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1.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-06-30. (OPS/CDE/VT/20-0032).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52417

RESUMO

En el 2016, con ocasión del 55.° Consejo Directivo de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS), se aprobó el Plan de acción para la eliminación de las enfermedades infecciosas desatendidas y las medidas posteriores a la eliminación 2016-2022 (documento CD55/15), uno de cuyos objetivos era evaluar la situación epidemiológica regional de otras enfermedades infecciosas desatendidas como las ectoparasitosis. En este marco, y con la necesidad de identificar las acciones para avanzar hacia el objetivo establecido, se celebró la reunión sobre Enfermedades Ectoparasitarias en la Región de las Américas: Desarrollo de una hoja de ruta para establecer la situación epidemiológica e identificar acciones para reducir su impacto, en Belo Horizonte (Brasil) el 29 y 30 de julio del 2019. Los participantes de la reunión (anexo) recomendaron la puesta en marcha de acciones en tres componentes principales: mapeo y vigilancia epidemiológica, intervenciones integradas, e investigación operativa y de aplicación. Con base en la experiencia presentada por los delegados de Brasil y Colombia, así como en los resultados de la revisión de los documentos existentes sobre las características epidemiológicas de las ectoparasitosis en la Región de las Américas desarrollada por el Programa Regional de Enfermedades Infecciosas Desatendidas de la OPS1, se concluyó que se incluirán en esta iniciativa la tungiasis (causada por Tunga penetrans), la escabiosis (causada por Sarcoptes scabiei) y la pediculosis capilar (causada por Pediculus humanus var. capitis); además, se incluirán la miasis (causada por Dermatobia hominis y Cochliomyia hominivorax, entre más de 30 especies de moscas) y la larva migratoria cutánea causada por uncinarias (Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma brasiliense y Ancylostoma tubiformae). A continuación, se presenta la hoja de ruta propuesta con los componentes y acciones recomendadas.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , América , Epidemiologia , Ectoparasitoses
2.
Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol ; : 101509, 2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299676

RESUMO

Autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases are associated with severe morbidity, and represent an impactful health and economic burden worldwide. The treatment of these diseases can include a course with detrimental side effects. Immunosuppression increases the risk of opportunistic infections, but in some cases, the abrupt discontinuation of these medications can result in immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Special attention must be directed to endemic tropical infections, such as leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, malaria, arbovirosis, yellow fever, leprosy, paracoccidioidomycosis, disseminated strongyloidiasis, and ectoparasitosis. These endemic diseases of developing countries can be considered as possible emerging diseases in developed regions partially because of environmental factors and migration. In the present article, we aim to review the evidence-based aspects of the most important opportunistic tropical infections in immunosuppressed patients. We also aim to review the important aspects of vaccination, chemical prophylaxis, and treatment for these infections in people with medication-induced immunosuppression.

3.
Rev. cienc. med. Pinar Rio ; 24(1): 115-122, ene.-feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1092877

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: el envejecimiento poblacional ocasiona en la actualidad un aumento de las afecciones vinculadas al deterioro de la integridad de la piel, siendo las dermatosis enfermedades frecuentes en el gerente. Objetivo: describir el comportamiento de las dermatosis en los adultos mayores. Métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo de corte transversal, efectuado en el municipio de Pinar del Río durante 2018. Fue seleccionada de forma probabilística, aleatoria simple, una muestra 1164 pacientes geriátricos portadores de afecciones dermatológicas, empleándose las historias clínicas y el examen dermatológico para la obtención de información que dio salida a las variables estudiadas. Se respetó la ética médica. Resultados: predominaron las féminas (51,98 %) y el grupo etáreo 60-64 años (34,19 %), siendo el fototipo cutáneo III (23,11 %) el más frecuente mostrado por las afecciones dermatológicas. Dentro de ellas, las ectoparasitosis (16,15 %) y las virosis cutáneas (14,95 %) fueron las más representativas, mostrándose mayor representación en individuos de color de piel blanca, a excepción de la ectoparasitosis. Dentro de las patologías asociadas, la diabetes mellitus fuela más frecuente. Conclusiones: la oportuna identificación de la presencia de dermatosis en AM, y en especial en aquellos que reúnen factores de riesgo vinculados a su aparición, permitirá actuar tempranamente en el manejo de dichas afecciones, logrando reducir la aparición de complicaciones y secuelas asociadas a las mismas; a la vez que se logrará mejorar la calidad de vida de dicho paciente.


ABSTRACT Introduction: population aging currently causes an increase in conditions related to skin integrity disorder, with dermatoses being frequent diseases in the manager. Objective: to describe the behavior of dermatoses in older adults. Methods: an observational, descriptive cross-sectional study, carried out in the municipality of Pinar del Río during 2018. A sample of 1164 geriatric patients with dermatological conditions was selected in a probabilistic way, using random medical records and dermatological examination for the Obtaining information that output the variables studied. Medical ethics was respected. Results: predominantly females (51,98 %) and age group 60-64 years (34,19 %), skin phototype III (23,11 %) being the most frequent demonstrated by dermatological conditions. Among them, ectoparasitosis (16,15 %) and cutaneous virosis (14,95 %) were the most representative, showing greater representation in individuals with white skin color, an exception to ectoparasitosis. Within the associated pathologies, diabetes mellitus was the most frequent. Conclusions: the timely identification of the presence of dermatosis in AM, and especially in those that meet risk factors linked to its appearance, acting early in the management of various conditions, reducing the occurrence of complications and sequelae affected by themselves; while improving the quality of life of said patient.

4.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(4): 631-638, oct.-dic. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1089081

RESUMO

Resumen La pediculosis capitis es la ectoparasitosis más frecuente a nivel mundial. La infestación es causada por Pediculus humanus capitis (piojo de la cabeza) y afecta el cabello, el cuero cabelludo y la piel. Rara vez se manifiesta con otro tipo de sintomatología y, por lo general, su curso es benigno si se trata adecuadamente. Se presenta el caso de una menor con pediculosis capitis de 18 meses de evolución, asociada con forúnculos, lesiones cutáneas, múltiples adenopatías y anemia, que no mejoró tras la aplicación del champú. Inicialmente, llamó la atención la presencia de forúnculos, alopecia y adenopatías. La persistencia de la pediculosis capitis y el rascado intenso alteraron la integridad de la epidermis y facilitaron las infecciones secundarias por bacterias patógenas y oportunistas que produjeron impétigo, forunculosis, excoriaciones, costras hemáticas, anemia, alopecia y linfadenopatías. La pediculosis capitis afectó notoriamente a la paciente al causarle problemas psicológicos y de salud, agudizados por su condición económica y social. La paciente presentó manifestaciones clínicas poco frecuentes (forunculosis, anemia, fiebre, alopecia y adenopatías), lo cual se vio facilitado por la persistencia de los factores de riesgo y el hecho de que no se le inspeccionaba la cabeza ni se removían los insectos. La educación sobre los factores de riesgo y el control sanitario es indispensable para controlar la infestación.


Abstract Pediculosis capitis is the most frequent ectoparasitosis around the world. The infestation is caused by Pediculus humanus capitis (head louse), which affects hair, scalp, and skin. It rarely presents with more symptoms and in the majority of the cases, it shows a benign course if treated properly. We present the case of a nursery school girl with head lice infestation for 18 months. She did not improve after the shampoo treatment. This case was associated with furunculosis, skin lesions, multiple adenopathies, and anemia. Initially, the presence of boils, alopecia, and lymphadenopathy was evident. The persistence of pediculosis capitis and intense scratching induced changes on skin integrity, facilitating opportunistic bacterial superinfection that led to impetiginization, furunculosis, excoriations, hematic scabs, anemia, alopecia, and lymphadenopathies. Pediculosis capitis affected the patient triggering psychological, economic, social, and other health problems. The patient presented uncommon symptoms (furunculosis, anemia, fever, alopecia, and adenopathies) resulting from the persistence of risk factors and the absence of head inspection and mechanical removal of insects. The education about the risk factors, as well as sanitary controls, are essential to contain the infestation.

5.
Rev. argent. dermatol ; 100(4): 31-40, dic. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1092393

RESUMO

RESUMEN Latungiasisesuna ectoparasitosistransitoria en el ser humano, que se produce a causa de la penetración en la piel de la hembra grávida de la "pulga de arena", Tunga penetrans. También es conocida como "nigua", "bichodopé", "sandflea",entre otras denominaciones. Es una enfermedad endémica en áreas rurales y playas de Centro y Sudamérica, Caribe y África Subsahariana. En Argentina se la encuentra en zonas del Noreste y Mesopotamia. Debido al incremento de los destinos vacacionales a dichas regiones tropicales, comenzaron a observarse casos de tungiasis fuera de las áreas endémicas (casos importados). Comunicamos el caso de una niña argentina, que vacacionó en las playas caribeñas y adquirió la infestación por Tunga penetrans, la cual evolucionó de manera llamativa, manifestando un fenómeno isotópico.


SUMMARY Tungiasis is a transitory ectoparasitosis caused by penetration into the skin of the female flea Tungapenetrans, also known as "nigua", "bichodo pé", or "sand flea". It's an endemic disease that can be found at rural zones, Caribbean beaches and Sub-Saharan Africa. In Argentina, it's distributed in the northeastand Mesopotamia. Because of the increasement of holiday destinations, in these tropical regions, cases of tungiasis were reported outside the endemic areas. People who went to those zones, carried the disease to their birthplaces (imported Infestations). We report the case of a little Argentinian girl who went to a Caribbean beach and acquired the infestation by tungapenetrans, which made its develop in a striking way; showing an isotopic phenomenon.

6.
Biomedica ; 39(4): 631-638, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860175

RESUMO

Pediculosis capitis is the most frequent ectoparasitosis around the world. The infestation is caused by Pediculus humanus capitis (head louse), which affects hair, scalp, and skin. It rarely presents with more symptoms and in the majority of the cases, it shows a benign course if treated properly. We present the case of a nursery school girl with head lice infestation for 18 months. She did not improve after the shampoo treatment. This case was associated with furunculosis, skin lesions, multiple adenopathies, and anemia. Initially, the presence of boils, alopecia, and lymphadenopathy was evident. The persistence of pediculosis capitis and intense scratching induced changes on skin integrity, facilitating opportunistic bacterial superinfection that led to impetiginization, furunculosis, excoriations, hematic scabs, anemia, alopecia, and lymphadenopathies. Pediculosis capitis affected the patient triggering psychological, economic, social, and other health problems. The patient presented uncommon symptoms (furunculosis, anemia, fever, alopecia, and adenopathies) resulting from the persistence of risk factors and the absence of head inspection and mechanical removal of insects. The education about the risk factors, as well as sanitary controls, are essential to contain the infestation.


Assuntos
Infestações por Piolhos/complicações , Pediculus , Alopecia/etiologia , Anemia/etiologia , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Dermatoses Faciais/etiologia , Feminino , Furunculose/etiologia , Furunculose/patologia , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Infestações por Piolhos/diagnóstico , Infestações por Piolhos/terapia , Linfadenopatia/etiologia , Permetrina/administração & dosagem , Pobreza , Prurido/etiologia , Escolas Maternais
7.
Z Gerontol Geriatr ; 52(8): 795-807, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732810

RESUMO

Scabies is a frequent ectoparasitosis the prevalence of which also seems to increase in older patients. Correct and timely diagnosis of scabies in older age is hampered by atypical clinical manifestations, the potential lack of pruritus and a variety of differential diagnoses. Scabies crustosa, a highly contagious subtype due to the presence of innumerable mites, is of particular importance. It predominantly occurs in immunosuppressed patients as well as in mentally or physically disabled persons and is the most important source of scabies outbreaks in residential and nursing homes. This article reviews the diagnosis and treatment of scabies and the strategies for managing outbreaks with special reference to older patients.


Assuntos
Casas de Saúde , Escabiose , Idoso , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Permetrina/uso terapêutico , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Escabiose/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 400-404, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559793

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the 1970s and 1980s, the occurrence of bedbugs (Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758) was noticed only sporadically in accommodation facilities in Slovakia. Under regular monitoring, it was possible to even eradicate its occurrence in the 1980s. Today, the problem is once again a major global health issue. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to point out the occurrence of cimicosis in the case of atypical urticaria in patients referred to parasitological examination by inpatient and outpatient physicians. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During the period 2006-2015, 102 patients with suspected ectoparasitosis were examined in the Diagnostic Laboratory of Human Parasitology at the Faculty of Medicine of Comenius University in Bratislava. Specialists and general practitioners referred the patients with itching red efflorescences. Parasitological examination and entomologic analysis of insects confirmed in many of them the presence of skin ectoparasitosis caused by Cimex lectularius, and in one case Oeciacus hirundinis. RESULTS: A total number of 102 parasitologically patients were examined - 62 adults and 40 children. Among the 62 adults, there were 57 patients positive for cimicosis. In 5 patients cimicosis was not confirmed, in one of them (Sarcoptes scabiei Linnaeus, 1758) was detected. Among the 40 children, there were 34 positive for cimicosis. One female child was diagnosed with lesions caused by Sarcoptes scabiei.. CONCLUSIONS: The bed bug should again be subjected to the reporting service to public health authorities, and thus recording the monitoring of its incidence and spread in the population.


Assuntos
Percevejos-de-Cama/fisiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pele/parasitologia , Eslováquia , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1192, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tungiasis is a relatively frequent ectoparasitosis in low-income settings, yet its morbidity and social impact are still not well understood due to the scarcity of information. In Rwanda, data on the magnitude and conditions leading to the tungiasis is rare. This study sought to determine the prevalence and factors associated with tungiasis among primary school children in Rwandan setting. METHOD: A descriptive cross-sectional study utilising systematic random sampling method was adopted to select 384 children from three primary schools. From July to October 2018, data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics of children, parents, and households. Logistic regression was applied to analyse socio-demographic factors associated with tungiasis with a level of significance set at P-value< 0.05. RESULTS: Prevalence of tungiasis among three primary schools was 23%. Factors associated with tungiasis included walking barefoot (AOR: 78.41; 95% CI: 17.91-343.10), irregular wearing of shoes (AOR: 24.73; 95% CI: 6.27-97.41), having dirty feet (AOR: 12.69; 95% CI: 4.93-32.64), wearing dirty clothes (AOR: 12.69; 95% CI: 4.18-38.50), and living in a house with earthen plastered floor (AOR: 28.79; 95% CI: 7.11-116.57). Children infected with tungiasis attended class less frequently (AOR: 19.16, 95%CI: 7.20-50.97) and scored lower (AOR: 110.85, 95%CI: 43.08-285.20) than those non-infected. The low school attendance and poor performance could be partly explained by difficulty of walking, lack of concentration during school activities, and isolation or discrimination from classmates. CONCLUSION: Tungiasis was a public health challenge among school going children in a rural Rwandan setting. This study revealed that children affected with tungiasis had poor hygiene, inadequate housing environments and consequently poor school attendance and performance. Improving socio-economic conditions of households with special emphasis on hygiene of family members and housing conditions, would contribute to preventing tungiasis.


Assuntos
População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Tungíase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Ruanda/epidemiologia
10.
IDCases ; 18: e00598, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453101

RESUMO

A Balkan case of paucilesional truncal autochthonous hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans contracted during winter in a cowman, successfully treated by 10% albendazole topical preparation.

11.
Heliyon ; 5(6): e01834, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294092

RESUMO

The introduction of invasive species is one of the greatest threats currently faced by natural ecosystems, causing ecological imbalances between native populations and transmission of a variety of diseases. We reported the interaction between two exotic species given by the parasitic infestation of the copepod Lernaea cyprinacea in the early stages of the development of the American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus in the central area of Argentina. In this paper we analysed the leukocyte profile of parasitized and non-parasitized tadpoles of L. catesbeianus with L. cyprinacea and their body condition (BC) as biomarkers of the health status of organisms. A total of 27 tadpoles of L. catesbeianus were analysed (12 non-parasitized and 15 parasitized). The lower BC recorded in parasitized organisms show a lower health status in these tadpoles, which could be affecting the metamorphosis and therefore impact at the population level. Leukocyte response of L. catesbeianus tadpoles to the parasitism of L. cyprinacea was found. Mature and immature lymphocyte frequencies and hematocrit were higher in parasitized compared to non-parasitized tadpoles, which is a typical response to the presence of parasites. However, eosinophils and monocytes were recorded at high frequencies in not parasitized tadpoles, which could be due to the important role played by these leucocytes in the metamorphosis of frogs. The results of this study constitute a first antecedent on leukocyte profile in aquatic stages of anurans during an ectoparasitosis and its possible implications for environmental health. The parasitism of L. cyprinacea influences the biology of the American bullfrog at both the individual and population levels. Parasitized individuals are not killed directly by the parasite, but they can create conditions for secondary infections, growth retardation, behavioral changes and, ultimately, reduce populations.

12.
Avian Pathol ; 48(sup1): S22-S34, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264450

RESUMO

Dermanyssus gallinae is a haematophagous ectoparasite primarily known as a pest of domestic and wild birds. It occasionally feeds on a range of mammals, and, more importantly, is of growing concern in human medicine. This review highlights mite attacks on people working with poultry, and updates the increasing incidence of dermanyssosis in urban environments in Europe. Although several cases of dermanyssosis have been documented, there are a number of reasons why diagnosis of D. gallinae infestations in humans is likely to be underestimated. Firstly, medical specialists are not well aware of D. gallinae infestations in humans. There is also a lack of collaboration with specialists from other disciplines. The problem is compounded by misdiagnoses and by the lack of diagnostic tools. We review the literature on human dermanyssosis cases in Europe, and also provide information on the epidemiology, clinical, histo-pathological and immunological aspects of dermanyssosis. We stress the need for improved recognition of this challenging infestation in humans, and provide straightforward recommendations for health practitioners, starting with collection of the correct anamnestic information and including appropriate management methods for case recognition and resolution. Finally, we indicate the most urgent areas to be addressed by future research. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Dermanyssus gallinae is of growing concern in human medicine. Most physicians are not well aware of dermanyssosis in humans. Bio-epidemiological and clinical aspects of this ectoparasitosis are highlighted. Practical key actions for diagnosis and correct management of infestation in humans are provided.


Assuntos
Infestações por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Ácaros/fisiologia , Animais , Aves , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Aves Domésticas
13.
Dermatol Ther ; 32(3): e12845, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693620

RESUMO

Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM; also called creeping eruption) is a cutaneous ectoparasitosis commonly observed in tropical countries. It is characterized by an erythematous, pruritic, and raised lesion with linear or serpiginous distribution, typically localized at the lower extremities. Oral ivermectin represents the most recommended current treatment, with important adverse effects associated. We report the clinical case of a 52-year old with CLM, successfully treated with topical ivermectin.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Larva Migrans/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Cutânea , Antiparasitários/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Ivermectina/efeitos adversos , Larva Migrans/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Rev. patol. trop ; 47(4): 235-245, dez. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-996640

RESUMO

Pediculosis capitis is a public health problem not only in Brazil, but also in many countries worldwide. Children are the most likely population group to be infested. The purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of head lice in children seen at the public hospital in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, and factors associated with ectoparasitosis in this group. In addition, data about the transmission, prevention and control were obtained from the children's parents or guardians. The scalp and hair of every child aged 2 to 12, attended to at the hospital pediatric outpatient clinic from 2015 to 2017, were examined. Questionnaires and characterization sheets were also used to obtain and record the information. The overall prevalence rate observed was 2.8%. The highest prevalence rates were observed in girls with medium length hair. Children presented a relatively low prevalence of head lice in the parasitological examinations. However, the answers to the questionnaires indicated that this ectoparasitosis is common in this population group. All the children examined were of school age, and their parents or guardians indicated the school environment as the main source of infestations. The responses to the questionnaires also highlighted evidence of negligence on the part of guardians of positive children regarding the occurrence of this ectoparasitosis. The information obtained indicates that authorities should design/improve their plans of action regarding guidelines for parents or guardians for adequate prevention and control of this ectoparasitosis


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Pediculus , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Ectoparasitoses
15.
Med Sante Trop ; 28(2): 219-220, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29799423

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological and clinical profile of cutaneous parasitosis in Lomé, Togo. Of the 71422 patients seen in 3 dermatology departments during the study period, 1217 (1.7%) had cutaneous parasitosis, 98% of them ectoparasitosis.


Assuntos
Dermatopatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Togo/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Urbana
16.
Infection ; 46(3): 375-383, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29616458

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In 2016, the number of refugees worldwide reached 65.6 million. So far, only limited data are available on the health status of refugees and asylum seekers (RAs). Especially, notifiable infectious diseases (NIDs) carry the risk of outbreaks in communal accommodations hosting RAs. METHODS: We conducted a monocentric retrolective cross-sectional study including 15,137 RAs treated in a special health care unit for RAs located in the major reception center in Munich from November 2014 to October 2016. Altogether 811 RAs with NIDs according to sections 6 and 7 of the German Infection Protection Act or with other infections relevant in the setting of a communal accommodation (RIDs) could be identified. RESULTS: The gender and age distribution was generally comparable to that of refugees in Germany. However, patients from East Africa and Nigeria were significantly overrepresented. NIDs/RIDs were dominated by cases of tuberculosis, hepatitis B, and vaccine-preventable and parasitic diseases. Significant risk factors included country of origin (COI) and age for hepatitis B, age for hepatitis C, gender and age for HIV, and COI, gender and age for tuberculosis and ectoparasitosis. Calculated prevalences of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV were mostly below those of the COI. Incidences of tuberculosis were mostly strongly elevated. CONCLUSIONS: COI, gender, and age have an impact on the occurrence of NIDs/RIDs. Early vaccinations and improved hygiene could be effective in preventing NIDs/RIDs in communal accommodations. Screening, prompt therapy, and infection protection measures are necessary to prevent the transmission of diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Infez Med ; 26(1): 77-80, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29525801

RESUMO

Trombiculiasis is a common but underreported ectoparasitosis characterized by an infestation of the skin by the larval stage of various species of mites belonging to the phylum Arthropoda, class Arachnida, subclass Acarina. Clinical manifestations consist of pruritic erythematous and urticarial macules and papules located on covered thin and glabrous skin. In recent studies Neotrombicula autumnalis larvae have been described as the possible vectors of pathogens such as Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Few reports of trombiculosis have been collected in the medical literature to date. We report a typical case of trombiculosis induced by trombiculid larvae of N. autumnalis, which are habitual parasites of various endo- and ectothermic vertebrates.


Assuntos
Trombiculíase/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sicília
18.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 32(3): 347-354, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29194776

RESUMO

Proposed at the beginning of the twentieth century to explain the origin of eukaryotic organelles from prokaryotes, endosymbiosis is now medically defined by various interaction patterns between microorganisms and their residing hosts, best exemplified by the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia identified in arthropods and filarial nematodes, which can influence normal development, reproduction, survival and transmission of the hosts. Based on the transmission modes, vertical or horizontal, and the function of the endosymbionts, the host-symbiont dependence can be divided into primary or secondary. In dermatology, the role of endosymbionts in skin ectoparasitosis has aroused great interests in the past years. Riesia pediculicola is a primary bacterial endosymbiont in body lice Pediculus humanus, and supplement their hosts with vitamin B, especially pantothenic acid. In cimicosis, the Gram-negative Wolbachia can synthesize biotin and riboflavin, which are crucial for the growth and reproduction of the bedbug Cimex lectularius. In human demodicosis and rosacea, further study is required to prove the pathogenic role of the Gram-negative bacteria Bacillus oleronius or the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus cereus demonstrated in the Demodex mites. The high infection rate of adult female ticks Ixodes ricinus with the Gram-negative bacteria Midichloria mitochondrii present in the mitochondria in diverse ovarian cells, with the high seroprevalence rate in tick-exposed subjects, raises the possibility that this non-pathogenic endosymbiont may play a role in immune response and successful transmission of the tick-borne pathogen. The anaerobic protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis and bacteria Mycoplasma hominis are two obligate parasites in the urogenital epithelium, with partially overlapping symptoms. Intracellular localization of Mycoplasma hominis can avoid host immune response and penetration of antibiotics, while Trichomonas vaginalis infected with Mycoplasma hominis seems to have a higher cytopathic activity and amoeboid transformation rate. Further study on the biology and pathogenesis of different endosymbionts in dermatological parasitosis will help for the development of new treatment modalities.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Dermatopatias/microbiologia , Dermatopatias/parasitologia , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/parasitologia , Simbiose , Animais , Humanos , Insetos/microbiologia , Pele/virologia , Dermatopatias/virologia , Wolbachia/fisiologia
19.
Rev. Fac. Med. (Bogotá) ; 65(3): 425-428, July-Sept. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-896739

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Pediculosis capitis is a skin disease that affects the hair and scalp, and is caused by the Pediculus humanus capitis ectoparasite. High levels of infestation are reported worldwide, affecting especially children. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and the variables that are associated with pediculosis capitis in kindergarten children in Popayán, Colombia. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study based on a sample of148 children aged between 1 and 5 years of age. Only the head was examined. Nits, nymphs and adult lice were mechanically removed using lice combs and wetting the hair, covering the frontotemporal, parietooccipital, mastoid and nuchal regions. An informed consent and a structured survey were filled out by each parent or guardian. Results: The prevalence of pediculosis capitis in the studied population was 11.5%. The variables associated with ectoparasitosis were female sex, long hair (>3 cm) and scalp pruritus. Conclusions: Pediculosis capitis is present and perpetuated in children from Popayán. Promotion, prevention and pediculicide treatment campaigns are strongly recommended.


Resumen Introducción. La pediculosis capitis es una dermatosis que afecta el pelo y el cuero cabelludo; esta es causada por el ectoparásito Pediculus humanus capitis. La infestación presenta una distribución mundial y en su mayoría afecta a la población infantil. Objetivos. Determinar la prevalencia y las variables asociadas a la pediculosis capitis en un hogar infantil de Popayán, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 148 niños entre 1 y 5 años. Solo se examinó la cabeza y se realizó la remoción mecánica de liendres, ninfas y piojos adultos por medio de peines liendrera con el pelo húmedo siguiendo las áreas frontotemporal, parietooccipital, región mastoidea y nuca. Cada padre de familia o tutor a cargo diligenció un consentimiento informado y respondió una encuesta estructurada. Resultados. La prevalencia de pediculosis capitis en la población infantil estudiada fue del 11.5%. Las variables asociadas a la ectoparasitosis fueron sexo femenino, pelo largo (>3cm) y prurito del cuero cabelludo. Conclusiones. La pediculosis capitis está presente y se perpetúa en niños de Popayán. Se recomienda realizar campañas de promoción, prevención y desparasitación.

20.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 37(3): 112-115, Sept. 2017. ilus.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088054

RESUMO

La tungiasis es una ectoparasitosis causada por la penetración en la piel de la pulga hembra Tunga penetrans. Esta enfermedad no es específica del hombre y se distribuye en regiones cálidas y secas alrededor del mundo. Se adquiere por contacto directo con el suelo en donde habitan los parásitos adultos. En zonas endémicas, su alta prevalencia se asocia a pobreza y falta de acceso al sistema de salud. Además es frecuente entre viajeros que visitan regiones endémicas y que regresan a sus lugares de origen. Presentamos un caso típico de tungiasis en un paciente 39 años que había realizado un viaje reciente a zona endémica. (AU)


Tungiasis is an ectoparasitosis caused by penetration into the skin of the female flea Tunga penetrans. This disease is not human-specific and is distributed worldwide in warm, dry regions. It is acquired by direct contact with the soil where the adult parasites live. In endemic areas, its high prevalence is associated with poverty and lack of access to the health system. It is also frequent among travelers visiting endemic regions and returning to their places of origin. We present a typical case of tungiasis in a 39 year old patient who had made a recent trip to an endemic area. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Tungíase/diagnóstico , Tungíase/patologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Áreas de Pobreza , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Endêmicas , DDT/uso terapêutico , Tunga/classificação , Tungíase/cirurgia , Tungíase/etiologia , Tungíase/parasitologia , Tungíase/prevenção & controle , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Barreiras ao Acesso aos Cuidados de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Repelentes de Insetos/uso terapêutico
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