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1.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 245-252, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729563

RESUMO

Establishing trust in national systems for assurance of animal health and food safety is a key step in any importing country's consideration of whether a potential trading partner can meet its appropriate level of protection. Private veterinarians, veterinary para-professionals (VPPs) and aquatic animal health professionals (AAHPs) play a crucial role in national Veterinary Services, formally or informally, and across the whole spectrum of national animal and public health activities. Private veterinarians, AAHPs or VPPs are engaged as part of the national Veterinary Services and in various forms of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in many countries worldwide. In many cases, authorised private veterinarians, AAHPs and VPPs enable the national Veterinary or Aquatic Animal Health Services as a whole to do more work over a wider geographical area and thus have a greater impact than publicly employed professionals working alone. The deployment of private veterinarians, AAHPs and VPPs directly or in PPP arrangements strengthens national services and enhances their ability to deliver reliable animal health and food safety assurance. To ensure that private veterinarians, AAHPs and VPPs deliver to their full potential, effective and efficient systems for training, accreditation, monitoring and audit are essential. This article draws on data from published OIE Performance of Veterinary Services evaluations (from 2007 to the present) and unpublished responses to the OIE 2017 questionnaire on PPPs, to draw insights into the use and accreditation of private veterinarians, AAHPs and VPPs globally.

2.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 235-244, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729564

RESUMO

Sound animal traceability systems and supply chain management rely on data and information to respond to outcomes that will both protect animal and human health and facilitate trade. Digital technologies present opportunities and new methods for identifying and tracking animals, collecting more data, integrating communication flows, sharing data securely in supply chains, and analysing data to inform decisions and predict outcomes. Together, these technologies drive more efficient, productive and traceable supply chains, which can help to build more effective animal traceability systems. In addition, they can improve monitoring of, and response to, animal disease, food safety risks and food fraud risks; ensure compliance with animal health and food safety standards; simplify border procedures; facilitate trade with less friction; and raise consumer awareness. As the cost of these technologies decline and they become more accessible, the implementation of a digitally enabled animal traceability system will require an increase in supply chain capacity, improvements in digital infrastructure, and the development of a regulatory framework of standards and policies. Ensuring that these requirements are met will require strong commitment from governments, intergovernmental organisations and the wider animal health community.

3.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 223-233, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729565

RESUMO

In recent decades, animal welfare in livestock production has been elevated to a topic of global interest. To meet growing requirements from consumers and society, governments have emphasised animal welfare in legislation. Retailers have integrated this topic into their quality assurance systems for the management of their supply chains. The challenge is to avoid conflicts between applicable national legislation and industry standards for quality assurance of livestock production with regard to animal welfare requirements. Where possible and applicable, private schemes refer to local animal welfare legislation, and offer the possibility to integrate animal welfare criteria that go beyond the legislation. Where animal welfare legislation is not in place, the private schemes set the rules. One of the main purposes of private schemes is to grant international market access to certified livestock producers. This paper presents the GLOBALG.A.P. integrated farm assurance (IFA) standard for livestock production and the GLOBALG.A.P. livestock transport standard as examples of private and globally acting quality assurance systems. Both standards integrate food safety, traceability, sustainability and animal welfare criteria. Animal welfare criteria are a fundamental part of IFA and, on average, account for 35% of the control points applicable to livestock. In the livestock transport standard, this accounts for 61% of the control points. Defined processes for accreditation and standard setting safeguard the reliability, feasibility and integrity of accredited third-party certification schemes. The GLOBALG.A.P. system also includes voluntary animal welfare add-on standards to demonstrate compliance with higher animal welfare requirements than those contained in the basic IFA standard. The possibility to customise products to the demands and requirements from specific markets and supply chains increases market access. Market access for producers irrespective of size is possible via single producer or group certification. Group certification offers the best opportunities for smallholders. For local supply chains the Primary Farm Assurance standard, based on parts of the GLOBALG.A.P. IFA standard, is a capacity-building tool. It is preferred by customers who do not require the full IFA standard because of local conditions, or because they source from producers who cannot immediately achieve full GLOBALG.A.P. certification.

4.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 201-211, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729567

RESUMO

In the context of trade, national official assurance systems are the mechanism through which countries provide official assurance to other countries that their products are safe to trade. Regardless of the form in which it is conveyed, an official assurance, for the most part, is a statement from one competent authority to another about the conformity of a consignment with agreed requirements. Effectively, one government is providing a level of guarantee to the other government about matters such as the disease or pest status that exists nationally or regionally and/ or about the risk management activities that have been undertaken as relevant to the traded consignment. Accordingly, the degree of confidence that the importing competent authority has in the ethics, competence and capability of the exporting country's competent authority is central to how much trust the importing country places in the official assurances from the exporting country. The World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code and Aquatic Animal Health Code (Section 5 of both) set out veterinary certificate requirements relating to animal health and zoonoses for both importing and exporting countries engaging in the trade of animals and animal products. These requirements are supplemented by the guidance developed by the Codex Committee on Food Inspection and Certification Systems, which covers the inspection and certification system requirements related to food safety and other non-health-related technical matters (e.g. composition, grade or organic status), as relevant to the international trade in food. This review discusses the need for countries to further align the form and content of their official assurance requirements with the relevant international standards and recommendations. It also notes, however, that there is currently a paucity of recommended standardised attestations. It highlights the increasing movement towards electronic certification and the potential this brings for further amalgamation of different certificate types and the coordination of border clearance processes. The basic components and principles that apply to national official assurance systems are identified and explained. Lastly, future trends and challenges for national official assurance systems, such as the impact of electronic commerce and regional distribution hubs, and the increasing recognition of containment zones and/or risk mitigations, such as treatments, are discussed.

5.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 69-79, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729577

RESUMO

This paper was written to give veterinarians and decision-makers an overview of World Trade Organization (WTO) findings relevant to animal welfare. The article has a practical focus and does not attempt to provide a legal analysis of WTO dispute settlement. The author has simplified very technical legal language so that the paper will be useful to a broader audience. The global trade rules comprise a series of legal agreements that came into effect in 1995, when the WTO was established. The overarching objective of the WTO is to promote international trade by avoiding unjustified discrimination between trading partners. The harmonisation of national measures with relevant international standards is encouraged by the WTO to facilitate safe trade. The broad objective of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is to promote global improvements in animal health and welfare, and veterinary public health. To this end, the OIE sets intergovernmental standards and works to strengthen the capacities of Members to implement them. The OIE standards are recognised as WTO references with respect to animal health and zoonotic diseases and a significant number of WTO disputes have addressed the relevance of these OIE standards to international trade measures. In addition to animal health standards, the OIE also sets standards for animal welfare, and has implemented regional and global strategies to encourage their adoption by Members. In comparison with measures to protect animal health or food safety, few WTO disputes have considered animal welfare related measures. A lack of WTO case law has contributed to uncertainty about the consistency of WTO animal welfare measures. This paper considers some WTO disputes and findings relevant to animal welfare. The outcomes of these disputes suggest that WTO Panels and the Appellate Body are prepared to accept the right of Members to regulate for animal welfare purposes, providing that they respect the established WTO disciplines. This article draws two main conclusions. Firstly, regardless of whether measures are adopted to protect animal welfare or animal health, for WTO consistency, they must not result in unjustifiable, arbitrary or unnecessary discrimination. Secondly, regardless of how the WTO deals with animal welfare, governments must respond to the growing interest of consumers in farm animal welfare. The OIE standards, as recognised references for trading countries and the WTO, will continue to be influential in relation to global trade in animal products. It is important that the OIE update its animal welfare standards regularly, to ensure that they are consistent with latest scientific understanding and appropriate to consumer expectations for ethical food production.

6.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-05-11. (OPS/CDE/CE/COVID-19/20-0021).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52107

RESUMO

RECOMENDACIONES GENERALES: • Proveer estaciones de lavado de manos a los privados de libertad y al personal de los centros penitenciarios para su uso constante. • Realizar lavado de las manos con agua y jabón durante 40-60 segundos frecuentemente y por lo menos en los momentos críticos (antes y después de comer; antes y después de preparar comida; después de ir al baño; antes y después de realizar una tarea de limpieza; antes y después de tocar dinero), secarse las manos con una toalla de papel y usar toalla de papel para cerrar el grifo. En caso de que no se encuentre disponible ni agua ni jabón, usar solución de gel de alcohol al 70%. • Asegurar la dotación permanentemente de agua segura, jabón, papel higiénico y papel toalla, para la higiene de manos, y pañuelos de papel para higiene respiratoria. • Evitar la sobrepoblación/hacinamiento en las celdas de la instalación penitenciaria correspondiente. • Asegurar la buena ventilación y luz natural de los espacios además de evitar condiciones de confinamiento. Esto puede incluir la apertura de ventanas al exterior cuando hay poca contaminación al aire libre. • Ofrecer dieta balanceada y asegurar la inocuidad de alimentos a los privados de libertad. • El personal de los centros penitenciarios con síntomas respiratorios no debe acudir a trabajar.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Prisioneiros , Prisões , Prisões , Migrantes , Higiene
7.
Toxicon ; 182: 66-71, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439496

RESUMO

The contamination of food with mycotoxins could be a major health risk. Identification and quantification of mycotoxins in maize are essentially required to guarantee food safety. Seven commonly grown maize cultivars were sown at semi-arid conditions in Pakistan. After harvesting plants, total aflatoxin (AFs), aflatoxins B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1), G2 (AFG2), and ochratoxin-A (OTA) contents were determined in maize flour using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed an unusual pattern of AFs in maize with a higher concentration of AFG1 in all maize varieties. The AFB1 was not found in most of the samples, however, all maize grains contained AFs above the maximum tolerable limit (20 µg/kg). The highest concentration of AFs was recorded in Ayub-1/26 maize (362.8 µg/kg). Ochratoxin-A (OTA) was detected in 71% maize samples ranged from 2.14 to 214 µg/kg. The highest OTA and microbial load were recorded in Ayub-2/27 grains that exceeded the FDA limit (50 µg/kg). These results indicated the higher prevalence of total AFs, AFG1, and OTA at the harvest stage of maize that could pose significant health hazards to humans and livestock.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/toxicidade , Contaminação de Alimentos , Ocratoxinas/toxicidade , Zea mays , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Limite de Detecção , Paquistão
8.
Environ Res ; 186: 109605, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361082

RESUMO

17 years after the outbreak of SARS, the 2019-nCoV broke out in December 2019. It's an unprecedented huge challenge and disaster for people all over the world. According to Web of Science database, The author found that 95,724 virology papers have been published in the past 17 years, 68,632 of which are supported by fund (71.7%). Meanwhile, 50,567 papers related to food safety have been published in the past 17 years, 28,165 of which are supported by fund (55.7%%). It seems that people's safety and global stability are greatly guaranteed. However, whether SARS or 2019-nCoV, scientists were targeting wildlife, the author found that only 515 studies on food safety related to wildlife have been published worldwide in the past 17 years. After SARS, the whole world did not pay enough attention to food safety related to wildlife.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Animais , Humanos
9.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; mayo 20, 2020. 3 p.
Não convencional em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096941

RESUMO

Proveer estaciones de lavado de manos a los privados de libertad y al personal de los centros penitenciarios para su uso constante. • Realizar lavado de las manos con agua y jabón durante 40-60 segundos frecuentemente y por lo menos en los momentos críticos (antes y después de comer; antes y después de preparar comida; después de ir al baño; antes y después de realizar una tarea de limpieza; antes y después de tocar dinero), secarse las manos con una toalla de papel y usar toalla de papel para cerrar el grifo. En caso de que no se encuentre disponible ni agua ni jabón, usar solución de gel de alcohol al 70%. • Asegurar la dotación permanentemente de agua segura, jabón, papel higiénico y papel toalla, para la higiene de manos, y pañuelos de papel para higiene respiratoria. • Evitar la sobrepoblación/hacinamiento en las celdas de la instalación penitenciaria correspondiente. • Asegurar la buena ventilación y luz natural de los espacios además de evitar condiciones de confinamiento. Esto puede incluir la apertura de ventanas al exterior cuando hay poca contaminación al aire libre. • Ofrecer dieta balanceada y asegurar la inocuidad de alimentos a los privados de libertad. • El personal de los centros penitenciarios con síntomas respiratorios no debe acudir a trabajar.


This technical note presents main considerations and recommendations regarding individual hygiene, self-care, and hand washing, and suggestions for cleaning and disinfecting places where people are confined and deprived of their liberty. Additionally, it contains recommendations for preparing 0.05% and 0.1% sodium hypochlorite solutions, depending on the needs for cleaning and prevention against SARS-COV-2 and other infectious agents.


Recomendações gerais: • Disponibilizar estações de lavagem de mãos para uso constante das pessoas privadas de liberdade e dos funcionários dos centros penitenciários. • Lavar frequentemente as mãos com água e sabão por 40 a 60 segundos e pelo menos nos momentos críticos (antes e depois de comer, antes e depois de preparar alimentos, depois de usar o banheiro, antes e depois de realizar uma tarefa de limpeza, antes e depois de tocar em dinheiro), secar as mãos com toalha de papel e usar toalha de papel para fechar a torneira. Se não houver água e sabão, usar álcool gel 70%. • Garantir o fornecimento permanente de água potável, sabão, papel higiênico e toalhas de papel, para a higiene das mãos, e lenços de papel para a higiene respiratória. • Evitar a superlotação nas celas da instalação prisional. • Garantir uma boa ventilação e iluminação natural dos espaços e evitar condições de confinamento. Isso pode incluir a abertura de janelas para ventilação, quando houver pouca poluição atmosférica externa. • Oferecer uma dieta balanceada e garantir a inocuidade dos alimentos servidos às pessoas privadas de liberdade. • Os funcionários dos centros penitenciários com sintomas respiratórios não devem ir ao trabalho.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prisões/organização & administração , Desinfecção das Mãos/instrumentação , Saúde Ambiental/instrumentação , Higiene/educação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366016

RESUMO

In December 2019, a novel laboratory-confirmed coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection, which has caused clusters of severe illnesses, was first reported in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei province, China. This foodborne illness, which reportedly most likely originated in a seafood market where wild animals are sold illegally, has transmitted among humans through close contact, across the world. The aim of this study is to explore health/risk perceptions of and attitudes toward healthy/risky food in the immediate context of food crisis. More specifically, by using the data collected from 1008 respondents in January 2020, the time when China was hit hard by the "Corona Virus Disease 2019" (COVID-19), this study investigates the overall and different generational respondents' health/risk perceptions of and attitudes toward organic food and game meat. The results reveal that, firstly, based on their food health and risk perceptions of healthy and risky food, the respondents' general attitudes are positive toward organic food but relatively negative toward game meat. Secondly, older generations have a more positive attitude and are more committed to organic food. Younger generations' attitude toward game meat is more negative whereas older generations attach more importance to it because of its nutritional and medicinal values. In addition, this research also indicates that the COVID-19 crisis influences the respondents' perceptions of and attitudes toward organic food and game meat consumption. However, the likelihood of its impact on older generations' future change in diets is smaller, which implies that older generations' food beliefs are more stable.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos Orgânicos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Carne , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Alimentos Orgânicos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Carne/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Food Chem ; 322: 126771, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305875

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the levels of acrylamide in different types of bread and bakery products using a LC-MS/MS method, before and after the new European regulation on acrylamide reduction (Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/2158) became valid. Also, one of the aim was to estimate the average exposure to acrylamide through this food category. Of the total of 100 analysed samples, acrylamide content ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 237 µg/kg in the period before the application of a new European Regulation, and from

Assuntos
Acrilamida/análise , Pão/análise , Exposição Dietética/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Acrilamida/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Cromatografia Líquida , Croácia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 197: 110627, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302856

RESUMO

Pesticides are part of a large group of organic compounds with different physicochemical characteristics, designed to control and prevent pests in various crops and plantations, improving productivity. This works provides a perspective on pesticide use in current agriculture with the aim of identifying the influence of pesticides on food production and their impact on the environment. Therefore, it is necessary to highlight the importance of determining pesticide residues in food, aiming to ensure food safety, since these compounds can represent risks to human health and the environment. The effects of pesticides on humans range from headaches, nausea and skin and eye irritation to chronic problems such as cancer and neurological disorders, and extend to other non-target organisms such as birds, fish and bees, contaminating water, soil, and plants, as opposed to the benefits of increased production, consequently other measures for pesticide consumption need to be evaluate to ensure human health, food safety and environmental protection. It is important to note that chromatographic techniques and mass spectrometry assist in the determination of pesticide residues and evaluate the quality of the food that reaches the consumer, and together with the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs), established by the legislation of each country, these instrumentation act to control the exposure of population to pesticides. Although the MRL is used as a parameter for food quality, the global differences in pesticide legislation do not guarantee the consumer safety. In this sense, a brief analysis of MRL inefficiency is also present in this paper.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/normas , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251992

RESUMO

In this paper, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF HRMS) method was developed and validated for screening, confirmation and quantitation of 31 anti-impotence compounds potentially illegally added to herbal-based dietary supplements. The analytes were well separated by the mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid solution and acetonitrile with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The MS analysis was operated in positive mode and the mass error of the 31 compounds were below 2.9 ppm. The method validation showed good linearity with coefficients of determination (r2) higher than 0.9973 for all analytes. LODs and LLOQs ranged from 0.005 to 0.50 µg/g or µg /mL and from 0.02 to 1.24 µg /g or µg/mL, respectively. The accuracy was in the range of 86.6% to 113.7%, while the intra-and inter-day precision were in the ranges of 0.9-7.6% and 0.9-11.4%, respectively. The absolute and relative matrix effect were in the range of 65.8-115.6% and 0.6-13.3%. The mean recoveries were in the range of 80.5-116.9%. The stability ranged from 0.4% to 8.5%. Among 200 batches of herbal-based dietary supplements, sildenafil and/or tadalafil were found to be added illegally in two samples, while not very high concentration of icariin was detected in one sample. The Q-TOF mass spectrometry has been proved to be a very powerful and efficient tool for rapid screening of 31 anti-impotence compounds potentially illegally added to herbal-based dietary supplements, ensuring food safety and public health.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Disfunção Erétil/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Citrato de Sildenafila/química , Tadalafila/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 196: 110549, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251953

RESUMO

Chemicals used to assure agricultural production and the feasibility of planting sites often end up in bodies of water used for crop irrigation. In a pot study, we investigated the consequences associated with the irrigation of maize with water contaminated by ciprofloxacin (Cipro; 0, 0.2, 0.8, 1.4 and 2.0 µg l-1) and/or glyphosate (0, 5, 25 and 50 mg l-1) on yields and food safety. Glyphosate in concentrations ≥25 mg l-1 prevented plant establishment, regardless of Cipro presence. Evaluations made at the V5 stage of plants reveal that Cipro concentrations ≥0.8 µg l-1 and glyphosate decreased photosynthesis and induced changes in leaf anatomy and stem biophysical properties that may contribute to decreased kernel yields. When those chemicals were applied together, kernel yield reductions were accentuated, evidencing their interactive effects. Irrigation with contaminated water resulted in accumulations of Cipro and glyphosate (as well as its metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid) in plant tissues. Accumulation of these chemicals in plant tissues such as leaves and kernels is a problem, since they are used to feed animals and humans. Moreover, these chemicals are of potential toxicological concern, principally due to residue accumulations in the food chain. Specially, the antibiotic residue accumulations in maize tissues can assist the induction of antibiotic resistance in dangerous bacteria. Therefore, we point out the urgency of monitoring the quality of water used for crop irrigation to avoid economic and food-quality losses.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Ciprofloxacino/toxicidade , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Irrigação Agrícola , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Ciprofloxacino/farmacocinética , Produtos Agrícolas/anatomia & histologia , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Glicina/farmacocinética , Glicina/toxicidade , Humanos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Zea mays/anatomia & histologia , Zea mays/metabolismo
15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230928, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348316

RESUMO

About one third of foodborne illness outbreaks in Europe are acquired in the home and eating undercooked poultry is among consumption practices associated with illness. The aim of this study was to investigate whether actual and recommended practices for monitoring chicken doneness are safe. Seventy-five European households from five European countries were interviewed and videoed while cooking chicken in their private kitchens, including young single men, families with infants/in pregnancy and elderly over seventy years. A cross-national web-survey collected cooking practices for chicken from 3969 households. In a laboratory kitchen, chicken breast fillets were injected with cocktails of Salmonella and Campylobacter and cooked to core temperatures between 55 and 70°C. Microbial survival in the core and surface of the meat were determined. In a parallel experiment, core colour, colour of juice and texture were recorded. Finally, a range of cooking thermometers from the consumer market were evaluated. The field study identified nine practical approaches for deciding if the chicken was properly cooked. Among these, checking the colour of the meat was commonly used and perceived as a way of mitigating risks among the consumers. Meanwhile, chicken was perceived as hedonically vulnerable to long cooking time. The quantitative survey revealed that households prevalently check cooking status from the inside colour (49.6%) and/or inside texture (39.2%) of the meat. Young men rely more often on the outside colour of the meat (34.7%) and less often on the juices (16.5%) than the elderly (>65 years old; 25.8% and 24.6%, respectively). The lab study showed that colour change of chicken meat happened below 60°C, corresponding to less than 3 log reduction of Salmonella and Campylobacter. At a core temperature of 70°C, pathogens survived on the fillet surface not in contact with the frying pan. No correlation between meat texture and microbial inactivation was found. A minority of respondents used a food thermometer, and a challenge with cooking thermometers for home use was long response time. In conclusion, the recommendations from the authorities on monitoring doneness of chicken and current consumer practices do not ensure reduction of pathogens to safe levels. For the domestic cook, determining doneness is both a question of avoiding potential harm and achieving a pleasurable meal. It is discussed how lack of an easy "rule-of-thumb" or tools to check safe cooking at consumer level, as well as national differences in contamination levels, food culture and economy make it difficult to develop international recommendations that are both safe and easily implemented.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Culinária , Viabilidade Microbiana , Animais , Campylobacter/fisiologia , Cor , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Salmonella/fisiologia , Temperatura , Água/análise
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 474, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276622

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A leading cause of acute gastroenteritis, norovirus can be transmitted by infected food handlers but norovirus outbreaks are not routinely investigated in Kenya. We estimated norovirus prevalence and associated factors among food handlers in an informal urban settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among food handlers using pretested questionnaires and collected stool specimens from food handlers which were analyzed for norovirus by conventional PCR. We observed practices that allow norovirus transmission and surveyed respondents on knowledge, attitudes, and practices in food safety. We calculated odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to identify factors associated with norovirus infection. Variables with p < 0.05 were included in multivariate logistic regression analysis to calculate adjusted OR and 95% CI. RESULTS: Of samples from 283 respondents, 43 (15.2%) tested positive for norovirus. Factors associated with norovirus detection were: reporting diarrhea and vomiting within the previous month (AOR = 5.7, 95% CI = 1.2-27.4), not knowing aerosols from infected persons can contaminate food (AOR = 6.5, 95% CI = 1.1-37.5), not knowing that a dirty chopping board can contaminate food (AOR = 26.1, 95% CI = 1.6-416.7), observing respondents touching food bare-handed (AOR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.5-11.1), and working in premises without hand washing services (AOR = 20, 95% CI = 3.4-100.0). CONCLUSION: The norovirus infection was prevalent amongst food handlers and factors associated with infection were based on knowledge and practices of food hygiene. We recommend increased hygiene training and introduce more routine inclusion of norovirus testing in outbreaks in Kenya.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Manipulação de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Toxicon ; 180: 1-10, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246951

RESUMO

Pinnatoxins (PnTXs) are a group of emerging marine biotoxins produced by the benthic dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum, currently not regulated in Europe or in any other country in the world. In France, PnTXs were detected for the first time in 2011, in mussels from the Ingril lagoon (South of France, Mediterranean coast). Since then, analyses carried out in mussels from this lagoon have shown high concentrations of PnTXs for several months each year. PnTXs have also been detected, to a lesser extent, in mussels from other Mediterranean lagoons and on the Atlantic and Corsican coasts. In the French data, the main analog is PnTX G (low levels of PnTX A are also present in some samples). No cases of PnTXs poisoning in humans have been reported so far in France or anywhere else in the world. In mice, PnTXs induce acute neurotoxic effects, within a few minutes after oral administration. Clinical signs of toxicity include decreased mobility, paralysis of the hind legs, tremors, jumps and breathing difficulties leading to death by respiratory arrest at high doses. The French agency for food safety (ANSES) recently conducted a review of the state of knowledge related to PnTXs and V. rugosum. Based on (i) the clinical signs of toxicity in mice, (ii) the mode of action of PnTXs as nicotinic acetylcholine receptor competitive antagonists and (iii) knowledge on drugs and natural toxins with PnTX-related pharmacology, potential human symptoms have been extrapolated and proposed. In this work, a provisional acute benchmark value for PnTX G of 0.13 µg/kg bw per day has been derived from an oral acute toxicity study in mice. Based on this value and a large shellfish meat portion size of 400g, a concentration lower than 23 µg PnTX G/kg shellfish meat is not expected to result in adverse effects in humans. ANSES recommends taking into account PnTXs in the French official monitoring program for shellfish production and identified data gaps to refine health risk assessment.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Frutos do Mar/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Bivalves , Dinoflagelados , França , Humanos , Toxinas Marinhas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/estatística & dados numéricos , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar
18.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 1186-1192, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175602

RESUMO

The understanding of the migration of mercury from packaging materials to food stuffs is the prerequisite for the development of food safety regulations. In this article, the migration of mercury from food paper-plastic packaging containers to four food stimulants under different migrated temperatures is studied. The results show that the mobility and the maximum migration volume of mercury increase at certain temperatures when the migration time is extended. It is also noted that the time to reach equilibrium is reduced as the temperature increases. Meanwhile, different solvents appear various different while the rates of migration are 3% acetic acid >10% ethanol >20% ethanol >50% ethanol. But they show the same trend at the different temperatures. Our data suggest that different solvents, temperatures, and food stimulants affect the migration rates, and ameliorate those conditions will reduce migration and promote food quality.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Mercúrio/análise , Plásticos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Temperatura
19.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 32(2-3): 126-132, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174126

RESUMO

Antibiotic residues in chicken meat samples is a serious public health concern due to their harmful effects on consumers' health. We conducted this research in 2017 to determine antibiotic residues in chicken meat samples and to describe the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of farmers on the antibiotic uses in poultry farms at Tay Ninh province. Farmers who raised chickens at their farmhouses were surveyed using a KAP survey questionnaire, and 106 chicken meat samples were analyzed for 29 kinds of antibiotic residues. The results showed that 27.4% samples were positive with 11 kinds of 4 antibiotic groups: fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, tetracycline, and macrolides. A total of 50.9% farmers needed to improve their knowledge on the appropriate use of antibiotics. Although 54.7% famers had positive attitude, just 17% had good practices. It was recommended that the levels of antibiotic residues in chickens should be communicated to food safety and veterinary authorities, chicken farmers, and the general public. Enhancing the training and coaching for each group of farmers to improve their knowledge and practices on the appropriate use of antibiotics in raising chickens is needed. Local government should enhance the level of control and punishment for drug sellers and end users regarding the use of banned antibiotics in chickens.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Carne/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Estudos Transversais , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã
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