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1.
Food Microbiol ; 122: 104528, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839212

RESUMO

Human milk is considered the most suitable source of nutrition for infants. Donor human milk from human milk banks (HMB) is recommended as the best alternative for infants whose mothers' own milk is unavailable. Microbiological screening of milk donated to HMB is important to ensure the quality and safety of the pasteurised human milk. This article describes the microbiological status of human milk donated to the Regional Human Milk Bank in Torun, Poland. Statistical data regarding the microbiological analysis of milk from 292 donors were collected in the years 2013-2021. Total of 538 milk samples were tested. Only in 6% of human milk samples the bacteria level was above the required standard and/or the milk had potentially pathogenic bacteria. The main core of donors' breastmilk bacteria represents the skin microbiota, and the composition of the microbiota is strictly related to the surrounding environment. The most abundant genera detected in milk samples were the Staphylococcus group. Prolonged hospitalisation of infants' mothers and/or offsprings is associated with potentially pathogenic bacteria colonization in milk. The use of the modern identification method MALDI-TOF resulted in more accurate results compared to the biochemical methods. Our analysis indicates that most of the tested milk samples (94%), both expressing at home and in hospital environments, meet the criteria for admission to the human milk bank. Effective techniques for identifying microorganisms ensure that donor milk from human milk banks meets the guidelines set for these units.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Bancos de Leite Humano , Leite Humano , Humanos , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Polônia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Feminino , Adulto , Microbiota , Lactente , Adulto Jovem
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13120, 2024 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849438

RESUMO

Body weight is an important economic trait for sheep meat production, and its genetic improvement is considered one of the main goals in the sheep breeding program. Identifying genomic regions that are associated with growth-related traits accelerates the process of animal breeding through marker-assisted selection, which leads to increased response to selection. In this study, we conducted a weighted single-step genome-wide association study (WssGWAS) to identify potential candidate genes for direct and maternal genetic effects associated with birth weight (BW) and weaning weight (WW) in Baluchi sheep. The data used in this research included 13,408 birth and 13,170 weaning records collected at Abbas-Abad Baluchi Sheep Breeding Station, Mashhad-Iran. Genotypic data of 94 lambs genotyped by Illumina 50K SNP BeadChip for 54,241 markers were used. The proportion of variance explained by genomic windows was calculated by summing the variance of SNPs within 1 megabase (Mb). The top 10 window genomic regions explaining the highest percentages of additive and maternal genetic variances were selected as candidate window genomic regions associated with body weights. Our findings showed that for BW, the top-ranked genomic regions (1 Mb windows) explained 4.30 and 4.92% of the direct additive and maternal genetic variances, respectively. The direct additive genetic variance explained by the genomic window regions varied from 0.31 on chromosome 1 to 0.59 on chromosome 8. The highest (0.84%) and lowest (0.32%) maternal genetic variances were explained by genomic windows on chromosome 10 and 17, respectively. For WW, the top 10 genomic regions explained 6.38 and 5.76% of the direct additive and maternal genetic variances, respectively. The highest and lowest contribution of direct additive genetic variances were 1.37% and 0.42%, respectively, both explained by genomic regions on chromosome 2. For maternal effects on WW, the highest (1.38%) and lowest (0.41%) genetic variances were explained by genomic windows on chromosome 2. Further investigation of these regions identified several possible candidate genes associated with body weight. Gene ontology analysis using the DAVID database identified several functional terms, such as translation repressor activity, nucleic acid binding, dehydroascorbic acid transporter activity, growth factor activity and SH2 domain binding.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Desmame , Animais , Feminino , Ovinos/genética , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Peso Corporal/genética , Herança Materna , Cruzamento , Genótipo , Masculino , Fenótipo
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1394663, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38873099

RESUMO

In this study, we report the first isolation of Hanseniaspora opuntiae obtained from four pregnant women in Brazil. Clinical isolates were obtained from four samples taken between 35 and 37 gestational weeks, as part of the routine antenatal care for maternal colonization screening for Streptococcus agalactiae group B. The patients were immunocompetent, with two of them diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus. Species identification was performed by MALDI-TOF MS and rDNA sequencing. While Hanseniaspora species have not traditionally been considered a typical opportunist pathogen, our findings emphasize the importance of investigating and screening for Hanseniaspora in pregnant populations, highlighting H. opuntiae as a potential agent of human infections.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Brasil , Adulto , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Vagina/microbiologia , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética , Streptococcus agalactiae/classificação , Diabetes Gestacional/microbiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13762, 2024 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877103

RESUMO

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) therapy is common among perinatal populations for the treatment of mood disorders. Medications can affect diversity and composition of the gut microbiome, which plays a key role in modulating health. While previous studies have examined the effects of antidepressant exposure on the maternal gut microbiome, whether SSRI exposure affects the offspring gut microbiome is unknown. We investigated the effects of maternal fluoxetine exposure on the gut microbiome of maternal and offspring mice during pregnancy and lactation (embryonic day 10-lactation day 21; E10-L21). Stool samples collected on E17, L11, L15, and L21 were examined using 16S rRNA sequencing. Our results suggest that maternal fluoxetine exposure may result in decreased alpha diversity of the offspring gut microbiome in early life. Furthermore, we observed several genera-specific differences in the gut microbiome based on treatment, specifically of Turicibacter, Parasutterella, and Romboutsia. These findings support our understanding of gut health, as dysbiotic development of the gut microbiome has been associated with local and systemic health problems including gastrointestinal morbidities and interrupted growth patterns in infants. Future research should pursue study in human populations and those at high risk for gut microbial dysbiosis and intestinal injury.


Assuntos
Fluoxetina , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactação , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Gravidez , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Fluoxetina/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/microbiologia , Inibidores Seletivos de Recaptação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores Seletivos de Recaptação de Serotonina/farmacologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1441: 397-416, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38884722

RESUMO

Environmental factors have long been known to play a role in the pathogenesis of congenital heart disease (CHD), but this has not been a major focus of research in the modern era. Studies of human exposures and animal models demonstrate that demographics (age, race, socioeconomic status), diseases (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, obesity, stress, infection, high altitude), recreational and therapeutic drug use, and chemical exposures are associated with an increased risk for CHD. Unfortunately, although studies suggest that exposures to these factors may cause CHD, in most cases, the data are not strong, are inconclusive, or are contradictory. Although most studies concentrate on the effects of maternal exposure, paternal exposure to some agents can also modify this risk. From a mechanistic standpoint, recent delineation of signaling and genetic controls of cardiac development has revealed molecular pathways that may explain the effects of environmental signals on cardiac morphogenesis and may provide further tools to study the effects of environmental stimuli on cardiac development. For example, environmental factors likely regulate cellular signaling pathways, transcriptional and epigenetic regulation, proliferation, and physiologic processes that can control the development of the heart and other organs. However, understanding of the epidemiology and risk of these exposures and the mechanistic basis for any effects on cardiac development remains incomplete. Further studies defining the relationship between environmental exposures and human CHD and the mechanisms involved should reveal strategies to prevent, diagnose, and treat CHD induced by environmental signals.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Transdução de Sinais , Humanos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/etiologia , Animais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/fisiopatologia
6.
Aquat Toxicol ; 272: 106980, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838504

RESUMO

Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a widely-used plasticizer that is dispersed in various environments, causing significant pollution and health risks. The toxic mechanism of DBP has been discussed in recent years, while the susceptibility of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to DBP exposure and the resulting damage remain unclear. In this study, maternal zebrafish were exposed to environmentally relevant concentration of DBP for 0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Results showed that DBP exposure impaired health status, leading to the reduced body length and weight, condition factor, hepatosomatic index, and gonadosomatic index. Furthermore, DBP exposure induced oxidative stress and ATP deficiency in the gill and liver in a time-dependent manner. The oxidized mtDNA (ox-mtDNA) levels in the D-loop and ND1 regions were assessed in different tissues, showing distinct response patterns. The high energy-consuming tissues such as heart, brain, gill, and liver exhibited elevated susceptibility to mitochondrial damage, with a rapid increase in ox-mtDNA levels in the short term. Conversely, in muscle, ovary, eggs, and offspring, ox-mtDNA gradually accumulated over the exposure period. Notably, the ox-mtDNA levels in the D-loop region of blood showed a prompt response to DBP exposure, making it convenient for evaluation. Additionally, decreased hatching rates, increased mortality, lipoperoxidation, and depressed swimming performance were observed in offspring following maternal DBP exposure, suggesting the inherited impairments of maternal mtDNA. These findings highlight the potential for ox-mtDNA to serve as a convenient biomarker for environmental contamination, aiding in ecological risk assessment and forewarning systems in aquatic environment.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial , Dibutilftalato , Estresse Oxidativo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Dibutilftalato/toxicidade , Feminino , DNA Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Exposição Materna , Dano ao DNA , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13448, 2024 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862662

RESUMO

Human milk (HM) components affect immune cell toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. However, studies examining the immunomodulatory impacts of HM on TLR4 signaling in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are limited. This study utilized both a TLR4 reporter cell line and a Caco-2 IEC model to examine the effects of HM on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TLR4 activation and cytokine responses, respectively. Additionally, we performed fast protein liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify a HM component that contributes to the effect of HM on LPS/TLR4 signaling. HM enhances LPS-induced TLR4 signaling as well as LPS-induced IEC gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and negative regulators of NF-κB. Human serum albumin (HSA) present in HM contributes to these effects. HSA within HM synergizes with LPS to induce IEC gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and negative regulators of NF-κB. Altogether, this study provides mechanistic evidence behind the immunomodulatory function of HM on IECs, which may contribute to an enhanced immune response in breast-fed neonates.


Assuntos
Citocinas , Lipopolissacarídeos , Leite Humano , NF-kappa B , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Humanos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Leite Humano/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Genes Brain Behav ; 23(3): e12906, 2024 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861664

RESUMO

Motherhood is a costly life-history transition accompanied by behavioral and neural plasticity necessary for offspring care. Motherhood in the monogamous prairie vole is associated with decreased pair bond strength, suggesting a trade-off between parental investment and pair bond maintenance. Neural mechanisms governing pair bonds and maternal bonds overlap, creating possible competition between the two. We measured mRNA expression of genes encoding receptors for oxytocin (oxtr), dopamine (d1r and d2r), mu-opioids (oprm1a), and kappa-opioids (oprk1a) within three brain areas processing salience of sociosensory cues (anterior cingulate cortex; ACC), pair bonding (nucleus accumbens; NAc), and maternal care (medial preoptic area; MPOA). We compared gene expression differences between pair bonded prairie voles that were never pregnant, pregnant (~day 16 of pregnancy), and recent mothers (day 3 of lactation). We found greater gene expression in the NAc (oxtr, d2r, oprm1a, and oprk1a) and MPOA (oxtr, d1r, d2r, oprm1a, and oprk1a) following the transition to motherhood. Expression for all five genes in the ACC was greatest for females that had been bonded for longer. Gene expression within each region was highly correlated, indicating that oxytocin, dopamine, and opioids comprise a complimentary gene network for social signaling. ACC-NAc gene expression correlations indicated that being a mother (oxtr and d1r) or maintaining long-term pair bonds (oprm1a) relies on the coordination of different signaling systems within the same circuit. Our study suggests the maternal brain undergoes changes that prepare females to face the trade-off associated with increased emotional investment in offspring, while also maintaining a pair bond.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae , Comportamento Materno , Núcleo Accumbens , Ligação do Par , Receptores Opioides mu , Animais , Feminino , Arvicolinae/genética , Receptores Opioides mu/genética , Receptores Opioides mu/metabolismo , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Gravidez , Receptores de Ocitocina/genética , Receptores de Ocitocina/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides kappa/genética , Receptores Opioides kappa/metabolismo , Giro do Cíngulo/metabolismo , Área Pré-Óptica/metabolismo , Receptores de Dopamina D1/genética , Receptores de Dopamina D1/metabolismo
9.
C R Biol ; 347: 45-52, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38888193

RESUMO

Fertility is declining worldwide and many couples are turning towards assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to conceive babies. Organisms that propagate via sexual reproduction often come from the fusion between two gametes, an oocyte and a sperm, whose qualities seem to be decreasing in the human species. Interestingly, while the sperm mostly transmits its haploid genome, the oocyte transmits not only its haploid set of chromosomes but also its huge cytoplasm to its progeny. This is what can be defined as the maternal inheritance composed of chromosomes, organelles, lipids, metabolites, proteins and RNAs. To decipher the decline in oocyte quality, it is essential to explore the nature of the maternal inheritance, and therefore study the last stages of murine oogenesis, namely the end of oocyte growth followed by the two meiotic divisions. These divisions are extremely asymmetric in terms of the size of the daughter cells, allowing to preserve the maternal inheritance accumulated during oocyte growth within these huge cells to support early embryo development. Studies performed in Marie-Hélène Verlhac's lab have allowed to discover the unprecedented impact of original acto-myosin based mechanisms in the constitution as well as the preservation of this maternal inheritance and the consequences when these processes go awry.


La fécondité diminue mondialement et de nombreux couples se tournent vers les techniques de procréation médicalement assistée (PMA) pour concevoir des bébés. Les organismes se propageant par reproduction sexuée sont souvent issus de la fusion de deux gamètes, un ovocyte et un spermatozoïde, dont les qualités semblent diminuer dans l'espèce humaine. Si le spermatozoïde transmet principalement son génome haploïde, l'ovocyte transmet à sa progéniture non seulement son lot haploïde de chromosomes, mais aussi son immense cytoplasme. C'est ce que l'on peut définir comme l'héritage maternel, composé de chromosomes, d'organelles, de lipides, de métabolites, de protéines et d'ARNs. Pour comprendre la baisse de qualité des ovocytes, il est essentiel d'explorer la nature de cet héritage maternel, et donc d'étudier les dernières étapes de l'ovogenèse murine, à savoir la fin de la croissance ovocytaire suivie des deux divisions méiotiques. Ces divisions sont extrêmement asymétriques par la taille des cellules filles engendrées, ce qui permet de préserver l'héritage maternel accumulé pendant la croissance de cette énorme cellule, l'ovocyte, pour soutenir le développement précoce de l'embryon. Les études menées dans le laboratoire de Marie-Hélène Verlhac ont permis de découvrir l'impact sans précédent de mécanismes originaux dépendant de l'acto-myosine dans la constitution et la préservation de cet héritage maternel, ainsi que les conséquences des erreurs dans ces processus.


Assuntos
Herança Materna , Oócitos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Herança Materna/genética , Oogênese/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Meiose
10.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0305421, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870243

RESUMO

Human milk is optimal for infant nutrition. However, many mothers cease breastfeeding because of low milk supply (LMS). It is difficult to identify mothers at risk for LMS because its biologic underpinnings are not fully understood. Previously, we demonstrated that milk micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) may be related to LMS. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFß) also plays an important role in mammary involution and may contribute to LMS. We performed a longitudinal cohort study of 139 breastfeeding mothers to test the hypothesis that milk levels of TGFß would identify mothers with LMS. We explored whether TGFß impacts the expression of LMS-related miRNAs in cultured human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). LMS was defined by maternal report of inadequate milk production, and confirmed by age of formula introduction and infant weight trajectory. Levels of TGF-ß1 and TGF-ß2 were measured one month after delivery. There was a significant relationship between levels of TGF-ß1 and LMS (X2 = 8.92, p = 0.003) on logistic regression analysis, while controlling for lactation stage (X2 = 1.28, p = 0.25), maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (X2 = 0.038, p = 0.84), and previous breastfeeding experience (X2 = 7.43, p = 0.006). The model accounted for 16.8% of variance in the data (p = 0.005) and correctly predicted LMS for 84.6% of mothers (22/26; AUC = 0.72). Interactions between TGF-ß1 and miR-22-3p displayed significant effect on LMS status (Z = 2.67, p = 0.008). Further, incubation of HMECs with TGF-ß1 significantly reduced mammary cell number (t = -4.23, p = 0.003) and increased levels of miR-22-3p (t = 3.861, p = 0.008). Interactions between TGF-ß1 and miR-22-3p may impact mammary function and milk levels of TGF-ß1 could have clinical utility for identifying mothers with LMS. Such information could be used to provide early, targeted lactation support.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , MicroRNAs , Leite Humano , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Humanos , Feminino , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Adulto , Lactação , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/metabolismo , Estudos Longitudinais , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Lactente , Mães , Recém-Nascido , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/citologia
11.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5173, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38890352

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZikV) infection during pregnancy can cause congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) and neurodevelopmental delay in infants, of which the pathogenesis remains poorly understood. We utilize an established female pigtail macaque maternal-to-fetal ZikV infection/exposure model to study fetal brain pathophysiology of CZS manifesting from ZikV exposure in utero. We find prenatal ZikV exposure leads to profound disruption of fetal myelin, with extensive downregulation in gene expression for key components of oligodendrocyte maturation and myelin production. Immunohistochemical analyses reveal marked decreases in myelin basic protein intensity and myelinated fiber density in ZikV-exposed animals. At the ultrastructural level, the myelin sheath in ZikV-exposed animals shows multi-focal decompaction, occurring concomitant with dysregulation of oligodendrocyte gene expression and maturation. These findings define fetal neuropathological profiles of ZikV-linked brain injury underlying CZS resulting from ZikV exposure in utero. Because myelin is critical for cortical development, ZikV-related perturbations in oligodendrocyte function may have long-term consequences on childhood neurodevelopment, even in the absence of overt microcephaly.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Bainha de Mielina , Oligodendroglia , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/patologia , Oligodendroglia/virologia , Oligodendroglia/metabolismo , Oligodendroglia/patologia , Feminino , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Gravidez , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/patologia , Macaca nemestrina , Encéfalo/virologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteína Básica da Mielina/metabolismo , Proteína Básica da Mielina/genética
12.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0287491, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38900729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) co-infection has been described as the most severe form of viral hepatitis, and can be co-transmitted from mother-to-child. A seroprevalence of 4.0% of HDV infection was reported in pregnant women in Yaoundé, and 11.9% in the general population in Cameroon. Our objective was to describe the rate of HDV infection in HBsAg-positive pregnant women and to determine risk factors associated with mother-to-child transmission of HDV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted from January 2019 to July 2022 among pregnant women attending antenatal contacts in seven health structures in the Centre Region of Cameroon. A consecutive sampling (non-probability sampling) was used to select only pregnant women of age over 21 years, who gave a written informed consent. Following an informed consent, an open-ended questionnaire was used for a Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) survey of these women, and their blood specimens collected and screened for HBsAg, anti-HIV and anti-HCV antibodies by rapid tests and ELISA. HBsAg-positive samples were further screened for HBeAg, anti-HDV, anti-HBs, and anti HBc antibodies by ELISA, and plasma HDV RNA load measured by RT-qPCR. RESULTS: Of 1992 pregnant women, a rate of 6.7% of HBsAg (133/1992) with highest rate in the rural areas, and 3.9% of hepatitis vaccination rate were recorded. Of 130, 42 (32.3%) were anti-HDV antibody-positive, and 47.6% had detectable HDV RNA viraemia. Of 44 anti-HDV-positive cases, 2 (4.5%) were co-infected with HBV and HCV, while 5 (11.4%) with HIV and HBV. Multiple pregnancies, the presence of tattoos and/or scarifications were significantly associated with the presence of anti-HDV antibodies. Of note, 80% of women with negative HBeAg and positive anti-HBe serological profile, had plasma HDV RNA load of more than log 3.25 (>10.000 copies/ml). CONCLUSION: These results show an intermediate rate of HDV infection among pregnant women with high level of HDV RNA viremia, which suggest an increased risk of vertical and horizontal co-transmission of HDV.


Assuntos
Hepatite D , Vírus Delta da Hepatite , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Camarões/epidemiologia , Hepatite D/epidemiologia , Hepatite D/transmissão , Adulto , Fatores de Risco , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/genética , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/transmissão , Hepatite B/virologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia
13.
PLoS Biol ; 22(6): e3002641, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833481

RESUMO

In utero exposure to maternal obesity programs increased obesity risk. Animal models show that programmed offspring obesity is preceded by hyperphagia, but the mechanisms that mediate these changes are unknown. Using a mouse model of maternal obesity, we observed increased intake of a high-fat diet (HFD) in offspring of obese mothers that precedes the development of obesity. Through small RNA sequencing, we identified programmed overexpression of hypothalamic miR-505-5p that is established in the fetus, lasts to adulthood and is maintained in hypothalamic neural progenitor cells cultured in vitro. Metabolic hormones and long-chain fatty acids associated with obesity increase miR-505-5p expression in hypothalamic neurons in vitro. We demonstrate that targets of miR-505-5p are enriched in fatty acid metabolism pathways and overexpression of miR-505-5p decreased neuronal fatty acid metabolism in vitro. miR-505-5p targets are associated with increased BMI in human genetic studies. Intra-cerebroventricular injection of miR-505-5p in wild-type mice increased HFD intake, mimicking the phenotype observed in offspring exposed to maternal obesity. Conversely, maternal exercise intervention in an obese mouse pregnancy rescued the programmed increase of hypothalamic miR-505-5p in offspring of obese dams and reduced HFD intake to control offspring levels. This study identifies a novel mechanism by which maternal obesity programs obesity in offspring via increased intake of high-fat foods.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácidos Graxos , Hipotálamo , MicroRNAs , Obesidade Materna , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Gravidez , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade Materna/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695863

RESUMO

Human breast milk contains lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which have an important influence on the composition of the intestinal microbia of infants. In this study, one strain of an α-hemolytic species of the genus Streptococcus, IMAU99199T, isolated from the breast milk of a healthy nursing mother in Hohhot city PR China, was studied to characterise its taxonomic status using phenotypic and molecular taxonomic methods. The results indicated that it represented a member of the mitis-suis clade, pneumoniae subclade of the genus Streptococcus. It is a Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative and oxidase-negative bacterium, and the cells are globular, paired or arranged in short chains. The results of a phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene and two housekeeping genes (gyrB and rpoB) placed it in the genus Streptococcus. A phylogenetic tree based on 135 single-copy genes sequences indicated that IMAU99199T formed a closely related branch well separated from 'Streptococcus humanilactis' IMAU99125, 'Streptococcus bouchesdurhonensis' Marseille Q6994, Streptococcus mitis NCTC 12261T, 'Streptococcus vulneris' DM3B3, Streptococcus toyakuensis TP1632T, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae ATCC BAA-960T and Streptococcus pneumoniae NCTC 7465T. IMAU99199T and 'S. humanilactis' IMAU99125 had the highest average nucleotide identity (93.7 %) and digital DNA-DNA hybridisation (55.3 %) values, which were below the accepted thresholds for novel species. The DNA G+C content of the draft genome of IMAU99199T was 39.8 %. The main cellular fatty acids components of IMAU99199T were C16 : 0 and C16 : 1ω7. It grew at a temperature range of 25-45 °C (the optimum growth temperature was 37 °C) and a pH range of 5.0-8.0 (the optimum growth pH was 7.0). These data indicate that strain IMAU99199T represents a novel species in the genus Streptococcus, for which the name Streptococcus hohhotensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IMAU99199T (=GDMCC 1.1874T=KCTC 21155T).


Assuntos
Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano , Ácidos Graxos , Leite Humano , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Streptococcus , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Humanos , Feminino , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus/classificação , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Genes Bacterianos
15.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 189: 114772, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38821392

RESUMO

Exposure to plastic-derived estrogen-mimicking endocrine-disrupting bisphenols can have a long-lasting effect on bone health. However, gestational exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and its analogue, bisphenol S (BPS), on offspring's bone mineralization is unclear. The effects of in-utero bisphenol exposure were examined on the offspring's bone parameters. BPA and BPS (0.0, 0.4 µg/kg bw) were administered to pregnant Wistar rats via oral gavage from gestational day 4-21. Maternal exposure to BPA and BPS increased bone mineral content and density in the offspring aged 30 and 90 days (P < 0.05). Plasma analysis revealed that alkaline phosphatase, and Gla-type osteocalcin were significantly elevated in the BPS-exposed offspring (P < 0.05). The expression of BMP1, BMP4, and their signaling mediators SMAD1 mRNAs were decreased in BPS-exposed osteoblast SaOS-2 cells (P < 0.05). The expression of extracellular matrix proteins such as ALPL, COL1A1, DMP1, and FN1 were downregulated (P < 0.05). Bisphenol co-incubation with noggin decreased TGF-ß1 expression, indicating its involvement in bone mineralization. Altered mineralization could be due to dysregulated expression of bone morphogenetic proteins and signalling mediators in the osteoblast cells. Thus, bisphenol exposure during gestation altered growth and bone mineralization in the offspring, possibly by modulating the expression of Smad-dependent BMP/TGF-ß1 signalling mediators.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Calcificação Fisiológica , Fenóis , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Ratos Wistar , Sulfonas , Animais , Fenóis/toxicidade , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Feminino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Sulfonas/toxicidade , Humanos , Proteína Smad1/metabolismo , Proteína Smad1/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/metabolismo , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Osteocalcina/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 1/metabolismo , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 1/genética , Masculino , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Proteínas de Transporte
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(19): 11013-11028, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691641

RESUMO

Five GH29B α-1,3/4-l-fucosidases (EC 3.2.1.111) were investigated for their ability to catalyze the formation of the human milk oligosaccharide lacto-N-fucopentaose II (LNFP II) from lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) and 3-fucosyllactose (3FL) via transglycosylation. We studied the effect of pH on transfucosylation and hydrolysis and explored the impact of specific mutations using molecular dynamics simulations. LNFP II yields of 91 and 65% were obtained for the wild-type SpGH29C and CpAfc2 enzymes, respectively, being the highest LNFP II transglycosylation yields reported to date. BbAfcB and BiAfcB are highly hydrolytic enzymes. The results indicate that the effects of pH and buffer systems are enzyme-dependent yet relevant to consider when designing transglycosylation reactions. Replacing Thr284 in BiAfcB with Val resulted in increased transglycosylation yields, while the opposite replacement of Val258 in SpGH29C and Val289 CpAfc2 with Thr decreased the transfucosylation, confirming a role of Thr and Val in controlling the flexibility of the acid/base loop in the enzymes, which in turn affects transglycosylation. The substitution of an Ala residue with His almost abolished secondary hydrolysis in CpAfc2 and BbAfcB. The results are directly applicable in the enhancement of transglycosylation and may have significant implications for manufacturing of LNFP II as a new infant formula ingredient.


Assuntos
Leite Humano , Oligossacarídeos , alfa-L-Fucosidase , Leite Humano/química , Humanos , Oligossacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , alfa-L-Fucosidase/metabolismo , alfa-L-Fucosidase/química , alfa-L-Fucosidase/genética , Glicosilação , Hidrólise , Fucose/metabolismo , Fucose/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Biocatálise
17.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 49: 100617, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763381

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study investigated to detect serotypes and virulence genes of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) isolated from pregnant women. METHODS: Forty-five samples of GBS isolates from January to August 2019 at antenatal clinics of 4 teaching hospitals in Western Province, Sri Lanka were included. Isolated GBS were carried to identify 9 serotypes by multiplex PCR. Different virulence determinants, including bac, rib and scp(B) have been detected by PCR. RESULTS: Among GBS-positive culture isolates most abundant serotype detected was type III 12/45 (26.7%) while serotype VII, VIII and IX were not seen. Furthermore, serotype Ia (15.6%); II (20%); V (17.8%); VI (15.6%); Ib (2.2%) and IV (2.2%) were identified. Among 5 rectal isolates, 1 isolate was serotype Ia, 2 isolates were serotype II and 2 isolates were serotype III. Forty (40/45) isolates expressed scpB gene (88.8%). Presence of rib gene was confirmed in 17.8%, bac in 13.3% isolates. ScpB, rib and bac were identified in 4.4% isolates, 8.9% isolates were scpB, rib positive and bac negative, 8.9% isolates were scpB, bac positive and rib negative. These three-virulence genes did not express in 8.9% isolates. ScpB gene was found once in serotype Ib and IV and all serotype VI expressed scpB gene. Rib gene was more common among serotype II and it was not found in serotype Ib, IV and VI. Bac gene was more common in serotype V and it was not found in serotype Ia, Ib and IV. There was not significant association between serotypes and virulence gene (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Serotype III is the most abundant serotype. In formulation of vaccine against GBS for Sri Lanka, serotype III should be targeted. Prevalence of vaccine candidate virulence protein such as ß antigens of the C protein (bac) and surface protein Rib (rib) genes were low in this study.


Assuntos
Sorogrupo , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Streptococcus agalactiae , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Virulência , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética , Streptococcus agalactiae/patogenicidade , Streptococcus agalactiae/classificação , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Feminino , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Gravidez , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia
18.
Placenta ; 152: 23-30, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768555

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Knowledge on prevalence and association of human papillomavirus (HPV) in third trimester placentae and adverse pregnancy outcomes is limited. We investigated the prevalence of placental HPV at delivery, explored urine HPV characteristics associated with placental HPV and whether placental HPV increased the risk adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: Pregnant women were enrolled in the Scandinavian PreventADALL mother-child cohort study at midgestation. Human papillomavirus genotyping was performed on placental biopsies collected at delivery (n = 587) and first-void urine at midgestation and delivery (n = 556). Maternal characteristics were collected by questionnaires at gestational week 18 and 34. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were registered from chart data including hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus and newborns small for gestational age. Uni- and multivariable regression models were used to investigate associations. RESULTS: Placental HPV was detected in 18/587 (3 %). Twenty-eight genotypes were identified among the 214/556 (38 %) with midgestational urine HPV. Seventeen of the 18 women with placental HPV were midgestational HPV positive with 89 % genotype concordance. Midgestational high-risk-(HR)-HPV and high viral loads of Any- or HR-HPV were associated with placental HPV. Persisting HPV infection from midgestation to delivery was not associated with placental HPV. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were seen in 2/556 (0.4 %) of women with placental HPV. DISCUSSION: In this general cohort of pregnant women, the prevalence of placental HPV was 3 %, and midgestational urinary HPV 38 %. High HPV viral load increased the risk for placental HPV infections. We observed no increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with placental HPV.


Assuntos
Infecções por Papillomavirus , Placenta , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Adulto , Placenta/virologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Papillomaviridae/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Nutr Biochem ; 130: 109669, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38754792

RESUMO

Maternal zinc deficiency significantly influences fetal development and long-term health outcomes, yet its transgenerational effects remain poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the transgenerational effects of maternal zinc deficiency on metabolic outcomes in Drosophila melanogaster. Zinc deficiency was induced in Drosophila by incorporating TPEN (N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine) into their diet. Offspring (F1 to F3) were maintained on a standard diet for subsequent analyses. Various metabolic markers, including glucose, trehalose, glycogen, and triglyceride levels, were assessed, and gene expression analyses were conducted to examine the molecular responses across generations. Significant reductions in locomotor performance in female F1 flies and increased body weight in the F2 generation were observed. Maternal zinc deficiency exhibited gender- and generation-specific impacts on metabolic markers. Notably, an adaptive response in the F3 generation included increased catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity, along with decreased malondialdehyde levels. Gene expression analyses revealed upregulation of DILP2 mRNA across generations and significant variations in PEPCK, SOD1, CAT, EGR, and UPD2 mRNA levels, demonstrating intricate responses to maternal zinc deficiency. This study provides a holistic understanding of the consequences of maternal zinc deficiency, emphasizing the complex interplay between zinc status and metabolic outcomes across generations in Drosophila. These findings lay the foundation for future research elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms, with potential implications for humans. The insights gained contribute to informing targeted interventions aimed at optimizing offspring health in the context of maternal zinc deficiency.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Zinco , Animais , Feminino , Zinco/deficiência , Zinco/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12484, 2024 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38816497

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are known to present sex-specific differences. At the same time, understanding how maternal behaviours are affected by pathogenic mutations is crucial to translate research efforts since rearing may recursively modulate neurodevelopment phenotype of the progeny. In this work, we focused on the effects of Gprasp2 deletion in females and its impact in progeny care and development. Female mice, wild-type (WT), Gprasp2+/- (HET) or Gprasp2-/- (KO) mutants and their progeny were used and behavioural paradigms targeting anxiety, memory, maternal care, and other social behaviours were performed. Analysis of communication was carried out through daily recordings of ultrasonic vocalizations in isolated pups and cross-fostering experiments were performed to understand the effect of maternal genotype in pup development. We found that Gprasp2-/- females presented striking impairments in social and working memory. Females also showed disruptions in maternal care, as well as physiological and molecular alterations in the reproductive system and hypothalamus, such as the structure of the mammary gland and the expression levels of oxytocin receptor (OxtR) in nulliparous versus primiparous females. We observed alterations in pup communication, particularly a reduced number of calls in Gprasp2 KO pups, which resulted from an interaction effect of the dam and pup genotype. Cross-fostering mutant pups with wild-type dams rescued some of the early defects shown in vocalizations, however, this effect was not bidirectional, as rearing WT pups with Gprasp2-/- dams was not sufficient to induce significant phenotypical alterations. Our results suggest Gprasp2 mutations perturb social and working memory in a sex-independent manner, but impact female-specific behaviours towards progeny care, female physiology, and gene expression. These changes in mutant dams contribute to a disruption in early stages of progeny development. More generally, our results highlight the need to better understand GxE interactions in the context of ASDs, when female behaviour may present a contributing factor in postnatal neurodevelopmental trajectory.


Assuntos
Comportamento Materno , Camundongos Knockout , Comportamento Social , Animais , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Masculino , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal , Receptores de Ocitocina/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Deleção de Genes
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