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1.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641452

ABSTRACT

This work evaluated the availability and sorption behaviour of four pharmaceuticals and eight of their metabolites in sewage sludge and sludge-amended soil. Digested sludge and compost were evaluated. The highest levels found in digested sludge corresponded to caffeine (up to 115 ng g-1 dm), ibuprofen (45 ng g-1 dm) and carbamazepine (9.3 ng g-1 dm). The concentrations measured in compost were even lower than in digested sludge. No compound was detected in sludge-amended soils. This fact could be due to the dilution effect after sludge application to soil. Different adsorption capacities in sludge-soil mixtures were measured for the studied compounds at the same spike concentration. In general, except for paraxanthine and 3-hydroxycarbamazepine, the metabolite concentrations measured in the mixtures were almost two-fold lower than those of their parent compounds, which can be explained by their mobility and lixiviation tendency. The log Kd ranged from -1.55 to 1.71 in sludge samples and from -0.29 to 1.18 in soil-sludge mixtures. The log Kd values calculated for compost were higher than those calculated for digested sludge. The obtained results implied that the higher organic carbon content of compost could influence soil contamination when it is applied to soil.


Subject(s)
Composting/methods , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism , Sewage/analysis , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Soil/chemistry , Adsorption , Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods
2.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444293

ABSTRACT

The total amount of drug waste is expanding significantly as populations age and societies become wealthier. Drug waste is becoming a problem for health and the environment. Thus, how to reduce and effectively dispose of drug waste is increasingly becoming an issue for society. This study focuses on household drug management, which involves five sub-practices: selection, purchasing, using, storing, and disposing of drugs. A questionnaire survey was conducted in a second-tier Chinese city that reveals both problems and opportunities in these five sub-practices. The results show that consumers are aware of significant issues with regard to the safe and effective use of drugs as well as with regard to proper ways of disposing of and recycling drugs. Moreover, our analysis reveals promising opportunities for addressing these issues by developing novel services based on the idea of connecting the five involved sub-practices of household drug management. Connecting and adjusting practices in this manner can be seen as an important factor in reducing drug waste and pharmaceutical pollutants.


Subject(s)
Environmental Pollution , Pharmaceutical Preparations , China , Cities , Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Recycling
3.
J Environ Manage ; 285: 112106, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588165

ABSTRACT

Human and veterinary pharmaceuticals offer many benefits, but they also pose risks to both the environment and public health. Life-cycle stewardship of medications offers multiple strategies for minimizing the risks posed by pharmaceuticals, and further insight is required for developing best practices for pharmaceutical management. The goal of this study was to clarify points of intervention for minimizing environmental and public health risks associated with pharmaceuticals. Specifically, our objectives were to provide insight on purchasing, use, and disposal behaviors associated with human and veterinary medications. This study used a state-wide representative sample of Vermont adults (n = 421) to survey both human and veterinary pharmaceuticals as potential sources of the unintended consequences of prescribed and over-the-counter (OTC) medications. The majority (93%) of respondents had purchased some form of medication within the past twelve months, including OTC (85%), prescription (74%), and veterinary (41%) drugs. Leftover drugs of any kind were reported by 59% of respondents. While 56% of people were aware of drug take-back programs, the majority reported never being told what to do with leftover medications by their physician (78%), pharmacist (76%), or veterinarian (53%). Among all respondents, take-back programs were the most common disposal method (22%), followed by trash (19%), and flushing (9%), while 26% of respondents reported keeping unused drugs. Awareness of pharmaceutical pollution in the environment and having received information about proper disposal were both significantly associated with participation in take-back programs. These findings indicate that a large volume of drugs are going unused annually, and that only a portion of leftover medications are returned to take-back programs where they can be appropriately disposed. Our results warrant further investigation of clinical interventions that support lower dose prescribing and dispensing practices in order to reduce the unintended environmental and public health consequences of pharmaceuticals within the consumer sphere. In addition, our findings suggest that directed efforts to raise awareness of proper disposal may be more effective than broad awareness campaigns, and we recommend research on the efficacy of providing disposal instructions on drug packaging.


Subject(s)
Garbage , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Refuse Disposal , Veterinary Drugs , Adult , Environmental Pollution , Humans , Public Health , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 82: 103565, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321209

ABSTRACT

From a perspective of drug administration, eco-pharmacovigilance (EPV) has been proposed as a new approach to prevent the environmental risks posed by pharmaceutical emerging contaminants. However, it is impracticable to practice unitary and rigor EPV process for all the pharmaceutical substances with complex and diversified chemical, biological or toxicological properties. We proposed the "targeted EPV" that is the science and activities associated with the targeted detection, evaluation, understanding, and prevention of adverse effects of high-priority hazardous pharmaceuticals in the environment, especially focusing on the control of main anthropogenic sources of pharmaceutical emission among key stakeholders in high-risk areas could be used as an optimized management strategy for pharmaceutical pollution. "Targeted EPV" implementation should focus on the targeted monitoring of the occurrence of high-priority pharmaceuticals in environmental samples, the targeted reporting of over-standard discharge, the targeted management for main emission sources, the targeted legislation and researches on high-priority pharmaceutical pollutants, as well as the targeted educational strategies for specific key populations.


Subject(s)
Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Pharmacovigilance , Environmental Monitoring , Environmental Pollutants , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21527, 2020 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299027

ABSTRACT

Development trends need the necessity for wider use of the local resources and available natural materials are one of the priorities around the world. Freshwater sapropel is a common material in the water basement of the lakes, but still not sufficiently explored. The main goal of the project to start detailed and systematic research on the medical properties of sapropel to be obtained in Latvia, promote its scientifically based use in balneology, develop new medical procedures and services, and promote development of new exportable products. The results include the survey, sampling depths, and processing, evaluation of external signs, physical, chemical, and biochemical parameters, and evaluation of microbiological indicators. Active components from the sapropel samples extracted using the alkaline method. Sapropel extracts were characterized by organic carbon content, humic and fulvic acid concentrations, total phenolic content, trace metal and pesticide concentrations, total antioxidant status, and microbiological flora. Summarizing the article's main findings it was concluded that Latvian freshwater sapropel can be used as raw material for obtaining sapropel extract and use it in the preparation of pharmaceuticals and promote the development of new exportable products and services.


Subject(s)
Benzopyrans/pharmacology , Soil/chemistry , Environmental Pollution , Humic Substances/analysis , Lakes , Latvia , Mud Therapy/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Trace Elements
6.
Curr Drug Saf ; 15(3): 167-172, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589562

ABSTRACT

Pharmaceuticals are beneficial to humankind and emerged as crucial arms to treat/manage multiple disease pathogenesis in the present era. In analogous, these medicines/ medical devices should be used cautiously as they possess a potential threat to induce multiple undesired effects that may be related to human health or the environment. Daunting effects may arise due to the improper disposal of unused/expired medicines. Hence, to minimize such harm, there should be adequate knowledge and practice among the population regarding the safe disposal of unused/expired medicines or related pharmaceutical devices. The lack of approved information regarding safe disposal of such substances may invite serious concerns like environmental pollution, which may induce immediate health hazards to the present population and upcoming future generations. There are numerous ways to dispose of, or manage the unused and expired pharmaceutical substances. Sharing the medicines among siblings, friends, and family members are never free from serious health risks. Storing the unused and expired medicines in the home increases the risk of intentional or accidental ingestion of such substances and may create a health emergency. Disposing medicines like household and municipal waste may lead to environmental pollution and harm to humans and animals. The present review finds the multiple unsafe ways of disposal of unutilized medications/tools. Furthermore, it also summarizes the disposal pattern of unutilized medications among the few developed and undeveloped nations.


Subject(s)
Environmental Pollutants/chemistry , Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry , Refuse Disposal/methods , Animals , Drug Storage/standards , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Humans , Refuse Disposal/standards
7.
Environ Manage ; 65(5): 630-641, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222782

ABSTRACT

Aquatic pharmaceutical pollution poses ecotoxicological risks to the environment and human health. Consumer pharmaceutical use and disposal behaviors represent a significant source of pharmaceutical compounds in surface waters, and communication strategies are needed to promote pro-environmental behaviors to reduce pharmaceutical pollution. Designing effective risk communication campaigns requires an understanding of public perceptions of aquatic pharmaceutical pollution. The purpose of this mixed-methods pilot study was to test the efficacy of using theories from cognitive linguistics and psychology (conceptual metaphor theory and construal level theory of psychological distance, respectively) in using metaphors in pharmaceutical pollution risk communication. Our methods included a randomized cross-over design in which a convenience sample of university students (n = 20) viewed visual representations of pharmaceutical pollution risks (metaphor based and non-metaphor). We used cognitive interviewing methods to assess metaphor use on participants understanding of pharmaceutical pollution risk, concern about this risk, and willingness to act. Results indicate that participants preferred the metaphorically-framed visual, and that the use of metaphor significantly reduced participants' perceived social and geographic distance of pharmaceutical pollution risk, suggesting a relationship between metaphoric framing and psychological distance warranting additional research. Theoretical and practical implications of metaphor use in risk communications are discussed.


Subject(s)
Communication , Environmental Pollution , Metaphor , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Humans , Pilot Projects , Public Opinion , Risk
8.
Eur Psychiatry ; 63(1): e33, 2020 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200774

ABSTRACT

Preoccupation about potential deleterious effects of pharmaceuticals in the environment is growing fast. Psychiatric pharmaceuticals have received particular attention because of their increasing use and their potential impacts on many living beings due to their effects on phylogenetically highly conserved neuroendocrine systems. Recent studies that have shown that many pharmaceuticals (including psychotropics) bioaccumulate through the web food have raised this concern into new heights. As professionals working in the field of psychiatry and academia, we believe we are about to enter a new era with regard to pharmacotherapy. We estimate drug pollution will have a major impact on our daily practice in a way we are just starting to imagine. So far, this problem has largely been ignored by healthcare professionals, who are the ones prescribing and dispensing pharmaceuticals. We are convinced that increasing awareness among these professionals will be a key element to effectively fight against drug pollution.


Subject(s)
Drug Prescriptions/standards , Environmental Pollution , Health Personnel/standards , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Humans
9.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 111: 104571, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893528

ABSTRACT

In the pharmaceutical sector, the right of access to environmental information is in most cases not feasible as the authorisation holders refer to commercially/industrial confidential information (CCI). However, CCI can not refuse access to environmental risk assessments (ERAs) if ERAs are to be classified as information on emissions. Pharmaceuticals inevitably enter the environment as a consequence of their intended use. This release is calculated in the ERA as predicted environmental concentration when a pharmaceutical is approved. The release of pharmaceuticals into the environment falls consequently under the term 'emissions into the environment'. In addition, the ERAs assessing the risk of this release are to be classified as 'information on emissions into the environment'. Therefore, the practiced secrecy of ERAs of pharmaceuticals and their official assessment reports is incompatible with Art. 4 Aarhus Convention, and the European and national implementing provisions for this article, which require access to such environmental information on emissions for everyone, irrespective of whether they concern CCI. With this legal disclosure obligation of ERAs, there is an enforceable right of access for everyone, which shows the necessity for establishing a publicly accessible database based on active pharmaceutical ingredients with substantiated information on the ERAs.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring/legislation & jurisprudence , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Environmental Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Environmental Restoration and Remediation/legislation & jurisprudence , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , European Union , Humans , Risk Assessment
11.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3252-3264, 2019 Sep.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529901

ABSTRACT

The continuous discharge of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) into aquatic environment and their potential threaten to ecological environment or human health has received more and more attention all over the world. Algae are primary producers in aquatic environment and play an important role in ecosystem balance and stabilization. In this review, the concentrations of PPCPs in natural waters from different countries and regions are introduced to demonstrate their characteristics of pollution in aquatic environment. Furthermore, we reviewed some progresses on the toxicity, bioaccumulation and ecological risk of PPCPs. We introduced the toxicity effect and mechanism of PPCPs to algae, the bioaccumulation of PPCPs in algae, as well as the ecological risks of PPCPs in surface water. The review will provide references for development of PPCPs related criteria and assessment of ecological risks in aquatic environment.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Cosmetics/analysis , Cosmetics/toxicity , Ecosystem , Environmental Pollution , Fresh Water , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity
12.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 77(2): 155-161, 2019 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168646

ABSTRACT

Environmental pollution caused by pharmaceuticals and their transformation products (TPs) has become an increasingly important concern, due to the increased use of pharmaceutical formulations exposed to environmental change. Considerable concerns have been raised regarding potential toxic effects of the transformation products of pharmaceutical formulations on human health. Environmental risk assessments are mostly based on one active component, which causes different ecotoxicological effects, albeit the particular component is present in the environment as a part of a multicomponent mixture with different pharmaceuticals and excipients. The purpose of this review was to present the insight and new knowledge recently obtained by studies on the risk of pharmaceutical formulations, including all contained excipients, pharmaceuticals, and their transformation products exposed to the environment. Numerous studies have shown that the level of pharmaceuticals in the environment is below toxic concentration; however, long exposure to very low concentrations can still lead to harmful concentrations in biota. Accordingly, the findings of this study are expected to highlight the existing issues of the effect of pharmaceutical formulations to the environment, including TPs, and help to determine future research directions towards accumulating the data and improving ecological risk assessment.


Subject(s)
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Ecotoxicology , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry , Animals , Biodegradation, Environmental , Environmental Pollution , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations/metabolism , Photochemical Processes , Risk Assessment , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/metabolism
13.
Environ Pollut ; 248: 478-495, 2019 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831345

ABSTRACT

Environmental contamination is one of the major factors or cofactors affecting amphibian populations. Since 2000, the number of studies conducted in laboratory conditions to understand impacts of chemical exposures increased. They aimed to characterize biological effects on amphibians. This review proposes an overview of biological responses reported after exposures to metals, phytopharmaceuticals or emerging organic contaminants and focuses on endpoints relating to reproduction and development. Due to amphibian peculiar features, these periods of their life cycle are especially critical to pollutant exposures. Despite the large range of tested compounds, the same model species are often used as biological models and morphological alterations are the most studied observations. From the results, the laboratory-to-field extrapolation remained uneasy and exposure designs have to be more elaborated to be closer to environmental conditions. Few studies proposed such experimental approaches. Lastly, gametes, embryos and larvae constitute key stages of amphibian life cycle that can be harmed by exposures to freshwater pollutants. Specific efforts have to be intensified on the earliest stages and notably germ cells.


Subject(s)
Amphibians/embryology , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Larva/drug effects , Life Cycle Stages/drug effects , Reproduction/drug effects , Animals , Organic Chemicals/toxicity , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis
14.
Rev. pesqui. cuid. fundam. (Online) ; 11(1): 154-159, jan.-mar. 2019. tabs, ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF - Nursing | ID: biblio-968592

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar o conhecimento e comportamento autorreferidos sobre o descarte domiciliar de medicamentos. Método: Estudo transversal tipo survey, com dados coletados por meio de um questionário em maio de 2017, na cidade de Picos­PI, com amostra de 153 residências. Resultados: Sobre o conhecimento autorreferido, apesar de 139 (90,8%) afirmarem ter ciência sobre o risco ambiental, 144 (94,1%) relataram não ter conhecimento sobre local adequado de realizar o descarte,104 (68,0%) admitiram que o modo como descarta os medicamentos no ambiente traz algum risco individual e 118 (77,1%) perceberam a existência de risco coletivo. Quanto ao comportamento, 107 (69,9%) afirmaram já ter descartado medicamento devido ao fato do prazo de validade vencido, e a maioria afirmou realizar o descarte dentro da embalagem original e no lixo doméstico, 124 (81,0%). Conclusão: O conhecimento e comportamento autorreferidos demonstram fragilidades que comprometem a saúde pública e ambiental


Objective: To analyze the self-reported knowledge and behavior on the disposal of medicines. Method: A cross-sectional study with data collected through a questionnaire in May 2017, in the city of Picos-PI, with a sample of 153 residences. Results: Regarding the selfreported knowledge, 139 (90.8%) stated that they had knowledge about environmental risk, 144 (94.1%) reported having no knowledge of the appropriate disposal site. 104 (68.0%) admit that the way they dispose of medicines in the environment poses some individual risk and 118 (77.1%) perceive the existence of a collective risk. Regarding the behavior, 107 (69.9%) stated that they had discarded medication due to the fact that the expiration date had expired, and the majority stated that they disposed of 124 (81.0%) in the original packaging and household waste. Conclusion: Self-reported knowledge and behavior demonstrate fragilities that compromise public and environmental health


Objetivo: Analizar el conocimiento y el comportamiento autorreferidos sobre el descarte domiciliar de medicamentos. Método: Estudio transversal tipo survey, con datos recogidos por medio de un cuestionario en mayo de 2017, en la ciudad de Picos-PI, con muestra de 153 residencias. Resultados: Sobre el conocimiento autorreferido a pesar de 139 (90,8%) afirmar tener ciencia sobre el riesgo ambiental, 144 (94,1%) relató no tener conocimiento sobre el lugar adecuado de realizar el descarte. (68,0%) admite que el modo en que descarta los medicamentos en el ambiente trae algún riesgo individual y 118 (77,1%) percibe la existencia de riesgo colectivo. En cuanto al comportamiento, 107 (69,9%) afirmaron ya haber descartado medicamento debido al hecho del plazo de validez vencido, y la mayoría afirmó realizar el descarte dentro del embalaje original y en la basura doméstica, 124 (81,0%). Conclusión: El conocimiento y comportamiento autorreferidos demuestran fragilidades que comprometen la salud pública y ambiental


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Refuse Disposal/methods , Refuse Disposal/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Hazards , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Health Risk Behaviors
15.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 386 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015265

ABSTRACT

Pharmaceuticals are contaminants of emerging concern which have been a target of increasing attention by the scientific community. Pharmaceuticals presenting high consumption, incomplete metabolism and incomplete removal at wastewater treatment plants have been frequently detected in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. This is the case of the pharmaceuticals metformin (MET), bisoprolol (BIS), sotalol (SOT) and ranitidine (RAN). However, ecotoxicity data for these contaminants are scarce, especially regarding behavior effects and chronic toxicity. In addition, the knowledge regarding the joint toxicity of these pharmaceuticals on non-target organisms is still incipient, which makes their environment risk assessment uncertain. This study aimed to fill these knowledge gaps for these four pharmaceuticals, by carrying out toxicity tests using five test organisms from three trophic levels. Different endpoints were assessed in tests with Raphidocelis subcapitata (algae), Lemna minor (macrophyte), Daphnia similis (crustacean), Hydra attenuate (cnidarian) and Danio rerio (fish). The binary and quaternary mixture acute toxicity for these pharmaceuticals were assessed on D. similis and D. rerio embryo tests, respectively. This study also aimed to evaluate the predictive accuracy of the Concentration addition (CA) and the Independent action (IA) classic models. In addition, the nature of the possible toxicological interactions between the pharmaceuticals in binary mixtures were also evaluated, using the Combination Index-isobologram (CI) method. The modelling of the concentration-response curves and the associated statistical analyses were performed using the automated spreadsheet ToxCalcMix v.1.0 and the software OriginPro 2015. The software CompuSyn was used for performing the mixture analyses with the CI method. The experimental planning of the binary mixture tests was performed using the fractioned factorial design, in order to cover several possible ratio and level-dependent effects with a reduced number of test organisms. The results obtained in this study are shown in four articles. In article 1, we provided a critical review and discussed the misunderstandings, deficiencies and data gaps on the ecotoxicity data of pharmaceuticals and personal care products mixtures published in the literature. In the following articles, the results obtained from the single and mixture toxicity tests performed in this study were presented and discussed. The pharmaceuticals MET (article 2) and BIS (article 3) were classified as hazardous to the aquatic environment, in the acute toxicity category. However, an ecological risk is not expected for the pelagic freshwater species exposed to these two pharmaceuticals, based on the chronic data obtained. The results obtained from the mixture toxicity tests (article 4) showed that most of the observed toxicity effects from the binary mixtures were in the zone between the predicted effects by the CA and IA models. The CI model showed to be an useful tool to describe the possible toxicological interactions occurring between the pharmaceuticals in joint action. Even statistically significant non-effect concentrations of the pharmaceuticals added up to induce significant adverse effects in mixtures (something from nothing). It was concluded that ecological risk assessment based on single toxic effects can underestimate the real impact of environmental contaminants on aquatic ecosystems


A contaminação ambiental por fármacos tem sido alvo de crescente preocupação pela comunidade científica. Fármacos de elevado consumo, incompleto metabolismo e remoção incompleta em estações de tratamento de esgoto, como é o caso da metformina (MET), bisoprolol (BIS), sotalol (SOT) e ranitidina (RAN), têm sido frequentemente detectados em matrizes aquáticas do mundo todo. Apesar disso, dados ecotoxicológicos consistentes para esses contaminantes são escassos, principalmente com relação a efeitos comportamentais e oriundos de estudos crônicos. Além disso, o entendimento dos efeitos de suas ações combinadas em organismos não-alvo é ainda incipiente, o que gera incertezas na avaliação dos seus riscos ambientais. Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo preencher essas lacunas de conhecimentos para esses quatro fármacos, por meio da realização de testes com cinco diferentes organismos-teste de três diferentes níveis tróficos. Foram analisados diferentes parâmetros avaliativos em testes com os organismos aquáticos Raphidocelis subcapitata (alga), Lemna minor (macrófita), Daphnia similis (crustáceo), Hydra attenuata (cnidário) e Danio rerio (peixe). As toxicidades agudas das misturas binárias e quaternárias desses quatro fármacos também foram avaliadas em testes com D. similis e embriões de D. rerio, respectivamente. Este trabalho também teve por objetivo avaliar a acurácia preditiva dos modelos de adição de concentração (CA) e ação independente (IA) e analisar a natureza das possíveis interações toxicológicas entre os fármacos, em misturas binárias, usando o modelo do Índice de Combinação (CI). A modelagem das relações concentração-resposta e as análises estatísticas associadas foram realizadas empregando-se a planilha automatizada ToxCalcMix versão 1.0 e o software OriginPro 2015. O software CompuSyn foi utilizado para as análises envolvendo o CI. O planejamento experimental dos testes de misturas binárias foi realizado por meio do design fatorial fracionado, a fim de cobrir diversas possíveis interações em várias proporções e níveis de efeitos, com a redução do número de organismos-teste. Os resultados desta pesquisa estão apresentados em quatro artigos. No artigo 1, realizou-se uma revisão crítica com relação às lacunas de conhecimentos e deficiências identificadas a partir da análise da literatura sobre a ecotoxicologia de misturas de fármacos e de produtos de higiene pessoal. Nos artigos seguintes, foram apresentados e discutidos os resultados oriundos dos testes com os quatro fármacos avaliados neste estudo. Os fármacos MET (artigo 2) e BIS (artigo 3) foram classificados como perigosos para o ambiente aquático, na categoria de toxicidade aguda. Contudo, um risco ecológico não é esperado para as espécies pelágicas de água doce expostas a esses dois fármacos, com base nos dados de toxicidade crônica obtidos. Os resultados dos testes de misturas (artigo 4) permitiram concluir que a maior parte dos efeitos observados das misturas binárias estiveram na zona entre os efeitos preditos pelos modelos clássicos de CA e IA. O modelo do CI mostrou-se uma ferramenta útil para descrever a natureza das possíveis interações toxicológicas que ocorrem entre os fármacos em ações combinadas. Mesmo concentrações de nenhum efeito estatisticamente significativo dos fármacos causaram efeitos adversos significativos quando em misturas (something from nothing). Concluiu-se que avaliações de risco ecológicas baseadas em efeitos tóxicos individuais de contaminantes ambientais podem subestimar o real impacto desses compostos em ecossistemas aquáticos


Subject(s)
Risk Assessment/methods , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Aquatic Organisms/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Toxicity Tests, Chronic/instrumentation
16.
Int J Pharm Pract ; 26(4): 341-350, 2018 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29972612

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE/S: The aim of this study was to explore Queensland hospital pharmacists' and pharmacy technicians' knowledge and understanding of the impact of pharmaceuticals on the environment and the handling of pharmaceutical waste. METHODS: This study followed a mixed methods research design. Purposive sampling techniques were used to recruit 64 hospital pharmacists and pharmacy technicians working in five public and private hospitals, in metropolitan and regional Queensland, Australia. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. Qualitative data were analysed using both the text analytics using descriptive statistics. KEY FINDINGS: Lack of environmental knowledge regarding the impact of pharmaceuticals on the environment and lack of understanding of systems thinking concepts (that all living things are part of the one environment or system, and therefore any negative impacts on the environment will ultimately have negative impacts on human health) were the key findings of this research. Interviewees expressed concern, but most expressed minimal personal concern, about the impact of pharmaceuticals entering the environment. Most interviewees were unsure as to best practice methods for the disposal of pharmaceutical waste, and by complying with hospital policy assumed appropriate disposal occurred. CONCLUSION: Before the pharmacy profession can take up a leadership role in the more sustainable use of pharmaceuticals, pharmacists and pharmacy technicians require environmental information regarding the negative impacts of pharmaceuticals on the environment, and education on systems thinking to enable them to understand that any negative impacts on the environment will ultimately have negative impacts on human health.


Subject(s)
Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Waste Management , Workplace/organization & administration , Attitude of Health Personnel , Community Pharmacy Services , Female , Humans , Leadership , Male , Pharmacists/organization & administration , Pharmacists/psychology , Pharmacy Technicians/organization & administration , Pharmacy Technicians/psychology , Professional Role , Qualitative Research , Queensland , Software
17.
Environ Int ; 114: 360-364, 2018 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29555371

ABSTRACT

Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) entering agroecosystems as a result of various human activities may be taken up by and accumulated within crop plants, with potential human health implications. Despite their extensive metabolism by a sophisticated enzyme-based detoxification system in plant cells, PhACs and their transformation products (TPs) may result in adverse effects on plants' physiology. PhACs-mediated phytotoxic effects, as well as plants' defense responses have been depicted on plants exposed to individual or low number of PhACs under controlled conditions. We highlight the need to consider the cocktails effects and synergistic interactions of PhACs present in mixtures in actual agroecosystems, towards phytotoxicity and agricultural sustainability in general. Considering PhACs as emerging plant stressors will better facilitate the understanding of their phytotoxic effects.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Environmental Pollution , Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry , Plants/drug effects , Waste Water/chemistry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Ecosystem , Humans
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 27: 77, 2017.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28819498

ABSTRACT

The last generation has witnessed bludgeoning of the world's population, a spike in disease burden, and unprecedented levels of pharmaceutical consumption and production. Unfortunately, pharmaceuticals have left their industrial and household confines and leaked into the environment. Pharmaceuticals are now major environmental pollutants, and are ubiquitous in waters and soils. Unlike other environmental contaminants, pharmaceutical pollutants are not yet regulated globally, simply because acute risk assessments show insignificant human health hazard. But the pitfalls of pharmaceutical pollutants extend beyond acute effects to delayed effects from bioaccumulation, amplified effects from drug-drug interactions, exacerbation of drug resistance, and reduction in aquatic and terrestrial food production. Therefore, ignoring pharmaceutical pollutants deprives society of holistic public health protection.


Subject(s)
Environmental Pollution/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Public Health , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Humans , Risk Assessment , Soil Pollutants/administration & dosage , Soil Pollutants/adverse effects , Soil Pollutants/chemistry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/adverse effects , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
19.
Water Res ; 120: 245-255, 2017 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28500989

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to test the feasibility of several decontamination methods for remediating heavily contaminated groundwater in a real contaminated locality in the Czech Republic, where a pharmaceuticals plant has been in operation for more than 80 years. The site is polluted mainly by recalcitrant psychopharmaceuticals and monoaromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene and chlorobenzene. For this purpose, an advanced oxidation technique employing UV radiation with hydrogen peroxide dosing was employed, in combination with simple aeration pretreatment. The results showed that UV/H2O2 was an efficient and necessary step for degradation of the pharmaceuticals; however, the monoaromatics were already removed during the aeration step. Characterization of the removal mechanisms participating in the aeration revealed that volatilization, co-precipitation and biodegradation contributed to the process. These findings were supported by bacterial metabolite analyses, phospholipid fatty acid analysis, qPCR of representatives of the degradative genes and detailed characterization of the formed precipitate using Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Further tests were carried out in a continuous arrangement directly connected to the wells already present in the locality. The results documented the feasibility of combination of the photo-reactor employing UV/H2O2 together with aeration pretreatment for 4 months, where the overall decontamination efficiency ranged from 72% to 99% of the pharmaceuticals. We recorded even better results for the monoaromatics decontamination except for one month, when we encountered some technical problems with the aeration pump. This demonstrated the necessity of using the aeration step.


Subject(s)
Environmental Pollution/prevention & control , Groundwater , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Benzene , Biodegradation, Environmental , Chlorobenzenes , Czech Republic , Hydrogen Peroxide , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Toluene
20.
J Environ Manage ; 198(Pt 1): 348-352, 2017 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28494423

ABSTRACT

Pharmaceutical pollution in surface waters poses a range of risks to public health and aquatic ecosystems. Consumers contribute to pharmaceutical pollution via use and disposal of medications, though data on such behaviors is limited. This paper investigates the purchasing, use, and disposal practices among a population that has been researched only minimally to date, yet will determine pharmaceutical pollution for decades to come: young adults represented by a university student population. We employed an online, 21-question survey to examine behaviors related to pharmaceuticals among students at the University of Vermont (n = 358). Results indicate that the majority of respondents had purchased medications in the previous 12 months (94%), and had leftover drugs (61%). Contrary to previous studies of older populations, only a small proportion of students had disposed of drugs (18%); municipal trash was the primary route of drug disposal (25%), and very few students disposed drugs via flushing (1%). Less than a quarter of students were aware of drug take-back programs (24%), and only 4% had ever used take-back services. These findings indicate that the university student population may be storing a large volume of unused drugs that will require future disposal. Increasing awareness of, access to, and participation in pro-environment pharmaceutical behaviors, such as purchasing over-the-counter medication in smaller quantities and utilizing drug take-back programs, could minimize future pharmaceutical pollution from this population.


Subject(s)
Environmental Pollution , Medical Waste Disposal , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Humans , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
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