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1.
Neonatology ; : 1-7, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604089

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The skin and respiratory system of premature neonates are in permanent contact with indoor room air. We longitudinally analyzed the room air climate and quality in neonatal intensive care inside and outside an incubator. METHODS: Sampling was performed in 2 patient rooms and inside a neonatal incubator (Caleo, Draeger Medical, Lübeck, Germany) over 6 weeks with 5-min resolution resulting in 12,090 samples (U-Monitor, U-Earth Biotech, London, UK). Temperature, humidity, and air pollutants, including particulate matter (<1 µm [PM1] and <2.5 µm [PM2.5]), volatile organic compounds (VOC), and odorous gases (OG), were recorded. Room air parameters were analyzed using time series analysis. A linear regression model was used to check for statistically significant linear trends. Statistical analysis was performed using decompensation of time series analysis and spectral analysis by fast Fourier transformation. RESULTS: The indoor climate target values of the ward's central ventilation system for temperature and humidity were not always met. Room air parameters (PM, VOC, and OG) showed significant daytime-dependent fluctuations with different oscillation frequencies per day. The daily mean (first quartile - third quartile) concentrations of PM2.5 were significantly higher inside the incubator compared to the surrounding ambient air (2,158 [1,948-2,298] pcs/L vs. 2,018 [1,852-2,058] pcs/L; p < 0.001). OG were significantly lower inside the incubator compared to ambient air. VOC levels inside the incubator were substantially higher during the first 5 days of the observation period compared to VOC levels in the surrounding ambient air. CONCLUSIONS: The indoor climate of neonatal intensive care units should be monitored in real time to detect deviations from target parameters quickly. In our neonatal intensive care unit, indoor air quality fluctuated significantly depending on the time of day. We highly suspect that air pollutants are carried into the direct patient environment by visitors and medical staff. The incubator does not protect against PM and VOC exposure but reduces exposure to OG. Cleaning procedures may lead to substantially higher concentrations of VOC inside the incubator and may represent a potentially harmful factor for premature infants.

2.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev ; 40(4): 276-279, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604256

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Even low levels common to millions of Americans pose health risks. However, no study has tested protective measures such as in-home portable air cleaners (PACs) among at-risk cardiac patients. We conducted a pilot phase of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Air Filter Trial (CRAFT)-a randomized, double-blind, crossover study of outpatient cardiac rehabilitation patients at Michigan Medicine. METHODS: During a routine visit, patients were provided with 2 PACs to run continuously for 5 d in both the bedroom and the main living space. PACs were randomized as active (with HEPA filter) versus sham. On day 4, subjects wore a personal PM2.5 monitor for 24-hr without activity restrictions. After a 1-wk washout, patients crossed over to the opposite mode. RESULTS: Patients (n = 20; 4 women) were elderly (70.8 ± 9.6 yr) nonsmokers with cardiovascular disease living near the facility (10.7 ± 6.0 mi). Compared with sham, active in-home PAC use significantly lowered personal-level 24-hr PM2.5 exposures by 43.8% (-12.2 µg·m; 95% CI, -24.2 to -0.2). Sensitivity analyses corroborated the reductions in most patients. CONCLUSION: An inexpensive in-home PAC can effectively lower personal PM2.5 exposures in cardiac patients. These benefits occurred even in a region with overall good air quality and if maintained over the long-term could translate into major reductions in cardiovascular events.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604985

RESUMO

Air pollution in developing countries is a growing concern. It is associated with urbanization and social and economic structures. The understanding of how social factors can influence the perception and the potential impact of air pollution have not been addressed sufficiently. This paper addresses the social vulnerability and exposure to PM10 association and its influence on the air quality perception of residents in Mexicali, a Mexico-US border city. This study used individual variables and population census data, as well as statistical and spatial analyses. A cluster of socially vulnerable populations with high exposure to coarse particulate matter (PM10) was found in the city's peripheral areas. The spatial distribution of the local perception of air quality varied by the exposure zones of the estimated PM10 concentrations. Respondents living in very high exposure areas perceive air quality as "poor," contrarily to a worse perception in areas of intermediate and lower exposure to PM10. Proximity to stationary sources of pollution was associated with a poor perception of air quality. Results also indicate that low household income and poor air quality perceived at the place of residence negatively influences the perceived changes in the air quality over time. The knowledge of chronic health effects related to air pollution was scarce in the sampled population, especially in the areas with very high exposure and high social vulnerability. These findings can serve as a support in local air quality management.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605137

RESUMO

The large-scale construction of subway systems, which is viewed as one of the potential measures to mitigate traffic congestion and its resulting air pollution and health impact, is taking place in major cities throughout China. However, the literature on the impact of the new subway line openings on particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) at the city level is scarce. Employing the Propensity Score Matching-Difference-in-differences method, this paper examines the effect of the new subway line openings on air quality in terms of PM10 in China, using the daily PM10 concentration data from January 2014 to Dececember 2017. Our finding shows that the short-term treatment effect on PM10 is more controversial. Furthermore, for different time windows, the result confirms an increase in PM10 pollution during the short term, while the subway line openings improve air quality in the longer term. In addition, we find that the treatment effect results in high PM10 pollution for cities with 1-2 million people, while it improves air quality for cities with over 2 million people. Moreover, for cities with varying levels of GDP, there is evidence of a reduction in PM10 after the subway line openings. Mechanism analysis supports the conclusion that the PM10 reduction originated from substituting the subway for driving.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10649, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606383

RESUMO

We use a unique set of terrestrial experiments to demonstrate how soil management practises result in emergence of distinct associations between physical structure and biological functions. These associations have a significant effect on the flux, resilience and efficiency of nutrient delivery to plants (including water). Physical structure, determining the air-water balance in soil as well as transport rates, is influenced by nutrient and physical interventions. Contrasting emergent soil structures exert selective pressures upon the microbiome metagenome. These selective pressures are associated with the quality of organic carbon inputs, the prevalence of anaerobic microsites and delivery of nutrients to microorganisms attached to soil surfaces. This variety results in distinctive gene assemblages characterising each state. The nature of the interactions provide evidence that soil behaves as an extended composite phenotype of the resident microbiome, responsive to the input and turnover of plant-derived organic carbon. We provide new evidence supporting the theory that soil-microbe systems are self-organising states with organic carbon acting as a critical determining parameter. This perspective leads us to propose carbon flux, rather than soil organic carbon content as the critical factor in soil systems, and we present evidence to support this view.

6.
J Dent Res ; : 22034520940288, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614681

RESUMO

Dental health care workers are in close contact to their patients and are therefore at higher risk for contracting airborne infectious diseases. The transmission rates of airborne pathogens from patient to dental health care workers are unknown. With the outbreaks of infectious diseases, such as seasonal influenza, occasional outbreaks of measles and tuberculosis, and the current pandemic of the coronavirus disease COVID-19, it is important to estimate the risks for dental health care workers. Therefore, the transmission probability of these airborne infectious diseases was estimated via mathematical modeling. The transmission probability was modeled for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Legionella pneumophila, measles virus, influenza virus, and coronaviruses per a modified version of the Wells-Riley equation. This equation incorporated the indoor air quality by using carbon dioxide as a proxy and added the respiratory protection rate from medical face masks and N95 respirators. Scenario-specific analyses, uncertainty analyses, and sensitivity analyses were run to produce probability rates. A high transmission probability was characterized by high patient infectiousness, the absence of respiratory protection, and poor indoor air quality. The highest transmission probabilities were estimated for measles virus (100%), coronaviruses (99.4%), influenza virus (89.4%), and M. tuberculosis (84.0%). The low-risk scenario leads to transmission probabilities of 4.5% for measles virus and 0% for the other pathogens. From the sensitivity analysis, it shows that the transmission probability is strongly driven by indoor air quality, followed by patient infectiousness, and the least by respiratory protection from medical face mask use. Airborne infection transmission of pathogens such as measles virus and coronaviruses is likely to occur in the dental practice. The risk magnitude, however, is highly dependent on specific conditions in each dental clinic. Improved indoor air quality by ventilation, which reduces carbon dioxide, is the most important factor that will either strongly increase or decrease the probability of the transmission of a pathogen.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617810

RESUMO

The present study aimed to survey the spatial and temporal trends of ambient concentration of PM2.5 and to estimate mortality attributed to short- and long-term exposure to PM2.5 in Isfahan from March 2014 to March 2019 using the AirQ+ software. The hourly concentrations of PM2.5 were obtained from the Isfahan Department of Environment and Isfahan Air Quality Monitoring Center. Then, the 24-h mean concentration of PM2.5 for each station was calculated using the Excel software. According to the results, the annual mean concentration of PM2.5 in 2014-2019 was 29.9-50.9 µg/m3, approximately 3-5 times higher than the WHO guideline (10 µg/m3). The data showed that people of Isfahan in almost 58% to 96% of the days of a year were exposed to PM2.5 higher than the WHO daily guideline. The concentrations of PM2.5 in cold months such as October, November, December and January were higher than those in the other months. The zoning of the annual concentrations of PM2.5 in urban areas showed that the highest PM2.5 concentrations were related to the northern, northwestern, southern and central areas of the city. On average, from 2014 to 2019, the number of deaths due to natural mortality, lung cancer (LC), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke associated with ambient PM2.5 were 948, 16, 18, 281 and 60, respectively. The present study estimated that on average, 14.29% of the total mortality, 17.2% of lung cancer (LC), 15.54% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 17.12% of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 14.94% of stroke mortalities were related to long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5. So provincial managers and politicians must adopt appropriate strategies to control air pollution and reduce the attributable health effects and economic losses.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617823

RESUMO

The air quality decrease, especially in urban areas, is related to local-scale conditions and to dispersion of air pollutants (regional and long-range) as well. The main objective of this study was to decipher the seasonal variation of PM10, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, O3, and CO over a 1-year period (2017) and the possible relationships between air pollution and meteorological variables. Furthermore, trajectory cluster analysis and concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT) methods were used to assess the trajectories and the source-receptor relationship of PM10 in the Ciuc basin Transylvania, known as the "Cold Pole" of Romania. The pollutants show lower concentrations during warmer periods, especially during summer, and significantly higher concentrations were observed on heating season in winter due to seasonal variations in energy use (biomass burning) and atmospheric stability. Subsequently, in February, the highest concentration of PM10 was 132 µg/m3, which is 4 times higher than the highest recorded monthly mean. Our results indicate a negative correlation between CO/temperature (- 0.89), NOx/temperature (- 0.84) and positive between NOx/PM10 (0.95), CO/PM10 (0.9), and NOx/CO (0.98), respectively. Dominant transport pathways were identified and the results revealed that slow-moving southerly (~ 45%) and northwesterly (~ 32%) air masses represent almost 80% and mainly regional flows were discerned. During 2017, increased PM10 levels were measured at the study site when air masses arrived mostly from northwest and southeast. The CWT and polarplot models show a strong seasonal variation and significant differences were observed between weekdays and weekends, namely highest PM10 concentrations during weekends at low wind speed (2-4 m/s).

9.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619025

RESUMO

Egyptian honeys are distinguished with good aspects of varieties, properties and therapeutic applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality, functional and safety characteristics of Egyptian honey, as sensitive environmental bioindicator, collected from nine different locations in Egypt that were exposed to various air pollution sources either stationary, mobile or area sources and stored for 6 months at ambient temperature (22o C ±2), comparing with Codex Alimentrius international standards (2001). Physicochemical properties, sugar profile via HPLC, functional potentials (antioxidant and antimicrobial) and safety parameters (microbiological quality, afaltoxins and heavy metals pollutants), were assessed. Results revealed that honey obtained from Shabshir Hessa, El Gharbia Governorate (GSH-1) showed the best quality with the highest monosaccharides, phenolic and flavonoid content (73.07%, 363.07mg/g and 15.33 mg/g respectively) and clear of biotic and abiotic contaminants, reflecting good hygienic, environmental conditions and apiarian practices. The other 8 honey samples reflected inferior quality in physicochemical parameters either of low monosaccharides content (40.46 to 50.25%), high HMF values as in BAI-9 and NDR-4 (50.83 and 48.25 mg/Kg) or high acidity as in GAR-3 and NDR-4 (74.72 and 68.47 meq/Kg) due to contaminated locations (fermentations) or thermal treatment (HMF). Furthermore, safety assessment revealed coliform counts exceeded 2.5 Log10 CFU/g in 6 samples; KZC-2, GAR-3, NDR-4, MFT-5, GCC-6 and BAI-9, highest counts of yeast and molds detected in AAC-8 (3.72 Log10 CFU/g) which was reflected on its total aflatoxins (679.83 µg/Kg). Samples MFT-5, GAR-3, KSP-7 and KZC-2 exceeded the lead permissible limit (0.75, 0.61, 0.57 and 0.51 mg/Kg) as a result of inferior hygienic quality and negative effect of environmental pollutants. Obtained results ring alarm bells to take substantial steps towards stringent standards for quality control practices of honey production operations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combined infrared and convective drying is a promising technology in dehydrating heat-sensitive foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This novel thermal drying method, which involves the application of infrared (IR) energy and hot air during a drying process, can drastically enhance energy efficiency and improve overall product quality at the end of the process. Understanding the dynamics of what goes on inside the product during drying is important for further development, optimization and upscaling of the drying method. In this study, a multiphase porous media model considering liquid water, gases and solid matrix was developed for the combined infrared and hot-air drying (CIR-HAD) of sweet potato slices in order to capture the relevant physics and obtain an in-depth insight on the drying process. The model was simulated using MATLAB with user-friendly GUI interface for easy coupling and faster computational time. RESULTS: The gas pressure for CIR-HAD was higher centrally and decreased gradually towards the surface of the product. This implies that drying force is stronger at the product core than at the product surface. Phase change from liquid water to vapour occurs almost immediately after the start of the drying process for CIR-HAD. The evaporation rate as expected was observed to increase with increased drying time. Evaporation during the CIR-HAD increased with increasing distance from the centerline of the sample surface. The simulation results of water and vapour flux revealed that moisture transport around the surfaces and sides of the sample is as a result of capillary diffusion, binary diffusion and gas pressure in both the vertical and horizontal directions. The nonuniform dominant infrared heating caused the heterogeneous distribution of product temperature. These results suggest that CIR-HAD of food occur in a non-uniform manner with high vapour and water concentration gradient between the product core and the surface. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides better insight into the physics and phase changes of food during CIR-HAD. The multiphase model has the advantage that phase change and impact of CIR-HAD operating parameters can be swiftly quantified. Such modelling approach is thereby significant for further development and process optimization of CIR-HAD towards industrial upscaling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599729

RESUMO

Bryophytes are popular biomonitoring plants for atmospheric environments. The objectives of this study were to examine the characteristics of bryophyte communities, determine a suitable monitor species, and assess urban atmospheric environment quality by the joint use of bryophyte features and chemical properties in a large city in China. A pleurocarpous feather moss Haplocladium angustifolium was recognized as a good biomonitor of atmospheric deposition in central China by investigating bryophyte communities and habitat environment in various ecological function regions of the urban areas in Wuhan. The concentrations of trace elements, including As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, V, Pb, and Zn, in moss and soil samples from 25 sampling sites were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The concentrations of Cd and Zn in Haplocladium angustifolium collected from the entire study area were much higher than those in substrate soil. Cd was at the highest ecological risk level among the 10 elements, which contributed 34.5% to the potential ecological risk index (RI). An RI value of 392.8 indicated that urban atmospheric quality in Wuhan was in a considerable potential ecological risk. The index of atmospheric purity, regarding species richness, cover, and frequency of bryophytes, was spatially and negatively correlated with RI, also demonstrated the atmospheric quality. Effective measures should be considered to alleviate certain airborne trace element contamination and protect the environment and human health in this metropolis.

12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(12)2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599921

RESUMO

This article presents the capabilities and selected measurement results from the newly developed low-cost air pollution measurement system mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The system is designed and manufactured by the authors and is intended to facilitate, accelerate, and ensure the safety of operators when measuring air pollutants. It allows the creation of three-dimensional models and measurement visualizations, thanks to which it is possible to observe the location of leakage of substances and the direction of air pollution spread by various types of substances. Based on these models, it is possible to create area audits and strategies for the elimination of pollution sources. Thanks to the usage of a multi-socket microprocessor system, the combination of nine different air quality sensors can be installed in a very small device. The possibility of simultaneously measuring several different substances has been achieved at a very low cost for building the sensor unit: 70 EUR. The very small size of this device makes it easy and safe to mount it on a small drone (UAV). Because of this device, many harmful chemical compounds such as ammonia, hexane, benzene, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide, as well as flammable substances such as hydrogen and methane, can be detected. Additionally, a very important function is the ability to perform measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 suspended particulates. Thanks to the use of UAV, the measurement is carried out remotely by the operator, which allows us to avoid the direct exposure of humans to harmful factors. A big advantage is the quick measurement of large spaces, at different heights above the ground, in different weather conditions. Because of the three-dimensional positioning from GPS receiver, users can plot points and use colors reflecting a concentration of measured features to better visualize the air pollution. A human-friendly data output can be used to determine the mostly hazardous regions of the sampled area.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599924

RESUMO

The ocean provides resources key to human health and well-being, including food, oxygen, livelihoods, blue spaces, and medicines. The global threat to these resources posed by accelerating ocean acidification is becoming increasingly evident as the world's oceans absorb carbon dioxide emissions. While ocean acidification was initially perceived as a threat only to the marine realm, here we argue that it is also an emerging human health issue. Specifically, we explore how ocean acidification affects the quantity and quality of resources key to human health and well-being in the context of: (1) malnutrition and poisoning, (2) respiratory issues, (3) mental health impacts, and (4) development of medical resources. We explore mitigation and adaptation management strategies that can be implemented to strengthen the capacity of acidifying oceans to continue providing human health benefits. Importantly, we emphasize that the cost of such actions will be dependent upon the socioeconomic context; specifically, costs will likely be greater for socioeconomically disadvantaged populations, exacerbating the current inequitable distribution of environmental and human health challenges. Given the scale of ocean acidification impacts on human health and well-being, recognizing and researching these complexities may allow the adaptation of management such that not only are the harms to human health reduced but the benefits enhanced.

14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600027

RESUMO

China has large anthropogenic chlorine emissions from agricultural fires, residential biofuel, waste incineration, coal combustion, and industrial processes. Here we quantify the effects of chlorine on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone air quality across China by using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model with comprehensive anthropogenic emissions and detailed representation of gas-phase and heterogeneous chlorine chemistry. Comparison of the model to observed ClNO2, HCl, and particulate Cl- concentrations shows that reactive chlorine in China is mainly anthropogenic, unlike in other continental regions where it is mostly of marine origin. The model is successful in reproducing observed concentrations and their distributions, lending confidence in the anthropogenic chlorine emission estimates and the resulting chemistry. We find that anthropogenic chlorine emissions increase total inorganic PM2.5 by as much as 3.2 µg m-3 on an annual mean basis through the formation of ammonium chloride, partly compensated by a decrease of nitrate because ClNO2 formation competes with N2O5 hydrolysis. Annual mean MDA8 surface ozone increases by up to 1.9 ppb, mainly from ClNO2 chemistry, while reactivities of volatile organic compounds increase (by up to 48% for ethane). We find that a sufficient representation of chlorine chemistry in air quality models can be obtained from consideration of HCl/Cl- thermodynamics and ClNO2 chemistry, because other more complicated aspects of chlorine chemistry have a relatively minor effect.

15.
Intensive Crit Care Nurs ; : 102897, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of new-onset post-operative atrial fibrillation after isolated coronary artery bypass surgery and summarise the evidence on risk factors that predispose people to developing the complication. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to identify studies from the CINAHL, MEDLINE and Cochrane databases. A title and abstract review was conducted by one reviewer. Full text review and quality assessment processes were conducted by two reviewers. Incidence data was combined in meta-analysis using the 'metaprop' routine in Stata and risk factor data were synthesised in narrative and table format. RESULTS: Ten studies, including 6173 participants, were included in the review. The estimated pooled incidence of post-operative atrial fibrillation was 25% (CI 0.19-0.30). In a secondary meta-analysis including studies that only included first time bypass surgery recipients the estimated pooled incidence was 26% (CI 0.14-0.41). Due to high levels of heterogeneity these results should be interpreted with caution. Risk factors with the strongest associations to post-operative atrial fibrillation were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, decreased partial pressure of oxygen on air, congestive heart failure, right coronary artery disease, male gender, prolonged cross clamp time and port-operative inotropic exposure. CONCLUSION: Further prospective studies are needed to strengthen the current evidence base.

16.
Mil Med ; 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601699

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Contingency operations during the past 18 years have exposed millions of U.S. military service members to numerous combat and operational stressors. Despite this, a relative dearth of literature has focused on the experiences of deployed military medical personnel. As such, the present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by conducting individual and small group interviews with Air Force medical personnel who had recently returned from a deployment to Iraq. Interviews targeted self-reported factors related to psychological risk and resiliency across the deployment cycle, while also seeking recommendations for future military medical personnel preparing for medical deployments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inductive thematic analyses were conducted on transcripts from 12 individual and structured group interviews conducted with recently deployed U.S. Air Force medical personnel (N = 28). An interview script consisting of 18 prompts was carefully developed based on the experiences of study personnel. Two team members (n = 1 research psychologist; n = 1 military medical provider) coded exemplars from interview transcripts. A third team member (research psychologist) reviewed coded exemplars for consistency and retained themes when saturation was reached. RESULTS: In total we report on 6 primary themes. Participants reported feeling prepared to conduct their mission while deployed but often felt unprepared for the positions they assumed and the traumas they commonly experienced. Most participants reported deployment to be a rewarding experience, citing leader engagement, and social support as key protective factors against deployment-related stressors. Finally, following deployment, participants largely reported positive experiences reintegrating with their families but struggled to reintegrate into their workplace. CONCLUSION: Findings from the present study indicate that the military is largely doing a good job preparing Air Force medical providers to deploy. Results of the present study indicate that military medical personnel would benefit from: (1) increased predictability surrounding deployment timelines, (2) improved cross-cultural training, (3) advanced training for atypical injuries in unconventional patient populations, and (4) improvements in postdeployment workplace reintegration. The present research has the potential to positively impact the overall quality of life for deploying military service members and their families; while simultaneously highlighting the successes and shortfalls in the deployment process for U.S. military medical personnel.

17.
Int Wound J ; 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603026

RESUMO

Pressure ulcers are injuries to the skin and underlying tissue and are associated with a negative impact on well-being and health-related quality of life. This explorative, qualitative study aimed to explore the true meaning of elderly nursing home residents' perspectives and critical success factors when implementing a new non-powered static air mattress overlay to prevent pressure ulcers. Individual, loosely structured interviews were conductedin 12 nursing homes in Flanders, the Northern region of Belgium, a convenience sampling of 14 nursing home residents were selected based on the following eligibility criteria: high risk for pressure ulcer and/or with category 1 pressure ulcer, being bedbound and/or chair-bound, aged >65 years, and use of an alternating air pressure mattress previous to the application of the non-powered static air mattress overlay. Interviews were conducted in the participants' personal rooms between June 2017 and March 2018. Interviews included broad, open-ended questions, to invite and encourage participants to openly discuss their perspectives and experiences. Participants were interviewed once during the 14-day observation period between day 3 and day 14. All interviews were audio-recorded and fully transcribed by an experienced transcriber. Interviews were read several times to reveal emerging patterns and were marked with codes into NVivo 10 qualitative data analysis software. During the process, (sub) themes were discussed by the authors until a consensus was reached. Three main themes emerged from the analysis process: rest and sleep; mobility; and discomfort and pain associated with the use of the support surface. Themes were divided into multiple subthemes: motion, noise, sensation, repositioning, and transfer in and out of bed. Through interviews, critical success factors associated with the implementation were identified, including the lack of information and time needed to evaluate the functionality and effects of a new mattress overlay. Implementation of a non-powered static air mattress overlay to prevent pressure ulcers has a far-reaching impact on nursing home residents' experiences. This study provides insight into the true meaning of patients' perspectives by focusing on learning from the patients' experiences that provide valuable information for healthcare professionals and other stakeholders.

18.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127453, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610175

RESUMO

Exposure to ambient coarse and fine particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) causes premature death worldwide due to the nature of their particle size. It contains potentially hazardous elements (PHEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study aims to quantify the particulate matter (PM) loads on the surface of soil in twenty-five different locations including residential and roadside areas of an urban area in Northeast India. This study shows that the 24h mean concentration of PM (121 ± 49 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 153 ± 45 µg/m3 for PM10) exceeded more than three times the WHO's air quality standard limit for both PM2.5 (25 µg/m3) and PM10 (50 µg/m3) indicating poor air quality in the urban area during monsoon season. The health risk assessment of PAHs and PHEs including mutagenic or carcinogenic potency was observed to be higher as compared to other studies carried out on road traffic emissions in a similar type of urban area. This study also provides a brief database on the deposition of PM on the soil surfaces due to wet-deposition that would help to increase public awareness in such type of urban area for the control of PM pollution and further remediation.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140148, 2020 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610229

RESUMO

People spend 80% of their time indoors exposed to poor air quality due to mold growth in humid air as well as human activities (painting, cooking, cleaning, smoking…). To better understand the impact of molds on indoor air quality, we studied the emission of microbial Volatile Organic Compounds (mVOCs) from Aspergillus niger, cultivated on malt agar extract, using a high-resolution proton transfer reaction- time of flight- mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS). These emissions were studied for different cultivation time and indoor relative humidities. Our results show that the concentration of the known C4-C9 mVOCs tracers of the microbial activity (like 1-octen-3-ol, 3-methylfuran, 2-pentanone, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, nitromethane, 1,3-octadiene…) was the highest in the early stage of growth. However, these emissions decreased substantially after a cultivation time of 10-14 days and were highly affected by the relative humidity. In addition, the emissions of certain mVOCs were sensitive to indoor light, suggesting an impact of photochemistry on the relative amounts of indoor mVOCs. Based on this study, an estimation of the mVOC concentration for a standard living room was established at different air exchange rates and their indoor lifetimes toward hydroxyl radicals and ozone were also estimated. These findings give insights on possible mVOCs levels in moisture-damaged buildings for an early detection of microbial activity and new evidences about the effect of indoor light on their emission.

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10721, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612135

RESUMO

Improvement of the food value of rice straw is urgently required in rice crop growing areas to mitigate pollution caused by rice straw burning and enhance the supply of high-quality forages for ruminants. The aims of the present study were to compare the effects of fresh corn Stover and rice straw co-fermented with probiotics and enzymes on rumen fermentation and establish the feasibility of increasing the rice straw content in ruminant diets and, by extension, reducing air pollution caused by burning rice straw. Twenty Simmental hybrid beef cattle were randomly allotted to two groups with ten cattle per group. They were fed diets based either on rice straw co-fermented with probiotics and enzymes or fresh corn Stover for 90 days. Rumen fluid was sampled with an esophageal tube vacuum pump device from each animal on the mornings of days 30, 60, and 90. Bacterial diversity was evaluated by sequencing the V4-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Metabolomes were analyzed by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS). Compared to cattle fed fresh corn Stover, those fed rice straw co-fermented with probiotics and enzymes had higher (P < 0.05) levels of acetic acid and propionate in rumen liquid at d 60 and d 90 respectively, higher (P < 0.05) abundances of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Fibrobacteres and the genera Ruminococcus, Saccharofermentans, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Treponema, Lachnoclostridium, and Ruminobacter, and higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of metabolites involved in metabolisms of amino acid, carbohydrate, and cofactors and vitamins. Relative to fresh corn Stover, rice straw co-fermented with probiotics and enzymes resulted in higher VFA concentrations, numbers of complex carbohydrate-decomposing and H2-utilizing bacteria, and feed energy conversion efficiency in the rumen.

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