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1.
Int J Occup Environ Med ; 7(4): 234-40, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27651085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health care workers (HCW) are at high risk of contracting various infectious diseases and play a dual role in the transmission of infections in health care facilities. OBJECTIVE: To determine the seroprotection against hepatitis B, measles, rubella, and varicella among HCWs in a community hospital in Qatar. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted in a 75-bed community hospital in Dukhan, Qatar. From August 2012 to December 2015, 705 HCWs were tested for the presence of IgG antibodies for measles, rubella, and varicella, and also for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). They were also asked about previous history of hepatitis B vaccination. RESULTS: 595 (84.4%) HCWs received a full hepatitis B vaccination schedule; 110 (15.6%) received a single dose. The full schedule was reported with higher frequency by nurses (90.2%) compared to physicians (74.1%) or technicians (79.7%). Those aged ≥30 years (90.4%) and <20 years of work experience had received a full vaccination schedule more frequently than younger and less experienced HCWs. Female HCWs (87.8%) received full schedule more frequently than males (78.8%). 73.4% of the staff had seroprotection against heaptitis B, with the lowest anti-HBsAg titers observed in physicians (58.8%) compared with other categories; males (64.9%) were less protected than females. The seropositivity was 85.6%(95% CI 82.4% to 88.4%) for measles, 94.7% (95% CI 92.2% to 97.3%) for rubella, and 92.2% (95% CI 89.7% to 94.7%) for varicella. CONCLUSION: HCWs, particularly physicians, are not enough protected against hepatitis B. The seroprotection against measles, rubella, and varicella.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Varicela/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite B/imunologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Hospitais Comunitários , Humanos , Masculino , Sarampo/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Catar , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/imunologia , Fatores Sexuais , Vacinas
3.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 60(2): 193-7, 2006.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16964669

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The aim of our study was to investigate the immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine in a group of patients suffering from chronic heaptitis C. Thirthy seven patients with chronic hepatitis C (anti-HCV+, HCV-RNA+, histological findings) were selected. Only those patients without serological markers for HBV infection (HBsAg (-), anti-HBcT(-), anti-HBs (-)) were vaccinated the hepatitis B vaccine. The recombinant vaccine (Engerix-B SKB 20 microg) was used according to a 0, 1,2 month regime. The vaccinees were divided into two groups. Group A-12 patients with HCV infection, were treated with interferon alpha 2b during vaccination. Group B-25 patients did not recive the interferon. The seroconversion rates and the concentrations of anti-HBs were taken at month 1, 2 and 3 after the first injection. RESULTS: Patients suffering from chronic hepatitis C react much less favorably to the hepatitis B vaccine than healthy subjects. Administration of the hepatitis B vaccine coupled with interferon-alpha treatment resulted in statistically significant improvement of the immunological response to the vaccine.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Hepatite B/imunologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite C Crônica/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon alfa-2 , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes
4.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-146388

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: The relationship between HBV infection and nephropathy has been reported with some differences according to the investigators and regions studied. Liver biopsies were not performed in most of the reports. In this study both liver and kidney biopsies were performed. The histologic correlation was analyzed between chronic B viral hepatitis and nephropathy. METHODS: From January 1985 to June 2000, both liver and kidney biopsies were performed on 26 patients who had chronic hepatitis B, proteinuria, and hematuria. Also, a new histopathologic classification of chronic hepatitis was applied in the assessment of liver disease. RESULT: Light microscopy of kidneys showed IgA nephropathy in 7 cases (27%); minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) in 1 case (3.8%); and membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) in 9 cases (34.6%), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) in 9 cases (34.6%). Among the cases with a higher hepatitis activity index and fibrosis score, the frequency of MGN and MPGN was higher. The hepatitis activity index of cases with MGN was significantly higher than IgA nephropathy and MPGN (p=0.011, p=0.039). The fibrosis score of cases with MGN and MPGN was significantly higher than IgA nephropathy (p=0.011, p=0.003). The positivity of HBeAg was highest in cases with MGN. Serum C3 level was low in all cases but the serum C4 level was within normal range. Immunofluorescence studies showed granular deposition of IgG and C3 in the capillary loops in MGN. CONCLUSION: The frequency of MGN and MPGN was higher when the liver disease was more severe. It was suggested that HBeAg, IgG and C3 might contribute to the pathogenesis of MGN in HBsAg positve patients.


Assuntos
Humanos , Biópsia , Capilares , Classificação , Fibrose , Imunofluorescência , Glomerulonefrite por IGA , Glomerulonefrite Membranoproliferativa , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa , Hematúria , Hepatite , Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica , Hepatite Crônica , Imunoglobulina G , Rim , Fígado , Hepatopatias , Microscopia , Nefrose Lipoide , Proteinúria , Valores de Referência , Pesquisadores
5.
Indian J Med Res ; 112: 121-7, 2000 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11200677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem especially in developing countries such as India. Hepatitis viruses A, B, C, D and E are all well characterized and molecularly defined agents with unequivocal association with human liver disease but there is evidence of hepatitis in humans caused by certain transmissible agents which cannot be classified with the above hepatotoric viruses. The role of recently discovered hepatitis G virus (HGV/GBV-C) as an independent heaptitis agent is controversial. Recently, we have shown a relatively high frequency of HGV infection in fulminant hepatic failure but the virus was often detected in co-infection with hepatitis B or E virus. The present study has therefore been carried out to evaluate the clinical significance of HGV infection in acute viral hepatitis (AVH) and fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) through follow up of HGV positive patients till their clinical and biochemical recovery. METHODS: The study included 50 patients comprising 35 of AVH and 15 of FHF. These patients were evaluated on the basis of history, physical examination, liver function profile and serological markers for hepatitis A, B, C and E. Those patients serologically negative for HBV and HCV infection were further screened for HBV DNA and HCV RNA by PCR. All the samples were screened for presence of HGV-RNA by RT-PCR using inner and outer primers sequences selected from NS3 helicase region of the HGV genome. FHF patients who died were subjected to postmortem liver biopsy and these biopsy specimens were also screened for HGV-RNA. Repeat detection of HGV-RNA was done after clinical and biochemical recovery of the patients. RESULTS: Of 35 AVH patients, HGV infection was detected in 5 patients (14.3%) while 4 of 15 patients (26.6%) in the FHF group were positive for HGV-RNA. Five HGV positive AVH patients were followed till clinical and biochemical recovery and all of them tested positive for HGV-RNA at follow up (6 weeks to 6 months). Out of 4 HGV positive FHF patients, only one survived and his repeat sample after clinical and biochemical recovery tested positive for HGV-RNA. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that HGV infection does occur in patients of AVH and FHF and HGV viraemia persists for a long time even after clinical and biochemical recovery. These observations point towards a possible non-pathogenic role of hepatitis G virus infection.


Assuntos
Flaviviridae/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite Viral Humana/patologia , Falência Hepática/patologia , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA , Feminino , Flaviviridae/genética , Hepatite Viral Humana/complicações , Humanos , Falência Hepática/etiologia , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação
6.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-191286

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to suggest a proper method for the detection of heaptitis B surface antibody(anti-HBs) in a screening program for hepatitis B vaccination. METHODS: Sensivitity, specificity and predictive values were compared between Immunochromatographic assay (ICA) and passive hemagglutination(PHA) in 978 subjects(565 males, 413 females, 19-78 years ranging in age, mean 46.5 years old). EIA was used as a standard method for the detection of HBsAb. RESULTS: Sensitivity in the detection of anti-HBs of PHA and ICA was 88.7% and 94.9%, specificity was 94.3% and 96.6%, negative predictive value was 96.5% and 98.0%, and positive predictive value was 82.3% and 91.3%, respectively. False negative rate(11.3%) of PHA was higher than that(5.1%) of ICA. The higher the titer of anti-HBs in EIA was, the lower the false negative rate was. There was no false negative result in the cases with 101mIU/ml or more in EIA. CONCLUSION: We suggest that ICA should be the choice of screening method in the detection of anti-HBs in Hepatitis B vaccination program.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Hepatite B , Hepatite , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Coreia (Geográfico) , Programas de Rastreamento , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Vacinação
7.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-182881

RESUMO

We retrospectively evaluated the utility of Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy and percutaneous needle biopsy in differentiating biliary atresia from intraheaptic cholestasis in 60 consecutive infants. Twenty three patients proved to have biliary atresia and remaining 37 patients had intraheaptic cholestasis such as neonatal heaptitis (34 patients), TPN induced jaundice (2 patients) and Dubin-Johnson syndrome (1 patient). All sixty patients underwent Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy with phenobarbital pretreatment. Of 23 patients with biliary atresia, 22 were correctly interpreted showing 96% sensitivity while of 37 patients with intraheaptic cholestasis, only 12 had intestinal excretion of radionuclide showing 32% specificity. Forty needle biopsies were carried out in 17 patients with biliary atresia and 23 patients with intraheaptic cholestasis. Of 40 biopses, 37 were correctly interpreted as either having biliary atresia or intrahepatic cholestasis showing overall diagnostic accuracy of 93%. Of 3 misdiagnostic cases, the histologic findings of two patients with biliary atresia (aged 43 days and 54 days at the first needle biopsy) essentially were the same as those of neonatal heaptitis but follow-up biopsies showed the findings consistent with biliary atresia. The histologic findings of the 3rd patient (VLBW premie with history of 8 weeks TPN) showed mild ductal proliferation and portal fibrosis being interpreted suspicious biliary atresia, but jaundice resolved gradually. In short, the patients who have intestinal excretion of radionuclide on Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy, biliary atresia can be ruled out. But the patients who do not have intestinal excretion of radionuclide should have further investigation as needle biopsy because of high degree of accuracy of percutaneous needle biopsies in differentiating biliary atresia from intrahepatic cholestasis. We conclude that judicious use of a combination of Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy and percutaneous needle biopsy gives correct diagnosis in 95% or more of infantile cholestasis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Atresia Biliar , Biópsia , Biópsia por Agulha , Colestase , Colestase Intra-Hepática , Diagnóstico , Fibrose , Seguimentos , Icterícia , Icterícia Idiopática Crônica , Agulhas , Fenobarbital , Cintilografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Artigo em Coreano | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-26427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: In order to determine the relationship between the HBV precore mutant and the severity of liver disease in Korea, we performed liver biopsies in patients with HBV related chronic liver disease and compared the types of mutations and histologic findings in the same liver tissue simultaneously. METHODS: HBV DNA in liver tissues was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The precore mutants were detected by PCR-SSCP(single strand conformation polymorphism), cloning the amplified PCR products and direct sequencing for them. RESULTS: 1. HBV DNA was detected in liver tissues of 28 cases among 30 patients with PCR. And with SSCP, the most cases were mixed type infections. 2. The HBV precore mutants were found in 12 cases among the total number of 28 cases(42.9%) and all mutations were G to A change at nucleotide 1896, creating a stop codon at codon 28. However, 10 cases among 12 mutants were associated with simultaneous another mutation at different positions or regions;9 cases at core gene region, 2 cases at nucleotide 1856(C to T change at codon 15), one case at core promoter, and one case with double mutations at nucleotide 1837 and 1846 respectively. Also, all HBV precore mutants were combined with wild type HBV sequence. 3. The relationship between HBV precore mutants and HBeAg status revealed that 4 cases from 13 HBeAg positive(30.8%) and 8 from 15 HBeAg negative or Anti-Hbe positive(53.3 %) were mutants. 4. In analysis of the types of mutants and histopathological findings of liver diseases, 6 among 15 chronic active hepatitis(40.0%), all 3 cases with hepatocellular carcinoma(100,0 %), 2 among 4 asymptomatic carriers with minimal histopathologic changes(50.0%) and a case with chronic lobular heaptitis(100.0%) showed precore region mutation. CONCLUSION: The patterns of HBV precore mutants in Korea could be summarized as followings. Firstly, most of the mutations are composed of G to A change at nucleotide 1896. Secondly, the most of the mutants at nuclmtide 1896 have been associated with simultaneous mutations at core promoter, core gene, and rarely at other positions, and manifested usua'ly mixed type viremic conditions. Thirdly, although precore mutation could be occurred in asymptomatic carrier, this type of mutation might be closely related with chronic or severe liver disease. However, it needs further investigations hereafter.


Assuntos
Humanos , Biópsia , Células Clonais , Clonagem de Organismos , Códon , Códon de Terminação , DNA , Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica , Hepatite Crônica , Coreia (Geográfico) , Hepatopatias , Fígado , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo Conformacional de Fita Simples
9.
J Infect Dis ; 140(5): 798-801, 1979 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-528792

RESUMO

PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells continue to produce hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) after greater than 80 passages in vitro, but they do not express other markers of heaptitis B virus (HBV) replication. In this respect, they resemble most liver cells that are persistently infected with HBV. PLC/PRF/5 cells were cultured in the presence of adenine arabinoside, human fibroblast interferon, and ribavirin to determine whether production of HBsAg was sensitive to these antiviral agents. HBsAg released into culture media was detected by radioimmunoassay, and cellular protein synthesis was assessed by [3H]amino acid incorporation studies. A dose-related inhibition of HBsAg occurred with each antiviral agent that was tested, but in each case, this inhibition was matched by a reduction of cellular protein synthesis to a similar degree. Thus, no specific effect on the production of HBsAg was found with any of the antiviral agents tested.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Interferons/farmacologia , Ribavirina/farmacologia , Ribonucleosídeos/farmacologia , Vidarabina/farmacologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Dactinomicina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , RNA/biossíntese , Radioimunoensaio
10.
Arch Sci Med (Torino) ; 136(4): 497-508, 1979.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-550750

RESUMO

The effectiveness of alpha-MPG management was evaluated in terms of changes in the liver cell depuration fraction in patients who presented reduced a levels. There was a marked improvement occasionally to the point of normalisation, in patients with toxic hepatosis. Variations were less significant in cirrhosis, especially in patients with a very low liver metabolism flow. No conclusions could be draw in the case of subjects with chronic heaptitis of various aetiology, since their DF was normal under basal conditions. It seems reasonable to suppose that further improvements are obtainable from prolonged administration of the drug.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Sulfúricos/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Testes de Função Hepática , Tiopronina/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Radioisótopos de Ouro , Humanos , Sulfobromoftaleína
11.
Am J Epidemiol ; 105(2): 99-106, 1977 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-835567

RESUMO

The distribution of hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody (HBsAg and anti HBs), hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc), and the heaptitis B associated "e" antigen-antibody system (HBeAg and anti-HBe) were studied in three areas in Greenland previously shown to be endemic for hepatitis B. Overall prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBs ranged from 47 - 81%, thus confirming the existence of a hyperendemicity of the hepatitis B agent in some polar areas. Anti-HBc occurred closely correlated to HBsAg and anti-HBs but appeared to be a less sensitive indicator of previous infection. HBeAg and anti-HBe were found in HBsAg-positive sera only. The presence of HBeAg correlated to a high titer of HBsAg and to young age and it occurred more frequently in east coast than in northwest coast Greenlanders. The "e"-antibody in contrast prevailed in old age groups and in sera with a low titer of HBsAg.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Antígenos da Hepatite B/análise , Antígenos do Núcleo do Vírus da Hepatite B , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Groenlândia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Infect Immun ; 13(3): 898-908, 1976 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-178597

RESUMO

Hepatitis A antigen (HA Ag) was purified from feces collected during acute illness from patients with naturally occurring viral hepatitis, type A. Positive fecal specimens were identified by immune electron microscopy, but for detection of HA Agduring purification immune adherence hemagglutination (IAHA) and microtiter solid-phase radioimmunoassay were used. Isopycnic banding in cesium chloride, rate-zonal separation in sucrose, and preparative zonal electrophoresis were used in various combinations for successive purification, and the purified antigen was successfully used in a test for antibody by IAHA. Seronconversions to HA Ag were demonstrated by IAHA in 20 instances of hepatitis A virus infection, but in none of six cases of type B hepatitis or three cases of post-transfusion hepatitis unrelated to heaptitis A or B viruses, nor in two individuals without hepatitis. In addition, the temporal pattern of antibody development during type A hepatitis was studied in serial sera from an experimentally infected chimpanzee. Antibody titers by IAHA correlated well with antibody ratings determined by immune electron microscopy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Antígenos Virais/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Antígenos da Hepatite B/imunologia , Reação de Imunoaderência , Antígenos Virais/análise , Centrifugação com Gradiente de Concentração , Centrifugação Isopícnica , Eletroforese , Testes de Hemaglutinação , Hepatovirus/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Radioimunoensaio
13.
Postgrad Med ; 59(1): 79-84, 1976 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1246542

RESUMO

The clinical differentiation of hepatitis A from hepatitis B is often impossible, and only a finding of hepatitis B surface antigen in blood allows the presence of hepatitis B to be definitely diagnosed. Heaptitis A is most easily contracted via the fecal-oral route, while hepatitis B is usually transmitted percutaneously, especially by inoculation with contaminated instruments. Because viral hepatitis has a long incubation period, controlling its spread is difficult. Prevention and control have traditionally depended on general public health measures, and for hepatitis A, passive immunization with immune serum globulin. Promising research is now being conducted to develop vaccines for both active and passive immunization against hepatitis B.


Assuntos
Hepatite A/prevenção & controle , Antígenos da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Desinfecção , Educação em Saúde , Hepatite A/diagnóstico , Humanos , Higiene , Soroglobulinas/administração & dosagem
14.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 100(38): 1881-7, 1975 Sep 19.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-127698

RESUMO

Diurnal variations of plasma testosterone and urinary excretion rates of testosterone-, androsterone-, aetiocholanolone-, and DHA-glucuronide, as well as DHA-sulphate were measured before and after selective Leydig-cell stimulation (with 3 X 5000 IU human gonadotrophin) in eight patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, ten with acute hepatitis and four with haemochromatosis. The circadian variation of plasma testosterone and the maximal testosterone concentration after human gonadotrophin stimulation were decreased in patients with cirrhosis and haemochromatosis, while in those with acute hepatitis the diurnal variations were evened out, whereas individual values were within the normal range. Urinary excretion of free testosterone and testosterone glucuronide was significantly reduced in those with cirrhosis and haemochromatosis before and after stimulation. The urinary pattern of C19 steroid metabolites was markedly changed in favour of the 5 alpha-steroids in acute heaptitis, cirrhosis, and haemochromatosis.


Assuntos
Androgênios/metabolismo , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Androsterona/sangue , Gonadotropina Coriônica/farmacologia , Doença Crônica , Ritmo Circadiano , Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Desidroepiandrosterona/urina , Etiocolanolona/sangue , Hemocromatose/sangue , Hepatite A/sangue , Humanos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Hepatopatias/urina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Química , Testosterona/sangue
15.
N Engl J Med ; 292(15): 767-70, 1975 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-163436

RESUMO

Twenty-two patients who had an episode of transfusion-associated hepatitis not positive for hepatitis B antigen were examined for development of antibody to heaptitis A and B antigens, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus. Antibody response to the 27-nm virus-like hepatitis A antigen was measured by immune electron microscopy. In none of the 22 patients studied did serologic evidence of infection with hepatitis A virus develop during the study period. Nine of the 22 patients had antibody responses to cytomegalovirus, but it was difficult to relate these seroconversions to their hepatitis. In addition, all 22 patients had pre-existing antibody to the Epstein-Barr virus. It seems likely that at least a proportion of such antigen-negative transfusion-associated hepatitis is caused by other infectious agents, not yet identified.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/etiologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Antígenos Virais/análise , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Imunofluorescência , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/análise , Antígenos da Hepatite B/análise , Hepatovirus/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Humanos , Reação Transfusional
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