Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.644.757
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250575, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350309

RESUMO

Abstract Cancer is a fatal malignancy and its increasing worldwide prevalence demands the discovery of more sensitive and reliable molecular biomarkers. To investigate the GINS1 expression level and its prognostic value in distinct human cancers using a series of multi-layered in silico approach may help to establish it as a potential shared diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of different cancer subtypes. The GINS1 mRNA, protein expression, and promoter methylation were analyzed using UALCAN and Human Protein Atlas (HPA), while mRNA expression was further validated via GENT2. The potential prognostic values of GINS1 were evaluated through KM plotter. Then, cBioPortal was utilized to examine the GINS1-related genetic mutations and copy number variations (CNVs), while pathway enrichment analysis was performed using DAVID. Moreover, a correlational analysis between GINS1 expression and CD8+ T immune cells and a the construction of gene-drug interaction network was performed using TIMER, CDT, and Cytoscape. The GINS1 was found down-regulated in a single subtypes of human cancer while commonly up-regulated in 23 different other subtypes. The up-regulation of GINS1 was significantly correlated with the poor overall survival (OS) of Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma (LIHC), Lung Adenocarcinoma (LUAD), and Kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC). The GINS1 was also found up-regulated in LIHC, LUAD, and KIRC patients of different clinicopathological features. Pathways enrichment analysis revealed the involvement of GINS1 in two diverse pathways, while few interesting correlations were also documented between GINS1 expression and its promoter methylation level, CD8+ T immune cells level, and CNVs. Moreover, we also predicted few drugs that could be used in the treatment of LIHC, LUAD, and KIRC by regulating the GINS1 expression. The expression profiling of GINS1 in the current study has suggested it a novel shared diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of LIHC, LUAD, and KIRC.


Resumo O câncer é uma doença maligna fatal e sua crescente prevalência mundial exige a descoberta de biomarcadores moleculares mais sensíveis e confiáveis. Investigar o nível de expressão de GINS1 e seu valor prognóstico em cânceres humanos distintos, usando uma série de abordagens in silico em várias camadas, pode ajudar a estabelecê-lo como um potencial biomarcador de diagnóstico e prognóstico compartilhado de diferentes subtipos de câncer. O mRNA de GINS1, a expressão da proteína e a metilação do promotor foram analisados ​​usando UALCAN e Human Protein Atlas (HPA), enquanto a expressão de mRNA foi posteriormente validada via GENT2. Os valores prognósticos potenciais de GINS1 foram avaliados por meio do plotter KM. Em seguida, o cBioPortal foi utilizado para examinar as mutações genéticas relacionadas ao GINS1 e as variações do número de cópias (CNVs), enquanto a análise de enriquecimento da via foi realizada usando DAVID. Além disso, uma análise correlacional entre a expressão de GINS1 e células imunes T CD8 + e a construção de uma rede de interação gene-droga foi realizada usando TIMER, CDT e Cytoscape. O GINS1 foi encontrado regulado negativamente em um único subtipo de câncer humano, enquanto comumente regulado positivamente em 23 outros subtipos diferentes. A regulação positiva de GINS1 foi significativamente correlacionada com a sobrevida global pobre (OS) de Carcinoma Hepatocelular de Fígado (LIHC), Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão (LUAD) e Carcinoma de Células Claras Renais de Rim (KIRC). O GINS1 também foi encontrado regulado positivamente em pacientes LIHC, LUAD e KIRC de diferentes características clínico-patológicas. A análise de enriquecimento de vias revelou o envolvimento de GINS1 em duas vias diversas, enquanto poucas correlações interessantes também foram documentadas entre a expressão de GINS1 e seu nível de metilação do promotor, nível de células imunes T CD8 + e CNVs. Além disso, também previmos poucos medicamentos que poderiam ser usados ​​no tratamento de LIHC, LUAD e KIRC, regulando a expressão de GINS1. O perfil de expressão de GINS1 no estudo atual sugeriu que é um novo biomarcador de diagnóstico e prognóstico compartilhado de LIHC, LUAD e KIRC.


Assuntos
Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Prognóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação para Cima , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253183, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355858

RESUMO

Abstract Nanoparticles are considered viable options in the treatment of cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and magnetite folate core shell (MFCS) on leukemic and hepatocarcinoma cell cultures as well as their effect on the animal model of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML). Through current study nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized by various techniques, and their properties were studied to confirm their nanostructure. Invivo study, nanoparticles were evaluated to inspect their cytotoxic activity against SNU-182 (human hepatocellular carcinoma), K562 (human leukemia), and THLE2 (human normal epithelial liver) cells via MTT test. Apoptotic signaling proteins Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 expression were inspected through RT-PCR method. A cytotoxic effect of MNPs and MFCS was detected in previous cell cultures. Moreover, the apoptosis was identified through significant up-regulation of caspase-3, with Bcl-2 down-regulation. Invitro study, AML was induced in rats by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea followed by oral treatment with MNPS and MFCS. Biochemical indices such as aspartate and alanine amino transferases, and lactate dehydrogenase activities, uric acid, complete blood count, and Beta -2-microglubulin were assessed in serum. Immunophenotyping for CD34 and CD38 detection was performed. Liver, kidney, and bone marrow were microscopically examined. Bcl-2 promoter methylation, and mRNA levels were examined. Although, both MNPs and MFCS depict amelioration in biochemical parameters, MFCS alleviated them toward normal control. Anticancer activity of MNPs and MFCS was approved especially for AML. Whenever, administration of MFCS was more effective than MNPs. The present work is one of few studies used MFCS as anticancer agent.


Resumo Nanopartículas são consideradas opções viáveis ​​no tratamento do câncer. Este estudo foi conduzido para investigar o efeito de nanopartículas de magnetita (MNPs) e núcleo de folato de magnetita (MFCS) em culturas de células leucêmicas e de hepatocarcinoma, bem como seu efeito no modelo animal de leucemia mielocítica aguda (LMA). Através do atual estudo, nanopartículas foram sintetizadas, caracterizadas por várias técnicas, e suas propriedades foram estudadas para confirmar sua nanoestrutura. No estudo in vivo, as nanopartículas foram avaliadas para inspecionar sua atividade citotóxica contra células SNU-182 (carcinoma hepatocelular humano), K562 (leucemia humana) e THLE2 (fígado epitelial humano normal) por meio do teste MTT. A expressão das proteínas sinalizadoras apoptóticas Bcl-2 e Caspase-3 foram inspecionadas através do método RT-PCR. Um efeito citotóxico de MNPs e MFCS foi detectado em culturas de células anteriores. Além disso, a apoptose foi identificada por meio de regulação positiva significativa da Caspase-3, com regulação negativa de Bcl-2. No estudo in vitro, a AML foi induzida em ratos por N-metil-N-nitrosoureia seguida por tratamento oral com MNPS e MFCS. Índices bioquímicos como aspartato e alanina aminotransferases e atividades de lactato desidrogenase, ácido úrico, hemograma completo e Beta-2-microglubulina foram avaliados no soro. A imunofenotipagem para detecção de CD34 e CD38 foi realizada. Fígado, rim e medula óssea foram examinados microscopicamente. A metilação do promotor Bcl-2 e os níveis de mRNA foram examinados. Embora tanto os MNPs quanto os MFCS representem uma melhora nos parâmetros bioquímicos, o MFCS os aliviou em direção ao controle normal. A atividade anticâncer de MNPs e MFCS foi aprovada especialmente para AML. Sempre, a administração de MFCS foi mais eficaz do que MNPs. O presente trabalho é um dos poucos estudos que utilizou o MFCS como agente anticâncer.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Compostos Férricos , Ácido Fólico
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251336, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355879

RESUMO

Abstract Bulbine natalensis and Chorophytum comosum are potential medicinal source for the treatment of cancers. Chronic myeloid leukaemia is a hematopoietic stem cells disorder treated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors but often cause recurrence of the leukaemia after cessation of therapy, hence require alternative treatment. This study determines the anti-cancer effect of leaf, root and bulb methanolic and aqueous extracts of B. natalensis and C. comosum in chronic human myelogenous leukaemia (K562) cell line by MTT, Hoechst bis-benzimide nuclear and annexin V stain assays. The root methanolic extract of B. natalensis and C. comosum showed a high cytotoxicity of 8.6% and 16.7% respectively on the K562 cell line at 1,000 μg/ml concentration. Morphological loss of cell membrane integrity causing degradation of the cell and fragmentation were observed in the root methanolic extract of both plants. A high apoptosis (p < 0.0001) was induced in the K562 cells by both leaf and root extracts of the C. comosum compared to the B. natalensis. This study shows both plants possess apoptotic effect against in vitro myelogenous leukaemia which contributes to the overall anti-cancer properties of B. natalensis and C. comosum to justify future therapeutic applications against chronic myelogenous leukaemia blood cancer.


Resumo Bulbine natalensis Baker e Chorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacques são potenciais fontes medicinais para o tratamento de cânceres. A Leucemia Mieloide Crônica (LMC) é um distúrbio das células-tronco hematopoiéticas que é tratado com inibidores da tirosina quinase, mas frequentemente, causa recorrência da leucemia após a interrupção da terapia, portanto, requer um tratamento alternativo. Este estudo determinou o efeito anticancerígeno de extratos metanólicos e aquosos de folha, raiz e bulbo de B. natalensis e C. comosum na linhagem celular de leucemia mieloide humana crônica (K562) por ensaios de MTT, Hoechst bis-benzimida nuclear e anexina V. O extrato metanólico da raiz de B. natalensis e C. comosum apresentou alta citotoxidade de 8,6% e 16,7% respectivamente, na linhagem celular K562 com a concentração de 1,000 μg / ml. Perda morfológica da integridade da membrana celular causando degradação dos núcleos, citoplasma e encolhimento celular foi observada no extrato metanólico da raiz de ambas as plantas. Uma alta apoptose (p <0,0001) foi induzida nas células K562 por extratos de folhas e raízes de C. comosum em comparação com B. natalensis. Este estudo mostrou que ambas as plantas possuem efeito apoptótico contra leucemia mieloide in vitro que contribui para as propriedades anticâncer gerais de B. natalensis e C. comosum para justificar futuras aplicações terapêuticas contra câncer de sangue de LMC.


Assuntos
Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Xanthorrhoeaceae , Apoptose , Células K562
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251289, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355889

RESUMO

Abstract The present research was made to determine the micronuclei and cytotoxic capacity of the antidepressant venlafaxine in an in vivo acute and subchronic assays in mouse. In the first study, we administered once 5, 50, and 250 mg/kg of the drug, and included a negative and a daunorubicin treated group. Observations were daily made during four days. The subchronic assay lasted 5 weeks with daily administration of venlafaxine (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg) plus a negative and an imipramine administered groups. Observations were made each week. In the first assay results showed no micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE) increase, except with the high dose at 72 h. The strongest cytotoxic effect was found with 250 mg/kg at 72 h (a 51% cytotoxic effect in comparison with the mean control level). In the subchronic assay no MNPE increase was found; however, with the highest dose a significant increase of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes was observed in the last three weeks (a mean of 51% respect to the mean control value). A cytotoxic effect with the two high doses in the last two weeks was observed (a polychromatic erythrocyte mean decrease of 52% respect to the mean control value). Results suggest caution with venlafaxine.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi feita para determinar a capacidade micronuclei e citotóxica do antidepressivo venlafaxina em ensaios agudos e subcrônicos in vivo em camundongos. No primeiro estudo, administramos uma vez 5, 50 e 250 mg/kg do medicamento e incluímos um grupo negativo e um grupo tratado com daunorubicina. As observações foram feitas diariamente durante quatro dias. O ensaio subcrônico durou cinco semanas com administração diária de venlafaxina (1, 5, e 10 mg/kg) mais um grupo negativo e um grupo administrado de imipramina. As observações foram feitas a cada semana. No primeiro ensaio, os resultados não mostraram aumento de eritrócitos policromáticos micronucleados (MNPE), exceto com a dose elevada a 72 h. O efeito citotóxico mais forte foi encontrado com 250 mg/kg a 72 h (um efeito citotóxico de 51% em comparação com o nível médio de controle). No ensaio subcrônico não foi encontrado aumento de MNPE; entretanto, com a dose mais alta, um aumento significativo de eritrócitos normocromáticos micronucleados foi observado nas últimas três semanas (média de 51% em relação ao valor médio de controle). Foi observado um efeito citotóxico com as duas altas doses nas últimas duas semanas (uma diminuição média de 52% em relação ao valor médio de controle dos eritrócitos policromáticos). Os resultados sugerem cautela com a venlafaxina.


Assuntos
Animais , Coelhos , Dano ao DNA , Antineoplásicos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eritrócitos , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina/toxicidade
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255529, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364534

RESUMO

Reports from popular medicine usually act as a basis for the development of new drugs from natural compounds with therapeutic actions for serious diseases and prevalence such as cancer. Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. is a species of the Bromeliaceae family, considered an unconventional food plant, found in the south and midwest regions of Brazil. Despite the high nutritional content and pharmacological potential of its fruits, few scientific studies report its biological actions. Thus, this study evaluates the phytochemical profile of aqueous and ethanol extracts obtained from B. antiacantha fruits, as well as their possible antioxidant, antitumor, and cytotoxic activities. The aqueous extract exhibited phenolic compounds and flavonoids, while ethanol extracts indicated the presence of flavonoids and coumarin in their composition, regardless of the region of collection. The ethanolic extract demonstrated a more promising antioxidant effect than the aqueous extract and also induced a significant inhibition in the viability of human cervical cancer cells of the SiHa strain. In addition, treatment with both extracts did not alter the viability of non-tumor cells of the immortalized human keratinocyte lineage (HaCaT). These results bring new data about extracts obtained from a native plant, edible and traditionally used in popular medicine, opening new perspectives for its possible therapeutic application.


Relatos da medicina popular costumam atuar como referencial para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos a partir de moléculas naturais com ações terapêuticas para doenças de alta gravidade e prevalência como o câncer. Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. é uma espécie da família Bromeliaceae, considerada uma planta alimentícia não convencional (PANC), encontrada nas regiões sul e centro-oeste do Brasil. Apesar do alto teor nutritivo e potencial farmacológico de seus frutos, poucos estudos científicos relatam suas ações biológicas. Desta forma, este estudo avalia o perfil fitoquímico de extratos aquoso e etanólico obtidos de frutos de B. antiacantha, bem como a sua possível ação antioxidante, antitumoral e citotóxica. O extrato aquoso apresentou compostos fenólicos e flavonoides, enquanto os extratos etanólicos apontam a presença de flavonóides e cumarina em sua composição, independente da região de coleta. O extrato etanólico demonstrou efeito antioxidante mais promissor do que o extrato aquoso e também induziu uma inibição significativa na viabilidade de células humanas de câncer cervical da linhagem SiHa. Além disso, o tratamento com ambos extratos não alterou a viabilidade de células não tumorais da linhagem de queratinócitos humanos imortalizados (HaCaT). Estes dados trazem novas informações sobre extratos obtidos de uma espécie vegetal nativa, comestível e já utilizada tradicionalmente, mas abrindo novas perspectivas quanto a possíveis aplicações terapêuticas.


Assuntos
Flavonoides , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Bromeliaceae , Bromelia , Usos Terapêuticos , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Fitoterapia
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252676, 2024. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364501

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) is the foremost reason of progressive hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis, with an elevated risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Medicinal plants have been used for human health benefits for several years, but their therapeutic potential needs to be explored. The main objective of this study was to figure out the in vitro antiviral and anticancer characteristics of total crude protein of Iberis gibraltarica against HCV and HCC. Total crude protein of Iberis gibraltarica was isolated and quantified. The level of cytotoxicity was measured against the HepG2 cell line and it shows no significant cytotoxicity at the concentration of 504µg/ml. The anti-HCV effect was determined by absolute quantification via real time RT-PCR method and viral titer was reduced up to 66% in a dose dependent manner against the total protein of Iberis gibraltarica. The anticancer potential of Iberis gibraltarica was also examined through mRNA expression studies of AFP and GPC3 genes against the total protein of Iberis gibraltarica-treated HepG2 cells. The results show up to 90% of the down-regulation expression of AFP and GPC3. The obtained results indicate the therapeutic potential of total protein of Iberis gibraltarica against HCV and hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro.


A infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C (HCV) é a principal causa de fibrose hepática progressiva e cirrose, com risco elevado de desenvolvimento de carcinoma hepatocelular (HCC). As plantas medicinais vêm sendo utilizadas para benefícios à saúde humana há vários anos, mas seu potencial terapêutico precisa ser explorado. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi descobrir as características antivirais e anticancerígenas in vitro da proteína bruta total de Iberis gibraltarica contra HCV e HCC. A proteína bruta total de Iberis gibraltarica foi isolada e quantificada. O nível de citotoxicidade foi medido contra a linha celular HepG2 e não apresenta citotoxicidade significativa na concentração de 504µg/ml. O efeito anti-HCV foi determinado por quantificação absoluta através do método RT-PCR em tempo real e o título viral foi reduzido em até 66% de forma dose-dependente contra a proteína total de Iberis gibraltarica. O potencial anticancerígeno de Iberis gibraltarica também foi examinado através de estudos de expressão de mRNA dos genes AFP e GPC3 contra a proteína total de células HepG2 tratadas com Iberis gibraltarica. Os resultados mostram até 90% da expressão de regulação negativa de AFP e GPC3. Os resultados obtidos indicam o potencial terapêutico da proteína total de Iberis gibraltarica contra HCV e carcinoma hepatocelular in vitro.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Terapêutica , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250556, 2024. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360208

RESUMO

Exosomes are 30-120nm bio particles transferred from donor to recipient cells leading to modification in their regulatory mechanisms depending upon the coded message in the form of loaded biomolecule. Cancer cells derived exosomes the true representatives of the parent cells have been found to modify the tumor surrounding/distinct regions and participate in metastasis, angiogenesis and immune suppression. Tis study was aimed to study the effects of tumor mice derived exosomes on the normal mice spleen isolated T cells by using co-culture experiments and flow cytometer analysis. We mainly focused on some of the T cells population and cytokines including IFN-γ, FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and KI67 (proliferation marker). Overall results indicated random changes in different set of experiments, where the cancer derived exosomes reduced the IFN-γ expression in both CD4 and CD8 T cells, similarly the Treg cells were also found decreased in the presence of cancer exosomes. No significant changes were observed on the Ki67 marker expression. Such studies are helpful in understanding the role of cancer exosomes in immune cells suppression in tumor microenvironment. Cancer exosomes will need to be validated in vivo and in vitro on a molecular scale in detail for clinical applications.


Os exossomos são biopartículas de 30-120 nm transferidas de células doadoras para células receptoras, levando à modificação em seus mecanismos reguladores, dependendo da mensagem codificada na forma de biomolécula carregada. Verificou-se que exossomos derivados de células cancerosas ­ os verdadeiros representantes das células-mãe ­ modificam as regiões circundantes / distintas do tumor e participam da metástase, angiogênese e imunossupressão. Este estudo teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos de exossomos derivados de camundongos com tumor nas células T isoladas de baço de camundongos normais, usando experimentos de cocultura e análise de citômetro de fluxo. Concentrou-se, principalmente, em algumas populações de células T e citocinas, incluindo IFN-γ, células T reguladoras FOXP3 + (Treg) e KI67 (marcador de proliferação). Os resultados gerais indicaram mudanças aleatórias em diferentes conjuntos de experimentos, em que os exossomos derivados de câncer reduziram a expressão de IFN-γ em células T CD4 e CD8, da mesma forma que as células Treg também foram encontradas diminuídas na presença de exossomos de câncer. Nenhuma mudança significativa foi observada na expressão do marcador Ki67. Esses dados são úteis para a compreensão do papel dos exossomos do câncer na supressão de células do sistema imunológico no microambiente tumoral. Exossomos de câncer precisarão ser validados in vivo e in vitro em escala molecular com detalhes para aplicações clínicas.


Assuntos
Animais , Camundongos , Exossomos , Microambiente Tumoral , Sistema Imunitário , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257071, 2024. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364496

RESUMO

In advanced biotechnology, the utilization of enzymes to achieve new or modified compounds with antibacterial, fungicidal, and anti-cancer specifications is crucial. Mushroom lactases are a hopeful biocatalyst for the synthesis and modification of different compounds. They are an accessible and inexpensive enzyme for the preparation of reaction objects and have recently received attention. Laccase purification was performed from basidiomycete Lentinus strigosus (LS) in several stages: Stage 1. On ion-exchange chromatography on TEAE Servacell 23 (400 ml), two distinctly separated laccase activity peaks were observed, eluted from the carrier at 0.21 and 0.27 M NaCl. In order to reduce the loss of enzymes, all fractions with laccase activity were collected, concentrated, and desalted using an ultrafiltration cell (Amicon, United States) with a UM-10 membrane. Stage 2. The resulting preparation with laccase activity was applied to a Q-Sepharose column (60 ml). Two well-separated peaks with laccase activity were obtained during the elution: laccase I (0.12 M NaCl) and laccase II (0.2 M NaCl). Stage 3. In the course of further purification of both enzymes, carried out on anion-exchange carrier Resource Q (6 ml), a broken gradient was used: 0 - 10%, 10 - 20%, and 20 - 100% with 1M NaCl. Stage 4. Both laccase I and laccase II, obtained after Resource Q, were desalted, concentrated to 1 ml each, and applied to a Superdex 75 gel filtration column. As a result, two laccases were obtained in a homogeneous form.


Na biotecnologia moderna, o uso de enzimas para obter compostos novos ou modificados com propriedades antibacterianas, antifúngicas e anticancerígenas é crucial. Lactases de cogumelos são biocatalisadores promissores para síntese e modificação de diferentes compostos, por serem enzimas baratas e disponíveis para a preparação de componentes de reação, e vem recebendo a devida atenção recentemente. A purificação da lacase foi realizada a partir do basidiomiceto Lentinus strigosus em vários estágios: Etapa 1 - na cromatografia de troca iônica em TEAE Servacell 23 (400 ml), foram observados dois picos de atividade da lacase distintamente separados, com eluição do transportador a 0,21 e 0,27 M de NaCl. Para reduzir a perda de enzimas, todas as frações com atividade de lacase foram coletadas, concentradas e dessalinizadas em uma célula de ultrafiltração (Amicon, Estados Unidos) com membrana UM-10; Etapa 2 - a preparação resultante com atividade de lacase foi aplicada a uma coluna Q-Sepharose (60 ml). Durante a eluição, foram obtidos dois picos bem separados com atividade de lacase: lacase I (NaCl 0,12 M) e lacase II (NaCl 0,2 M); Etapa 3 - no decurso da purificação adicional de ambas as enzimas, realizada no Recurso Q de transportador de troca aniônica (6 ml), um gradiente quebrado foi usado: 0-10%, 10-20% e 20-100% com NaCl 1M; Etapa 4 - tanto a lacase I como a lacase II, obtidas após o Recurso Q, foram dessalinizadas e concentradas para 1 ml cada e aplicadas a uma coluna de filtração em gel Superdex 75. Como resultado, duas lacases foram obtidas de forma homogênea.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Biotecnologia , Lacase , Enzimas , Antibacterianos
9.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(1): 68-73, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799511

RESUMO

Defects in the endothelial cell barrier accompany diverse malfunctions of the central nervous system such as neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and systemic diseases such as sepsis, viral and bacterial infections, and cancer. Compromised endothelial sealing leads to leaking blood vessels, followed by vasogenic edema. Brain edema as the most common complication caused by stroke and traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of death. Brain microvascular endothelial cells, together with astrocytes, pericytes, microglia, and neurons form a selective barrier, the so-called blood-brain barrier, which regulates the movement of molecules inside and outside of the brain. Mechanisms that regulate blood-brain barrier permeability in health and disease are complex and not fully understood. Several newly discovered molecules that are involved in the regulation of cellular processes in brain microvascular endothelial cells have been described in the literature in recent years. One of these molecules that are highly expressed in brain microvascular endothelial cells is protocadherin gamma C3. In this review, we discuss recent evidence that protocadherin gamma C3 is a newly identified key player involved in the regulation of vascular barrier function.

10.
Bioact Mater ; 20: 472-488, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35800406

RESUMO

Implantable biomaterials are widely used in the curative resection and palliative treatment of various types of cancers. However, cancer residue around the implants usually leads to treatment failure with cancer reoccurrence. Postoperation chemotherapy and radiation therapy are widely applied to clear the residual cancer cells but induce serious side effects. It is urgent to develop advanced therapy to minimize systemic toxicity while maintaining efficient cancer-killing ability. Herein, we report a degenerate layered double hydroxide (LDH) film modified implant, which realizes microenvironment-responsive electrotherapy. The film can gradually transform into a nondegenerate state and release holes. When in contact with tumor cells or bacteria, the film quickly transforms into a nondegenerate state and releases holes at a high rate, rendering the "electrocution" of tumor cells and bacteria. However, when placed in normal tissue, the hole release rate of the film is much slower, thus, causing little harm to normal cells. Therefore, the constructed film can intelligently identify and meet the physiological requirements promptly. In addition, the transformation between degenerate and nondegenerate states of LDH films can be cycled by electrical charging, so their selective and dynamic physiological functions can be artificially adjusted according to demand.

11.
Bioact Mater ; 21: 86-96, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36093330

RESUMO

Though the development of the diverse hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs) has made great progresses in the last several decades, current cancer therapy based on HAPs still suffers many obstacles, e.g., poor therapeutic outcome owing to hard deep reaching to hypoxic region, and the occurrence of metastasis due to hypoxia. Inspired by engineered niches, a novel functional chitosan polymer (CS-FTP) is synthesized for construction of a hydrogel-based bio-niche (CS-FTP-gel) in aiming at remodeling tumor hypoxic microenvironment. The CS-FTP polymers are crosslinked to form a niche-like hydrogel via enzyme-mediated oxygen-consumable dimerization after injected into tumor, in which a HAP (i.e., AQ4N) could be physically encapsulated, resulting in enhanced tumor hypoxia to facilitate AQ4N-AQ4 toxic transformation for maximizing efficacy of chemotherapy. Furthermore, Pazopanib (PAZ) conjugated onto the CS backbone via ROS-sensitive linker undergoes a stimuli-responsive release behavior to promote antiangiogenesis for tumor starvation, eventually contributing to the inhibition of lung metastasis and synergistic action with AQ4N-based chemotherapy for an orthotopic 4T1 breast tumor model. This study provides a promising strategy for hypoxia-based chemotherapy and demonstrates an encouraging clinical potential for multifunctional hydrogel applicable for antitumor treatment.

13.
Ann Lab Med ; 43(1): 64-72, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045058

RESUMO

Background: Following success of the phase III PROfound trial, the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor olaparib was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in May 2020 for adult patients with deleterious homologous recombination repair (HRR) gene-mutated metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). As locally adopted multigene panel next-generation sequencing (NGS) assays for selecting PARP inhibitor candidates have not been thoroughly evaluated, we compared the analytical performance of the FoundationOne CDx (Foundation Medicine, Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA) (central laboratory) and other NGS assays (local laboratory) with samples from the PROfound trial in Korea. Methods: One hundred PROfound samples (60 HRR mutation [HRRm] cases and 40 non-HRRm cases) were analyzed. The results of HRR gene mutation analysis were compared between the FoundationOne CDx and two other NGS assays [SureSelect Custom Design assay (Agilent Technologies, Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA) and Oncomine Comprehensive assay (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., Waltham, MA, USA)]. Results: The positive percent agreement for single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertion/deletions (indels) between the central laboratory and local laboratory was 98.7%-100.0%. The negative percent agreement and overall percent agreement (OPA) for SNVs and indels between central and local laboratories were both 100%. Compared with that of the FoundationOne CDx assay, the OPA for copy number variations of the Oncomine Comprehensive and SureSelect Custom assays reached 99.8%-100%. Most mCRPC patients harboring a deleterious genetic variant were successfully identified with both local laboratory assays. Conclusions: The NGS approach at a local laboratory showed comparable analytical performance for identifying HRRm status to the FoundationOne CDx assay used at the central laboratory.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Adulto , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Laboratórios , Masculino , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação
14.
Ann Lab Med ; 43(1): 73-81, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045059

RESUMO

Background: BRCA testing is necessary for establishing a management strategy for ovarian cancer. Several BRCA testing strategies, including germline and somatic testing, are implemented in clinical practice in Korea. We aimed to comparatively evaluate their cost-effectiveness from patients' perspective. Methods: We developed a decision model comprising five BRCA testing strategies implemented in Korea: (1) germline testing first, followed by somatic tumor testing for patients without a germline variant; (2) somatic testing first, followed by germline testing for patients with a variant detected by somatic testing; (3) both germline and somatic testing; (4) germline testing alone; and (5) somatic testing alone, with no testing as the comparator. One-way sensitivity analysis was conducted to test the uncertainty of key parameters. Results: Assuming a willingness-to-pay of $20,000 per progression-free life-year gain (PF-LYG), all five strategies were considered cost-effective. Strategy 4 was the most cost-effective option, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $2,547.7 per PF-LYG, followed by strategy 1, with an ICER of $3,978.4 per PF-LYG. Even when the parameter values were varied within the possible range, the ICERs of all strategies did not exceed the willingness-to-pay threshold. Conclusions: Considering the importance of knowing a patient's BRCA gene status, germline testing first, followed by somatic testing, may be a reasonable option.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Células Germinativas/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , República da Coreia
15.
Ann Lab Med ; 43(1): 82-85, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045060

RESUMO

Cytokeratin 19 fragment antigen 21-1 (CYFRA 21-1) is useful for predicting and monitoring non-small cell lung cancer prognosis. We established reference intervals (RIs) of CYFRA 21-1 in Korean adults, including those older than 60 years. Data of 4,098 apparently healthy subjects (age range, 20-87 years) were analyzed after excluding those with a history of malignancy, high tumor marker concentrations (except CYFRA 21-1), and/or abnormal findings on a chest computed tomography scan through medical chart review. After removing two outliers, RIs of CYFRA 21-1 were determined using data of 4,096 subjects based on the non-parametric method (2.5th and 97.5th percentiles) according to CLSI guidelines EP28-A3c. The subjects were divided into two and four groups according to sex and age (20-40, 41-50, 51-60, and >60 years), respectively, and the median CYFRA 21-1 concentration was compared between the groups. The RI of CYFRA 21-1 was 0.66-3.84 ng/mL, applicable to both men and women. Regardless of sex, the CYFRA 21-1 concentration increased with age, suggesting that age-dependent RIs of CYFRA 21-1 should be applied. Rather than using a single RI provided by the manufacturer, the RI of CYFRA 21-1 should be continually verified and established in each clinical laboratory.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Queratina-19 , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Bioact Mater ; 21: 1-19, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36017071

RESUMO

Although nano-immunotherapy has advanced dramatically in recent times, there remain two significant hurdles related to immune systems in cancer treatment, such as (namely) inevitable immune elimination of nanoplatforms and severely immunosuppressive microenvironment with low immunogenicity, hampering the performance of nanomedicines. To address these issues, several immune-regulating camouflaged nanocomposites have emerged as prevailing strategies due to their unique characteristics and specific functionalities. In this review, we emphasize the composition, performances, and mechanisms of various immune-regulating camouflaged nanoplatforms, including polymer-coated, cell membrane-camouflaged, and exosome-based nanoplatforms to evade the immune clearance of nanoplatforms or upregulate the immune function against the tumor. Further, we discuss the applications of these immune-regulating camouflaged nanoplatforms in directly boosting cancer immunotherapy and some immunogenic cell death-inducing immunotherapeutic modalities, such as chemotherapy, photothermal therapy, and reactive oxygen species-mediated immunotherapies, highlighting the current progress and recent advancements. Finally, we conclude the article with interesting perspectives, suggesting future tendencies of these innovative camouflaged constructs towards their translation pipeline.

17.
Bioact Mater ; 19: 237-250, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510176

RESUMO

The limited clinical response and serious side effect have been challenging in cancer immunotherapy resulting from immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) and inferior drug targeting. Herein, an active targeting TME nanoplatform capable of revising the immunosuppressive TME microenvironment is designed. Briefly, gold nanorods (GNRs) are covered with silica dioxide (SiO2) and then coated manganese dioxide (MnO2) to obtain GNRs@SiO2@MnO2 (GSM). Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) membrane is further camouflaged on the surface of GSM to obtain GNRs@SiO2@MnO2@MDSCs (GSMM). In this system, GSMM inherits active targeting TME capacity of MDSCs. The localized surface plasmon resonance of GNRs is developed in near-infrared II window by MnO2 layer coating, realizing NIR-II window photothermal imaging and photoacoustic imaging of GSMM. Based on the release of Mn2+ in acidic TME, GSMM can be also used for magnetic resonance imaging. In cancer cells, Mn2+ catalyzes H2O2 into ·OH for (chemodynamic therapy) CDT leading to activate cGAS-STING, but also directly acts on STING inducing secretion of type I interferons, pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Additionally, photothermal therapy and CDT-mediated immunogenic cell death of tumor cells can further enhance anti-tumor immunity via exposure of CRT, HMGB1 and ATP. In summary, our nanoplatform realizes multimodal cancer imaging and dual immunotherapy.

18.
Bioact Mater ; 19: 198-216, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510171

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays an important role in regulating various pathological processes such as protecting mammalian cell from harmful injuries, promoting tissue regeneration, and regulating the process of various diseases caused by physiological disorders. Studies have revealed that the physiological effects of H2S are highly associated with its concentrations. At relatively low concentration, H2S shows beneficial functions. However, long-time and high-dose donation of H2S would inhibit regular biological process, resulting in cell dysfunction and apoptosis. To regulate the dosage of H2S delivery for precision medicine, H2S delivery systems with intelligent characteristics were developed and a variety of biocompatibility polymers have been utilized to establish intelligent polymeric H2S delivery systems, with the abilities to specifically target the lesions, smartly respond to pathological microenvironments, as well as real-timely monitor H2S delivery and lesion conditions by incorporating imaging-capable moieties. In this review, we focus on the design, preparation, and therapeutic applications of intelligent polymeric H2S delivery systems in cardiovascular therapy, inflammatory therapy, tissue regenerative therapy, cancer therapy and bacteria-associated therapy. Strategies for precise H2S therapies especially imaging-guided H2S theranostics are highlighted. Since H2S donors with stimuli-responsive characters are vital components for establishing intelligent H2S delivery systems, the development of H2S donors is also briefly introduced.

19.
Bioact Mater ; 19: 642-652, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35600972

RESUMO

Nanoscale ultrasound contrast agents, or nanobubbles, are being explored in preclinical applications ranging from vascular and cardiac imaging to targeted drug delivery in cancer. These sub-micron particles are approximately 10x smaller than clinically available microbubbles. This allows them to effectively traverse compromised physiological barriers and circulate for extended periods of time. While various aspects of nanobubble behavior have been previously examined, their behavior in human whole blood has not yet been explored. Accordingly, herein we examined, for the first time, the short and long-term effects of blood components on nanobubble acoustic response. We observed differences in the kinetics of backscatter from nanobubble suspensions in whole blood compared to bubbles in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), plasma, or red blood cell solutions (RBCs). Specifically, after introducing nanobubbles to fresh human whole blood, signal enhancement, or the magnitude of nonlinear ultrasound signal, gradually increased by 22.8 ± 13.1% throughout our experiment, with peak intensity reached within 145 s. In contrast, nanobubbles in PBS had a stable signal with negligible change in intensity (-1.7 ± 3.2%) over 8 min. Under the same conditions, microbubbles made with the same lipid formulation showed a -56.8 ± 6.1% decrease in enhancement in whole blood. Subsequent confocal, fluorescent, and scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed attachment of the nanobubbles to the surface of RBCs, suggesting that direct interactions, or hitchhiking, of nanobubbles on RBCs in the presence of plasma may be a possible mechanism for the observed effects. This phenomenon could be key to extending nanobubble circulation time and has broad implications in drug delivery, where RBC interaction with nanoparticles could be exploited to improve delivery efficiency.

20.
Bioact Mater ; 19: 594-610, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35600975

RESUMO

Cancer metastases are the most common causes of cancer-related deaths. The formation of secondary tumors at different sites in the human body can impair multiple organ function and dramatically decrease the survival of the patients. In this stage, it is difficulty to treat tumor growth and spreading due to arising therapy resistances. Therefore, it is important to prevent cancer metastases and to increase subsequent cancer therapy success. Cancer metastases are conventionally treated with radiation or chemotherapy. However, these treatments elicit lots of side effects, wherefore novel local treatment approaches are currently discussed. Recent studies already showed anticancer activity of specially designed degradable magnesium (Mg) alloys by reducing the cancer cell proliferation. In this work, we investigated the impact of these Mg-based materials on different steps of the metastatic cascade including cancer cell migration, invasion, and cancer-induced angiogenesis. Both, Mg and Mg-6Ag reduced cell migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells in coculture with fibroblasts. Furthermore, the Mg-based materials used in this study diminished the cancer-induced angiogenesis. Endothelial cells incubated with conditioned media obtained from these Mg and Mg-6Ag showed a reduced cell layer permeability, a reduced proliferation and inhibited cell migration. The tube formation as a last step of angiogenesis was stimulated with the presence of Mg under normoxia and diminished under hypoxia.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...