Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 66.885
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254016, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364529

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize bacteria from water and soil sample taken from the Lahore Canal at different sites i.e. Mall Road, Mohlanwal and Khera site. Isolated bacterial strains were identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical tests. Identification was confirmed by culturing bacteria on selective media. Antibiotic resistance test was also performed to observe the resistance of bacteria against different antibiotics. Blood agar test was performed for identification of different pathogenic bacteria. The result revealed that water and soil samples of Lahore Canal Lahore from different sites were contaminated with Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus sp. and Staphylococcus spp. Due to presence of these pathogens, this water is not suitable for any domestic and irrigation use. Study also revealed that water of the Lahore Canal is harmful for human health as it is contaminated with bacteria that can cause severe disease e.g., Escherichia coli can cause gastroenteritis, Bacillus spp. can cause nausea and vomiting, Enterococcus may infect urinary tract, Salmonella sp. is responsible for Bacteremia, Staphylococcus spp. can cause mild fever and Vibrio sp. can be the reason of cholera. Thus it is rendered unfit for any kind of human use even other than drinking like swimming, bathing, washing etc., until and unless some remedial measures are employed to eradicate pathogenic microorganisms by WASA and LWMS according to standards of WHO. Similarly, it is quite harmful, when and where ever it is used for irrigation without proper treatment.


O presente estudo foi realizado para isolar e caracterizar bactérias de amostras de água e solo retiradas do Canal Lahore, em Lahore, em diferentes locais, ou seja, Mall Road, Mohlanwal e Khera. As cepas bacterianas isoladas foram identificadas com base em testes morfológicos e bioquímicos. A identificação foi confirmada por cultura de bactérias em testes de meios seletivos. O teste de resistência aos antibióticos também foi realizado para observar a resistência das bactérias a diferentes antibióticos. Foi realizado o teste de ágar sangue para identificar diferentes bactérias patogênicas. O resultado revelou que amostras de água e solo do Canal Lahore, Lahore, de diferentes localidades estavam contaminadas com Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus sp. e Staphylococcus spp. Por causa da presença desses patógenos, essa água não é adequada para qualquer uso doméstico e de irrigação. O estudo revelou que a água do Canal Lahore é prejudicial à saúde humana, pois está contaminada com bactérias que podem causar doenças graves, por exemplo: Escherichia coli pode ocasionar gastroenterite; Bacillus spp. pode causar náuseas e vômitos; Enterococcus sp. pode infectar o trato urinário; Salmonella sp. é responsável pela bacteremia; Staphylococcus spp. pode causar febre leve; e Vibrio sp. pode ser a razão da cólera. Assim, torna-se imprópria para uso humano, como natação, banho, lavagem etc., até que algumas medidas corretivas sejam empregadas para erradicar microrganismos patogênicos por WASA e LWMS de acordo com os padrões da OMS. Da mesma forma, é bastante prejudicial, quando usada para irrigação sem tratamento adequado.


Assuntos
Animais , Solo , Staphylococcus , Vibrio , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Amostras de Água , Enterococcus , Escherichia coli
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255916, 2024. tab, graf, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364509

RESUMO

This study aims at reporting the indigenous knowledge of the medicinal flora from the inhabitants of surroundings of the World's largest artificial planted forest "Changa Manga", Pakistan. Data were collected by direct interviews and group meetings from 81 inhabitants including 32 local healers having information regarding the use of indigenous medicinal plants over a period of one year. Different statistical tools were applied to analyze the data including Frequency citation (FC), Relative frequency citation (RFC), Use Value, Factor of informants consensus and fidelity level. This study reported 73 plant species belonging to 37 plant families and 46 genera. The majority of plant species belong to compositae family. The most commonly used medicinal plants were P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L, P. harmala L., P. emblica L., and A. indica A.Juss. The greatest number of species was used to cure gastrointestinal disorders. The highest fidelity level (68.18%) was of E. helioscopia to cure gastrointestinal disorders. Maximum fresh uses (17) were reported by C. dactylon (L.) Pars. While the highest number of species reporting fresh uses in similar number was 13. In this study, five novel plants are being reported for the first time in Pakistan for their ethnomedicinal worth. Our data reflect unique usage of the medicinal plants in the study area. The statistical tools used in the study proved useful in pointing the most important and disease category specific plants. High use value plant and the new reported medicinal plants might prove an important source of the isolation of pharmacologically active compounds.


Este estudo tem como objetivo relatar o conhecimento indígena sobre a flora medicinal dos habitantes do entorno da maior floresta artificial plantada do mundo, a Changa Manga, no Paquistão. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas diretas e reuniões em grupo de 81 habitantes, incluindo 32 curandeiros locais, com informações sobre o uso de plantas medicinais indígenas durante o período de um ano. Diferentes ferramentas estatísticas foram aplicadas para analisar os dados, incluindo citação de frequência (FC), citação de frequência relativa (RFC), valor de uso, fator de consenso dos informantes e nível de fidelidade. Este estudo relatou 73 espécies de plantas pertencentes a 37 famílias de plantas e 46 gêneros. A maioria das espécies de plantas pertence à família Compositae. As plantas medicinais mais utilizadas foram P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L., P. harmala L., P. emblica L. e A. indica A. Juss. O maior número de espécies foi usado para curar distúrbios gastrointestinais. O maior nível de fidelidade (68,18%) foi de E. helioscopia para cura de distúrbios gastrointestinais. Os usos máximos em fresco (17) foram relatados por C. dactylon (L.) Pars. enquanto o maior número de espécies relatando usos frescos em número semelhante foi de 13. Neste estudo, cinco novas plantas estão sendo relatadas pela primeira vez no Paquistão por seu valor etnomedicinal. Nossos dados refletem o uso exclusivo das plantas medicinais na área de estudo. As ferramentas estatísticas utilizadas no estudo mostraram-se úteis para apontar as plantas mais importantes e específicas da categoria de doença. Plantas de alto valor de uso e as novas plantas medicinais relatadas podem ser uma importante fonte de isolamento de compostos farmacologicamente ativos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Plantas Medicinais , Florestas , Gastroenteropatias , Povos Indígenas , Medicina Tradicional , Paquistão
3.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 168(2)2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35113781

RESUMO

Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 isolates deploy cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) to cause the diarrhoeal disease cholera. The ctxAB and tcpA genes encoding CT and TCP are part of two acquired genetic elements, the CTX phage and Vibrio pathogenicity island-1 (VPI-1), respectively. ToxR and ToxT proteins are the key regulators of virulence genes of V. cholerae O1 and O139. V. cholerae isolates belonging to serogroups other than O1/O139, called non-O1/non-O139, are usually devoid of virulence-related elements and are non-pathogenic. Here, we have analysed the available whole genome sequence of an environmental toxigenic V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strain, VCE232, carrying the CTX phage and VPI-1. Extensive bioinformatics and phylogenetic analyses indicated high similarity of the VCE232 genome sequence with the genome of V. cholerae O1 strains, including organization of the VPI-1 locus, ctxAB, tcpA and toxT genes, and promoters. We established that the VCE232 strain produces an optimal amount of CT at 30 °C under AKI conditions. To investigate the role of ToxT and ToxR in the regulation of virulence factors, we constructed ΔtoxT, ΔtoxR and ΔtoxTΔtoxR deletion mutants of VCE232. Extensive genetic analyses of these mutants indicated that the toxT and toxR genes of VCE232 are crucial for CT and TCP production. However, unlike O1 isolates, the presence of either toxT or toxR gene is sufficient for optimal CT production in VCE232. In addition, the VCE232 ΔtoxR mutant showed differential regulation of the major outer membrane proteins, OmpT and OmpU. This is the first attempt to explore the regulation of expression of major virulence genes and regulators in an environmental toxigenic V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strain.


Assuntos
Cólera , Vibrio cholerae não O1 , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Humanos , Filogenia , Vibrio cholerae não O1/metabolismo , Virulência/genética
4.
J Dig Dis ; 23(7): 388-395, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In China, four symptoms of functional gastrointestinal disorders, postprandial fullness, early satiety, bloating, and abdominal distension are commonly and interchangeably expressed as a single chief complaint, "Zhang". In this study we aimed to explore the most efficient method of determining the characteristics of symptoms in such patients. METHODS: Consecutive patients with the chief complaint of abdominal "Zhang" from December 2017 to June 2018 were included. Their symptom patterns were determined by face-to-face interviews. Patients with a single symptom (postprandial fullness, early satiety, bloating, or abdominal distension) completed the questionnaire assessing their understanding of the symptoms using three methods including concept terms, pictograms, and verbal descriptions. RESULTS: A total of 230 patients (121 men, 109 women; mean age 43.7 ± 12.6 y) were included. Verbal descriptions were most applicable to identify patients' symptom patterns, followed by concept terms and pictograms. Early satiety was the most difficult to identify (20.9% agreement between patient's understanding and doctor's diagnosis by using concept term), whereas fullness and bloating had apparently higher recognition (70.7% and 72.1% by concept terms). Elder patients (>60 y) and those with more frequent symptom attacks (≥once daily) showed relatively poorer understanding of the symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Early satiety is poorly identified by patients. Existing pictograms fail to show comprehension-improving features in a Chinese cultural setting. Verbal descriptions may be the best option for diagnosing abdominal "Zhang". More caution is required during the inquiry of medical history from elder patients with frequent symptom attacks.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Gastroenteropatias , Adulto , Idoso , China , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 25(9): 771-776, 2022 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117367

RESUMO

With the development of global economy and society,the number of patients who suffer from functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) and mental illness is growing. In recent years, a substantial amount of high-quality research evidence shows that these two kinds of diseases often coexist, and they are mutually causal, and their common pathophysiology is the abnormal interaction of "bacteria-gut-brain axis". In clinical practice, there are some problems, such as insufficient recognition and attention of both doctors and patients to its clinical manifestations, lack of understanding of pathophysiological mechanism, and lack of overall and integrated views of intervention methods, which may be the main factors of poor curative effect at present. Therefore, according to the global research progress and the author's clinical experience, we put forward a new viewpoint of "gastrointestinal psychiatry", it concluded that clinical intervention strategies needed to include dietary and lifestyle changes as well as multidisciplinary interventions such as probiotics, prebiotic, fecal microbiota transplantation and cognitive psychology. On the basis of gastrointestinal psychiatry, this paper systematically elaborated the diagnosis and treatment of this kind of diseases.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias , Transtornos Mentais , Probióticos , Psiquiatria , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Prebióticos
6.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 25(9): 784-791, 2022 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117369

RESUMO

Objective: To summarize and analyze the clinical effect of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) combined with nutritional support and psychotherapy in patients with "Tetralogy of Tongji" (comprising chronic gastrointestinal dysfunction, mental and psychological disorders, malnutrition, and endocrine disorders). Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted. The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) patients were under 70 years of age; (2) patients exhibited chronic gastrointestinal dysfunction (in accordance with the Rome IV diagnostic criteria for irritable bowel syndrome ie. chronic functional constipation, diarrhea, abdominal pain and abdominal distention) with onset occurring more than one year previously; (3) patients exhibited malnutrition (body mass index ≤ 18.5 kg/m2); (4) patients exhibited depression, anxiety, or state as diagnosed by a psychologist using the Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HAMA) and the Hamilton depression scale (HAMD); (5) patients were women of childbearing age with amenorrhea or menstrual disorder with a duration ≥6 months. Patients were excluded if they exhibited gastrointestinal bleeding, short bowel syndrome, radiation-induced intestinal injury, intestinal obstruction or inflammatory bowel disease, recurrent/metastatic tumors, systemic infectious diseases, life-threatening systemic comorbidities, intorlerate to nasojejunal, percutaneous gastrostomy / jejunostomy or FMT. The clinical data of 43 patients at Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital exhibiting the "Tetralogy of Tongji" and who received microflora transplantation combined with nutritional support and psychotherapy from June 2017 to June 2021 was prospectively collected. There were 12 males and 31 females with a mean age of 35.2±16.7 years. All 43 patients had chronic gastrointestinal dysfunction. Of these, 24 patients had depression and 19 had anxiety. There were 26 women of reproductive age, including 13 cases of menstrual disorder and 9 cases of amenorrhea. The treatment intervention was a combination of FMT (microflora solution or microflora capsule), nutritional support (enteral nutrition) and psychological intervention. The following were assessed before treatment and 1, 3, 6 months after treatment: (1) gastrointestinal function was assessed using the gastrointestinal symptoms rating scale (GSRS), where a higher score is indicative of more serious gastrointestinal symptoms, and the gastrointestinal quality of life index (GIQLI), where a higher score is indicative of higher quality of life; (2) psychological status was assessed using HAMA and HAMD scores, where a lower score is indicative of reduced severity of anxiety or depression symptoms, respectively; (3) nutritional status was assessed by measurements of total blood protein, albumin, fibrinogen and prealbumin, as well as measurements of body mass and body mass index (BMI); (4) neuroendocrine function was assessed by measurement of blood levels of cortisol, dopamine and noradrenaline, as well as menstruation in women of reproductive age. Results: The follow-up rates at 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment were 90.7% (39/43), 72.1% (31/43) and 55.8% (24/43), respectively. The total effective rate for chronic gastrointestinal dysfunction was 81.4% (35/43), of which the average GSRS score decreased from 29.35±3.56 before treatment to 18.25±2.56 in the sixth month (P<0.001). The average GIQLI score increased from 56.23±10.34 before treatment to 91.04±20.39 in the sixth month (P<0.001). All patients had malnutrition before treatment. After 6 months, their body weight had increased from 40.61±8.88 kg to 50.45±6.23 kg (P<0.001), and BMI had increased from 15.17±1.87 kg/m2 to 19.58±1.42 kg/m2 (P<0.001). The average total protein level was 60.99± 5.99 g/L before treatment. After 6 months, this had increased to 64.21±4.23 g/L (F=2.715, P=0.022). The average prealbumin level increased from 150.14±56.04 mg/L before treatment to 258.17±86.94 mg/L after 6 months (F=15.124, P<0.001). In this study, 24 patients with depression/depressed state were included. After treatment, the average HAMD score in these patients decreased from 22.79±6.63 before treatment to 9.92±7.24 after 6 months (P<0.001). There were 19 patients with anxiety disorder/anxiety state. After treatment, the average HAMA score in these patients decreased from 17.15±4.34 before treatment to 7.73±4.10 after 6 months (P<0.001). Observing the endocrine efficacy of 26 women of childbearing age, it was found that the effective rate of this treatment on endocrine regulation was 69.2% (18/26). Although there was no significant change in blood cortisol levels after 6 months, average blood dopamine levels decreased from 32.91±10.65 nmol/L before treatment to 13.02±5.58 nmol/L after 6 months (P<0.001). Average blood norepinephrine levels decreased from 49.75±15.23 ng/L before treatment to 19.21±9.58 ng/L after 6 months (P<0.001). Conclusion: The strategy of FMT combined with nutritional support and psychological intervention is effective in improving the symptoms of the "Tetralogy of Tongji".


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias , Desnutrição , Adolescente , Adulto , Amenorreia , China , Constipação Intestinal , Dopamina , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Feminino , Fibrinogênio , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norepinefrina , Apoio Nutricional , Pré-Albumina , Intervenção Psicossocial , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 25(9): 798-803, 2022 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117371

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted. Clinical data from ASD patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and who underwent FMT in the Tenth People's Hospital affiliated to Tongji University or Jinling Hospital between May 2012 to May 2021 were retrospectively collected. Scores derived from the autism behavior checklist (ABC), the childhood autism rating scale (CARS), the Bristol stool form scale (BSFS), and the gastrointestinal symptom rating scale (GSRS) were analyzed at baseline and at the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 12th, 24th, 36th, 48th and 60th month after FMT. Records of any adverse reactions were collected. Generalized estimating equations were used for analysis of data on time points before and after FMT. Results: A total of 328 patients met the inclusion criteria for this study. Their mean age was 6.1±3.4 years old. The cohort included 271 boys and 57 girls. The percentage of patients remaining in the study for post-treatment follow-up at the 1st, 3rd, 12th, 24th, 36th, 48th and 60th month were as follows: 303 (92.4%), 284 (86.7%), 213 (64.9%), 190 (57.9%), 143 (43.6%), 79 (24.1%), 46 (14.0%), 31 (9.5%). After FMT, the average ABC score was significantly improved in the first 36 months and remained improved at the 48th month. However, the average score was not significantly different from baseline by the 60th month (1st-36th month, P<0.001; 48th month, P=0.008; 60th month, P=0.108). The average CARS score improved significantly during the first 48 months and remained improved at the 60th month (1st-48th month, P<0.001; 60th month, P=0.010). The average BSFS score was also significantly improved in the first 36 months (with an accompanying stool morphology that resembled type 4). This improvement was maintained at the 48th month. However, the average score was similar to baseline at the 60th month (1st-36th month, P<0.001; 48th month, P=0.008; 60th month, P=0.109). The average GSRS score was significantly improved during the first 24 months, but not afterwards (1st-24th month, P<0.001; 36th month, P=0.209; 48th month, P=0.996; 60th month, P=0.668). The adverse events recorded during treatment included abdominal distension in 21 cases (6.4%), nausea in 14 cases (4.3%), vomiting in 9 cases (2.7%), abdominal pain in 15 cases (4.6%), diarrhea in 18 cases (5.5%), fever in 13 cases (4.0%), and excitement in 24 cases (7.3%). All adverse reactions were mild to moderate and improved immediately after suspension of FMT or on treatment of symptoms. No serious adverse reactions occurred. Conclusion: FMT has satisfactory long-term efficacy and safety for the treatment of ASD with gastrointestinal symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Gastroenteropatias , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/efeitos adversos , Fezes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(10): 617, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36097213

RESUMO

CgtA, a highly conserved 50S ribosome-associated essential GTPase, acts as a repressor of the stringent stress response under nutrient-rich growth conditions to suppress basal levels of the alarmone ppGpp in V. cholerae. To further explore the in vivo functionality of CgtA, we introduced an amino acid substitution, i.e., Gly98Asp, in a conserved glycine residue in the N-terminal domain. The constructed V. cholerae mutant was designated CgtA(G98D). Comparison of cell sizes of the CgtA(G98D)mutant with its isogenic wild-type (Wt) strain N16961 under different phases of growth by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and statistical analysis suggests that CgtA may control the cell size of V. cholerae. The cell length is significantly reduced, corresponding to the delayed growth in the mid-logarithmic phase. The differences in the cell length of CgtA(G98D) and Wt are indistinguishable in the late logarithmic phase. During the stationary phase, marked by higher OD600, a sub-population of CgtA(G98D) cells outnumbered the Wt cells lengthwise. CgtA(G98D) cells appeared slenderer than Wt cells with significantly reduced cell width. However, the centerline curvature is preserved in CgtA(G98D) cells. We propose that in addition to its multitude of intracellular roles, CgtA may influence the cell size of V. cholerae.


Assuntos
Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP , Vibrio cholerae , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Ribossomos/genética , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Vibrio cholerae/metabolismo
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(36): e30297, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086768

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has emerged as a global health concern. This study aimed to review the epidemiology and pathophysiology of COVID-19 and provide evidence for the implementation of control measures. We utilized several online databases, including MEDLINE (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA), PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, to collect relevant published papers using a combination of the following keywords: "COVID-19," "SARS-CoV-2," "novel coronavirus," "epidemiology," and "pathophysiology." The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used in this study. Globally, approximately 3-46% of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection experience gastrointestinal symptoms. The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 is wide, ranging from mild to severe, and even fatal. COVID-19 was initially reported as a respiratory tract disease; however, gastrointestinal symptoms have only recently been reported. COVID-19 Patients with gastrointestinal symptoms may have more severe clinical manifestations and poor prognosis. This study highlights the need to better understand the mechanisms involved in the development of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with COVID-19 to prevent the further spread of this pathogen.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Gastroenteropatias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Maryland , SARS-CoV-2
10.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(26): 3047-3062, 2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36051349

RESUMO

Baicalin is a natural bioactive compound derived from Scutellaria baicalensis, which is extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine. A literature survey demonstrated the broad spectrum of health benefits of baicalin such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, cardio-protective, hepatoprotective, renal protective, and neuroprotective properties. Baicalin is hydrolyzed to its metabolite baicalein by the action of gut microbiota, which is further reconverted to baicalin via phase 2 metabolism in the liver. Many studies have suggested that baicalin exhibits therapeutic potential against several types of hepatic disorders including hepatic fibrosis, xenobiotic-induced liver injury, fatty liver disease, viral hepatitis, cholestasis, ulcerative colitis, hepatocellular and colorectal cancer. During in vitro and in vivo examinations, it has been observed that baicalin showed a protective role against liver and gut-associated abnormalities by modifying several signaling pathways such as nuclear factor-kappa B, transforming growth factor beta 1/SMAD3, sirtuin 1, p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase/Janus kinase, and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinaseß/adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase pathways. Furthermore, baicalin also regulates the expression of fibrotic genes such as smooth muscle actin, connective tissue growth factor, ß-catenin, and inflammatory cytokines such as interferon gamma, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and IL-1ß, and attenuates the production of apoptotic proteins such as caspase-3, caspase-9 and B-cell lymphoma 2. However, due to its low solubility and poor bioavailability, widespread therapeutic applications of baicalin still remain a challenge. This review summarized the hepatic and gastrointestinal protective attributes of baicalin with an emphasis on the molecular mechanisms that regulate the interaction of baicalin with the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Flavonoides , Gastroenteropatias , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Scutellaria baicalensis
11.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 7405448, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052305

RESUMO

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly disseminated worldwide, and it continues to threaten global public health. Recently, the Delta variant has emerged as the most dreaded variant worldwide. COVID-19 predominantly affects the respiratory tract, and studies have reported the transient effects of COVID-19 on digestive system function. However, the relationship between the severity of the Delta variant and digestive system function remains to be investigated. Additionally, data on the ability of the inactive Chinese vaccines (Sinovac or Sinopharm) to protect against the Delta variant or COVID-19-induced gastrointestinal symptoms in the real world are insufficient. Thus, the present retrospective observational study first attempted to use the total gastrointestinal symptom rating scale scores (GSRS) to quantify the possible changes in digestive system functions following the Delta variant infection in the early stage. In addition, the study discusses the potential of inactivated vaccines in preventing severe or critical symptoms or Delta variant-induced digestive system dysfunction. Methods: To evaluate the difference between mild illness group, moderate illness group, and severe or critical illness group, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to compare the three groups' total gastrointestinal symptom rating scale scores (GSRS). A chi-squared test was used to compare the differences in the ratio of the abnormal biochemical measurements among the three groups first. Then, the percentage of the vaccinated population was compared among the three groups. Additionally, the ratio of the abnormal serum markers between the vaccinated and nonvaccinated cohorts was compared. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Significant differences were observed in the abnormal ratio of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and Interleukin 6 (IL-6) ratio among the three groups (P < 0.05). Additionally, no significant difference was observed in the abnormal serum markers ratio between day 14 and day 21 after treatment (P > 0.05). A significant difference was observed in the total GSRS scores among the three groups and the ratio of the vaccinated population among the three groups (P < 0.05). A significant difference was observed in the ratio of the abnormal serum ALT and AST levels between the vaccinated and nonvaccinated cohorts (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In summary, serum AST, DBIL, LDH, and IL-6 levels are potential markers for distinguishing severe or critical patients in the early stage of the Delta variant infection. Additionally, changes in the levels of these serum makers are transient, and the levels can return to normal after treatment. Furthermore, severe gastrointestinal discomfort was significantly more prevalent in patients with severe or critical diseases and should thus be considered in patients diagnosed with Delta variant infection. Finally, inactivated vaccines may prevent severe or critical symptoms and Delta variant-induced liver dysfunction. Vaccination programs must be promoted to protect public health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Gastroenteropatias , Bilirrubina , Biomarcadores , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Sistema Digestório , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Interleucina-6 , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/uso terapêutico
12.
Rev Med Suisse ; 18(793): 1578-1583, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047547

RESUMO

Chronic diarrhea is defined by a decrease in stool consistency and a bowel frequency of more than 3 times per day, lasting for at least 4 weeks. Multiple underlying causes may be responsible for chronic diarrhea. There are four main pathomechanisms for chronic diarrhea: osmotic diarrhea, secretory diarrhea, infectious diarrhea and bowel dysmotility. Overlaps between these mechanisms may exist. A stool collection over a 72-hour period frequently allows to classify diarrhea into one of these four entities. Such classification finally helps for the identification of underlying cause(s), thereby allowing rational diagnostic measures. It also limits the costs of diagnostic workup. This article aims to present the main causes of chronic diarrhea, the diagnostic steps to perform and to provide a guideline for clinicians in daily practice.


La diarrhée chronique est définie par une diminution de la consistance des selles (défaites à liquides) et par une émission de selles supérieure à 3 ×/jour pendant plus de 4 semaines. Les raisons peuvent être multiples. Quatre pathomécanismes peuvent être à l'origine de la diarrhée chronique : osmotique, sécrétoire, inflammatoire et motrice. Des chevauchements entre ces mécanismes peuvent exister. La récolte de selles pendant 72 heures permet, dans la majorité des cas, de clarifier la physiopathologie des diarrhées et donc d'identifier la cause sous-­jacente permettant d'effectuer des mesures diagnostiques rationnelles et de limiter les coûts. Cet article a pour objectif de présenter les principales causes de diarrhée chronique, d'énumérer les étapes diagnostiques à réaliser et de donner une ligne directrice aux cliniciens dans la pratique quotidienne.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Gastroenteropatias , Doença Crônica , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/etiologia , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Humanos
13.
FASEB J ; 36(10): e22557, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125006

RESUMO

Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) is a ß-barrel pore-forming toxin (ß-PFT). It exhibits potent hemolytic activity against erythrocytes that appears to be a direct outcome of its pore-forming functionality. However, VCC-mediated cell-killing mechanism is more complicated in the case of nucleated mammalian cells. It induces apoptosis in the target nucleated cells, mechanistic details of which are still unclear. Furthermore, it has never been explored whether the ability of VCC to trigger programmed cell death is stringently dependent on its pore-forming activity. Here, we show that VCC can evoke hallmark features of the caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death even in the absence of the pore-forming ability. Our study demonstrates that VCC mutants with abortive pore-forming hemolytic activity can trigger apoptotic cell death responses and cytotoxicity, similar to those elicited by the wild-type toxin. VCC as well as its pore formation-deficient mutants display prominent propensity to translocate to the target cell mitochondria and cause mitochondrial membrane damage. Therefore, our results for the first time reveal that VCC, despite being an archetypical ß-PFT, can kill target nucleated cells independent of its pore-forming functionality. These findings are intriguing for a ß-PFT, whose destination is generally expected to remain limited on the target cell membranes, and whose mode of action is commonly attributed to the membrane-damaging pore-forming ability. Taken together, our study provides critical new insights regarding distinct implications of the two important virulence functionalities of VCC for the V. cholerae pathogenesis process: hemolytic activity for iron acquisition and cytotoxicity for tissue damage by the bacteria.


Assuntos
Toxinas Biológicas , Vibrio cholerae , Animais , Caspases/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Citotoxinas/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Toxinas Biológicas/metabolismo , Vibrio cholerae/metabolismo
14.
Cell Rep ; 40(12): 111368, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130487

RESUMO

Quorum sensing fundamentally alters the interaction of Vibrio cholerae with aquatic environments, environmental hosts, and the human intestine. At high cell density, the quorum-sensing regulator HapR represses not only expression of cholera toxin and the toxin co-regulated pilus, virulence factors essential in human infection, but also synthesis of the Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) exopolysaccharide-based matrix required for abiotic and biotic surface attachment. Here, we describe a feature of V. cholerae quorum sensing that shifts the host-pathogen interaction toward commensalism. By repressing pathogen consumptive anabolic metabolism and, in particular, tryptophan uptake, V. cholerae HapR stimulates host intestinal serotonin production. This, in turn, activates host intestinal innate immune signaling to promote host survival.


Assuntos
Vibrio cholerae , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Contagem de Células , Toxina da Cólera , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Intestinos , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Percepção de Quorum , Serotonina/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Vibrio cholerae/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
15.
Comput Biol Med ; 149: 106030, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial diseases are one of the leading causes of millions of fatalities worldwide, mainly due to antimicrobial resistance. The discovery of chicken cholera vaccine in 1879 revolutionized our fight against bacterial infections. Bacterial vaccines are proven to be highly effective in preventing many infectious diseases. Currently, various licensed vaccines are available against bacterial infections such as typhoid, diphtheria, cholera and tetanus in the market. In this study, we have attempted to compile different information regarding bacterial vaccines, their types, efficacy, mechanism of action, status, route of administration and other relevant details as a knowledgebase known as BacVacDB. METHODS: BacVacDB was implemented using Linux-Apache-MySQL-PHP. HTML, PHP, CSS and Javascript have been used to develop the front end and MySQL for the back end. The data was curated from several sources, including literature, databases and relevant web resources. RESULTS: This paper reviewed 371 vaccines against 30 human bacterial diseases maintained in BacVacDB, of which 167 are approved and 204 in clinical trials. This database provides the users an effortless search facility in the four modules, 'Search,' 'Browse,' 'External Links' and 'General Information'. In this systematic attempt, we also included the history of vaccines, their mechanism, types, route of administration and approving agencies. CONCLUSIONS: This knowledgebase has an intuitive interface that allows users to explore, search, and download information as well as to submit new bacterial vaccines (https://webs.iiitd.edu.in/raghava/bacvacdb/).


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Infecções Bacterianas , Vacinas contra Cólera , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas , Vacinas Bacterianas , Humanos , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas/uso terapêutico
16.
Wkly. epidemiol. rec ; 97(37): 453-464, 2022-09-16.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês | WHO IRIS | ID: who-362858

Assuntos
Cólera
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e063703, 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nigeria reported an upsurge in cholera cases in October 2020, which then transitioned into a large, disseminated epidemic for most of 2021. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology, diagnostic performance of rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kits and the factors associated with mortality during the epidemic. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of national surveillance data. SETTING: 33 of 37 states (including the Federal Capital Territory) in Nigeria. PARTICIPANTS: Persons who met cholera case definition (a person of any age with acute watery diarrhoea, with or without vomiting) between October 2020 and October 2021 within the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control surveillance data. OUTCOME MEASURES: Attack rate (AR; per 100 000 persons), case fatality rate (CFR; %) and accuracy of RDT performance compared with culture using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Additionally, individual factors associated with cholera deaths and hospitalisation were presented as adjusted OR with 95% CIs. RESULTS: Overall, 93 598 cholera cases and 3298 deaths (CFR: 3.5%) were reported across 33 of 37 states in Nigeria within the study period. The proportions of cholera cases were higher in men aged 5-14 years and women aged 25-44 years. The overall AR was 46.5 per 100 000 persons. The North-West region recorded the highest AR with 102 per 100 000. Older age, male gender, residency in the North-Central region and severe dehydration significantly increased the odds of cholera deaths. The cholera RDT had excellent diagnostic accuracy (AUROC=0.91; 95% CI 0.87 to 0.96). CONCLUSIONS: Cholera remains a serious public health threat in Nigeria with a high mortality rate. Thus, we recommend making RDT kits more widely accessible for improved surveillance and prompt case management across the country.


Assuntos
Cólera , Epidemias , Cólera/diagnóstico , Cólera/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Oncoimmunology ; 11(1): 2115618, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046810

RESUMO

Type 1 conventional dendritic cells (cDC1) efficiently cross-present antigens that prime cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. cDC1 therefore constitute conceivable targets in cancer vaccine development. We generated recombinant fusion cancer vaccines that aimed to concomitantly deliver tumor antigen and adjuvant to CD103+ migratory cDC1, following intranasal administration. The fusion vaccine constructs comprised a cDC1-targeting anti-CD103 single chain antibody (aCD103) and a cholera toxin A1 (CTA1) subunit adjuvant, fused with MHC class I and II- or class II-restricted tumor cell antigens to generate a CTA1-I/II-aCD103 vaccine and a CTA1-II-aCD103 vaccine. The immunostimulatory and anti-tumor efficacy of these vaccines was evaluated in murine B16F1-ovalbumin (OVA) melanoma models in C57BL/6 J mice. The CTA1-I/II-aCD103 vaccine was most efficacious and triggered robust tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses along with a Th17-polarized CD4+ T cell response. This vaccine construct reduced the local growth of implanted B16F1-OVA melanomas and efficiently prevented hematogenous lung metastasis after prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination. Anti-tumor effects of the CTA1-I/II-aCD103 vaccine were antigen-specific and long-lasting. These results imply that adjuvant-containing recombinant fusion vaccines that target and activate cDC1 trigger effective anti-tumor immunity to control tumor growth and metastasis.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer , Melanoma , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Adjuvantes Farmacêuticos , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Toxina da Cólera , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ovalbumina , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas
19.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (9): 105-114, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073591

RESUMO

We report surgical treatment of 4 patients with superior mesenteric artery aneurysm. A comprehensive examination including Doppler ultrasound and CT angiography of visceral arteries made it possible to assess the features of vascular anatomy. In accordance with the peculiarities of upper mesenteric artery angioarchitectonics, open and endovascular methods were used. A differentiated approach made it possible to treat patients without any complications.


Assuntos
Aneurisma , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Gastroenteropatias , Aneurisma/complicações , Aneurisma/diagnóstico , Aneurisma/cirurgia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Humanos , Artéria Mesentérica Superior/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Mesentérica Superior/cirurgia
20.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms have been reported to occur frequently in diabetes, but their prevalence in Chinese community-dwelling individuals with diabetes is unknown. The present study aimed to address this issue and explore the risk factors for gastrointestinal symptoms. METHODS: A total of 1304 community-dwelling participants (214 with diabetes, 360 with prediabetes and 730 with normoglycemia) were surveyed for gastrointestinal symptoms using the Diabetes Bowel Symptom Questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were applied to identify risk factors for gastrointestinal symptoms. RESULTS: Of the overall study population, 18.6% reported at least one gastrointestinal symptom, without a significant difference between subjects with normoglycemia (17.7%), prediabetes (19.7%) and diabetes (20.1%). In all three groups, lower gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly diarrhea and constipation, were the most frequent. There was an interaction between age (≥65 years) and diabetes on the prevalence of at least one gastrointestinal symptom (p = 0.01) and of constipation (p = 0.004), with these being most frequent in subjects with diabetes aged ≥ 65 years. After multivariable adjustment, female gender and older age were associated with increased odds of at least one gastrointestinal symptom, specifically lower gastrointestinal symptoms. Older age was also associated with an increase in upper gastrointestinal symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in Chinese community-dwelling adults with and without diabetes. Females, and the elderly with diabetes, are at an increased risk of symptoms.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Gastroenteropatias , Estado Pré-Diabético , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Constipação Intestinal/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Vida Independente , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Prevalência
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...