores. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639347

RESUMO

While the figure of ambassador is being increasingly called upon in the field of environmental health, its scope remains fuzzy and its success factors have been little studied. This article presents the results of a qualitative study performed over three years on a French citizen-sensor scheme for air quality. The scheme draws on volunteer citizens to measure fine particles by means of micro-sensors. Volunteers are also tasked with raising awareness in their entourage about environmental issues with the aim of changing people's behaviour. We investigated this strategy and sought to identify the conditions that enable citizens to become effective clean air ambassadors. The scheme's intervention logic was first reconstructed and a literature review of similar projects was conducted. Then, three surveys were carried out with the scheme's volunteers. Each survey consisted of an observation of the volunteers' practices and individual interviews (70 in all) in order to understand these citizen-sensors motivations and experiences, and characterize how they fulfilled their role. We concluded that, for citizen sensing, the scope and role of ambassador should be reconsidered insofar as these citizens serve as peer leaders and mediators. In this respect, we try to define the success factors for citizen-sensing-based ambassadors programmes.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639491

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) air pollution in the urban environment is mainly related to the presence of potential sources throughout the year. Road transport is one of the most important sources of PM in the urban environment, because it directly affects pedestrians. PM measurements were performed in the city of Zilina, Slovakia, at various road-traffic-related measurement stations over the course of several years. This paper evaluates changes in the concentration of the fine fraction (PM2.5), the ultrafine fraction (PM1), and the coarse fraction (PM2.5-10) over time. PM concentrations were measured by reference gravimetric method. Significant changes in PM concentrations over time due to the diversification of pollution sources and other, secondary factors can be observed from the analysis of the measured data. PM samples were subjected to chemical analysis inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine the concentrations of elements (Mg, Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Cd, Sb, Ba, Pb, Ni, and Zn). The seasonal variation of elements was evaluated, and the sources of PM2.5, PM1, and PM2.5-10 were estimated using principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF). PM2.5 (maximum concentration of 148.95 µg/m3 over 24 h) and PM1 (maximum concentration of 110.51 µg/m3 over 24 h) showed the highest concentrations during the heating season, together with the elements Cd, Pb, and Zn, which showed a significant presence in these fractions. On the other hand, PM2.5-10 (maximum concentration of 38.17 µg/m3 over 24 h) was significantly related to the elements Cu, Sb, Ba, Ca, Cr, Fe, Mg, and Al. High correlation coefficients (r ≥ 0.8) were found for the elements Mg, Ca, Fe, Al, Cd, Pb, and Zn in the PM1 fraction, Cd, Pb, and Zn in PM2.5, and Ba, Sb, Fe, Cu, Cr, Mg, Al, and Ca in PM2.5-10. Using PMF analysis, three major sources of PM (abrasion from tires and brakes, road dust resuspension/winter salting, and combustion processes) were identified for the PM2.5 and PM1 fractions, as well as for the coarse PM2.5-10 fraction. This study reveals the importance of non-exhaust PM emissions in the urban environment.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639508

RESUMO

The Smog Free Tower (SFT) in the city of Xi'an, China, is the world's first outdoor architecture that uses solar energy and filtration technology to purify polluted air. It provides a unique opportunity to explore residents' willingness to pay for air quality and their related behaviors. Drawing on data collected after the establishment of the SFT, this paper reveals the characteristics of changes in people's willingness to pay for clean air. We found that, prior to the release of an assessment report on the SFT, housing prices had an inverted U-shaped relationship with the distance to the SFT, which indicated people tended to purchase houses a certain distance away from the SFT. The threshold value of distance was inversely related to the greening ratio of the residential area. However, after the publication of the experimental report on the SFT, housing prices decreased as the distance to the SFT increased, indicating the closer the house was to the SFT, the more likely people were to buy it. These changes confirmed that people are willing to pay for clean air. The convenience of transportation had a significant moderating effect on the willingness to pay for clean air, however. In other words, people may buy houses with lower air quality if they have better transportation accessibility. The findings of this paper may have practical implications for environmental governance, urban planning, residential satisfaction, and real estate market regulation.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639525

RESUMO

Previous studies have investigated the increased volume of pedestrians to establish success rates of the pedestrian-friendly policy after a street redesign intervention. However, few studies have focused on the effect of street regeneration on air quality perception and user satisfaction. The influence of the physical environment on street vitality may vary, depending on area context and regional factors. A comprehensive understanding of effective interventions could increase pedestrians' satisfaction with their walking environment. This study examines the effect of pedestrianization on individuals' air quality perception and satisfaction, based on three regenerated streets in Seoul, Korea. We analyzed data from 672 questionnaires administered after the pedestrianization project. We used a subset of variables in a binary logistic regression model to understand general determinants of user satisfaction toward their walking environment. Our case study contributes to the verification of pedestrianization effects on air quality perceptions. Results show that overall satisfaction could be acquired through positive perceptions of air quality, as achieved through pedestrianization of streets. Moreover, pedestrian satisfaction varies according to the purpose, activities and health-related behaviors and attitudes. The interrelationships between environmental health, activity, satisfaction and quality of life provide design insights to consider when implementing pedestrianization projects in the future.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639531

RESUMO

Haze has been a severe problem in China for some time, jeopardizing air quality, public health and sustainable growth. This paper examines the direct effect and spatial spillover effect of policy uncertainty on haze pollution with a spatial panel model, using prefecture-level data from 2004 to 2016. This study shows that: (1) policy uncertainty has increased the level of local haze pollution and has a significant spatial spillover effect on surrounding areas; (2) although local policy uncertainty has increased the haze pollution in geographically adjacent cities, it only affects the cities within the province with similar economic distances; and (3) the policy at the central level can effectively alleviate the impact of policy uncertainty at the local level on haze pollution, especially in relation to the spatial spillover effect, but still has limitations in eliminating the direct effect, which is due to the ineradicable nature of policy uncertainty.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639547

RESUMO

The relationship between chemical concentrations in indoor air and the human sense of comfort and relaxation have been reported. We investigated the effect of the sum of volatile organic compounds (ΣVOCs; sum of 79 VOCs) on the level of relaxation in two laboratory houses with almost identical interior and exterior appearances. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was monitored to evaluate the degree of personal relaxation objectively. The experiments were conducted in laboratory houses (LH) A and B with lower and higher levels of ΣVOCs, respectively. A total of 168 healthy volunteers participated, who each performed the task for 20 min, followed by a 10-min break, and EEG was measured during the break. Simultaneously as subjective evaluations, the participants were asked to fill a questionnaire regarding the intensity of odor and preference for the air quality in each LH. The subjective evaluation showed a significant association between ΣVOCs and participants' relaxation (OR: 2.86, 95%CI: 1.24-6.61), and the objective evaluation indicated that the participants were more relaxed in the LH with lower levels of ΣVOCs than that with higher levels (OR: 3.03, 95%CI: 1.23-7.50). Therefore, the reduction of ΣVOCs and odors in indoor air would have an effect, which is the promotion of relaxation.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639667

RESUMO

This study identifies the perceived risk factors of particulate matter (PM) and the effect of the perceived risk factors of PM on the relationship between tourists' trust and aspiration regarding the tourist destination, the customer return on investment, and the willingness to visit a tourism destination. Accordingly, this study discussed the severity of PM, which plays a key role in causing air quality issues, and classified the factors for perceived risk of PM into physical, psychological, financial, functional, and time risks to verify its effect on consumers' emotional response and willingness to visit. Data collection for empirical analysis took place in April 2021 for two weeks. A total of 285 significant data points were obtained on tourists with travel experience in the past year. The demographic characteristics were confirmed using SPSS 22.0 (IBM, New York, NY, USA) and AMOS 22.0 (IBM, New York, NY, USA), and the measurement and structural models were verified through a confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling, respectively. The empirical analysis showed that the perceived risk of PM has a negative effect on trust in the tourism destination and desire for it, and the behavioral intention of customers. Furthermore, alternative attractiveness was found to play a significant moderating role. The results of this study proved the negative effect of PMs on tourism destinations and provided implications and insights to present a meaningful strategy for minimizing PMs' perceived risk.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639680

RESUMO

Multiple studies have demonstrated the presence of microorganisms commonly associated with surgical site infections (SSIs), in the air within the operating theatre (OT). In some countries such Italy, the limit of microbial concentration in the air for OT with turbulent airflows is 35 CFU/m3 for an empty OT and 180 CFU/m3 during activity. This study aims to hypothesize new benchmarks for the airborne microbial load in turbulent airflow operating theatres in operational and at rest conditions using the percentile distribution of data through a 17-year environmental monitoring campaign in various Italian hospitals that implemented a continuous quality improvement policy. The quartile distribution analysis has shown how in operational and at rest conditions, 75% of the values were below 110 CFU/m3 and 18 CFU/m3, respectively, which can be considered a new benchmark for the monitored OTs. During the initial stages of the monitoring campaign, 28.14% of the concentration values in operational conditions and 29.29% of the values in at rest conditions did not conform to the Italian guidelines' reference values. In contrast, during the last 5 years, all values in both conditions conformed to the reference values and 98.94% of these values were below the new benchmarks. Continuous improvement has allowed contamination to be reduced to levels well below the current reference values.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639713

RESUMO

Trees play a pivotal role in improving urban environmental quality and provide several ecosystem services including the removal of pollutants from the air, such as particular matter (PM) and potentially toxic elements (PTE). Therefore, understanding the tree PM and PTE capturing potential, also in connection with plant species, is of great concern, especially in urban areas. This study aims to reveal the link between the elemental composition of PM deposited on tree leaves and soils PTE contents, as well as to rank the PM capturing efficiency of 10 different tree species growing under the impact of urban environments. This also allowed us to test the efficiency of PM deposited on tree leaves as a PTE biomonitoring and pollution source identification tool, in the two biggest urban areas of Armenia. Indeed, high contents of PTE are detected in both soil- and leaf-deposited PM from sites characterized by the presence of localized and active pollution sources (i.e., industrial unites, high traffic, etc.), which are identified by specific tracers (such as Mo, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd). Among the studied tree species, the highest PM amount per unit leaf area is observed for Platanus orientalis, but elm species are also identified as promising canditates to be considered for their PM removing potential, and need to be included in future more details studies.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639805

RESUMO

Limonene is one of the most abundant pollutants indoors, and it contributes to the formation of additional pollutants, such as formaldehyde and photochemical smog. Limonene is commonly used in fragranced consumer products, such as cleaning supplies and air fresheners, which have also been associated with health problems. Limonene can exist in different enantiomeric forms (R-limonene and S-limonene) and be derived from different sources. However, little is known about whether different forms and sources of limonene may have different effects. This research explored whether different types of limonene, at the same concentrations, could elicit different biological effects. To investigate this question, the study employed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which have sophisticated olfactory abilities, in olfactometer tests of repellency/attraction. The results indicate that a synthetic source of R-limonene is more repellent than a natural source of R-limonene. In addition, synthetic sources of both R-limonene and S-limonene are not significantly different in repellency. These findings can contribute to our understanding and further exploration of the effects of a common fragrance compound on air quality and health.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639842

RESUMO

Air Quality Index (AQI) is information about atmospheric pollutants, which is essential for governments to inform the public about the current air quality and potential health risks. By analyzing the AQIs from 11 countries (regions), we discovered considerable variations in the design of AQI information, which may open up room for unintended interpretation from the public. Therefore, as an attempt to address the inefficiency of some common styles of AQI information in promoting the public's precaution against bad air and better design such information, an online experiment with a 2 (descriptor: neutral vs. negatively valenced) × 2 (target groups in AQI warning messages: vague vs. specific) factorial design was conducted to test the effects of such information on individuals' risk perception and precaution intention. The results indicated that AQI information with a neutral descriptor was associated with lower self-risk perception and precaution intention levels than with a negatively valenced one. Among the individuals not included in the at-risk groups, those who read the warning messages with vague target groups had a higher third-person perception toward smog risk than those targeting specific population groups. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

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