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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237900, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817693

RESUMO

Drawing on a recent online survey combined with city-level data, this paper examines the impact of the COVID-19 on consumers' online food purchase behavior in the short term. To address the potential endogeneity issues, we adopt an instrumental variable (IV) strategy, using the distance from the surveyed city to Wuhan as the instrumental variable. We show that our IV method is effective in minimizing potential bias. It is found that the share of confirmed COVID-19 cases increases the possibility of consumers purchasing food online. This is more likely to be the case for young people having a lower perceived risk of online purchases and living in large cities. Despite some limitations, this paper has policy implications for China and other countries that have been influenced by the COVID-19 epidemic. Specifically, government support and regulation should focus on (i) ensuring the safety of food sold on the internet, (ii) protecting the carrier from becoming infected, and (iii) providing financial support to the poor since they may have difficulties in obtaining access to food living in small cities. Moreover, how to help those who are unable to purchase food online because of their technical skills (e.g., the elderly who are not familiar with smart phones or the internet) also deserves more attention for the government and the public.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Comércio/métodos , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Alimentos/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Apoio Financeiro , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Governo , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Smartphone , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
Food Res Int ; 136: 109472, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846557

RESUMO

In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, the commercial restaurant sector is struggling to organize itself. Resilience is crucial for a system to be able to respond adequately to events of this magnitude, and is aimed at the recovery and adaptation of the concerned sector in view of the adversities. In the commercial restaurant sector, resilience efforts are primarily intended to protect the health of both those who consume food and those who produce it. Amid the creative initiatives of individuals within their workplaces, restaurants, even unconsciously, seek to build resilience in the pandemic by applying the food safety practices recommended by the sanitary legislation and remaining economically active. Targeting public health preparedness, in this letter, we present an overview of the stages of resilience and their interaction with the COVID-19 pandemic in the context of commercial restaurants.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Manipulação de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública , Restaurantes , Betacoronavirus , Comércio , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Planejamento em Saúde , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235507, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614870

RESUMO

Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) training programs were developed to provide guidance to fruit and vegetable growers on how to reduce food safety risks on the farm. These programs have been enhanced over the years due, in part, to increasing buyer and regulatory requirements. However, the costs of implementing additional food safety practices has been identified as a primary barrier to long-term farm financial feasibility, particularly for smaller scale producers. A survey of past participants in New York State revealed that increasing food safety improvements facilitated by GAPs have not significantly impacted the size of farm operations or the types of crops grown. In terms of farm size, we show that both the financial costs and financial benefits of food safety improvements increase with farm size, but at decreasing rates. In so doing, relatively higher market sales gains per acre by smaller farms from additional food safety investments offset the relatively higher costs to them of their implementation. We also demonstrate that benefits of food safety improvements were significantly higher for farms that had third-party food safety audits and for those that market primarily through wholesale channels. The results should prove welcome by educators as they encourage participation by all scales of producers in GAPs trainings and for growers in understanding that food safety investments can support both reduced microbial risks and sales growth.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Agricultura/educação , Análise Custo-Benefício , Produção Agrícola/economia , Humanos , New York , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235870, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639978

RESUMO

Factors contributing to foodborne illnesses in Malaysia were identified as insanitary food handling procedures and lack of hygiene in food preparation area. Food safety at home is a critical point as consumers represent the final step in food preparation and prevention of foodborne diseases. This study aims to investigate the food safety knowledge, attitude and self-reported practices among consumers in Malaysia. An online survey was conducted, and data were analysed using descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis. A model linking food safety knowledge and attitude and their direct effects on practices were confirmed using structural equation modelling (SEM). The proposed model fulfilled the goodness of fit indices and is deemed acceptable. Respondents demonstrate good level of food safety knowledge and positive attitudes and self-reported practices. Food safety knowledge has a negative and insignificant relationship with food safety practices (ß1 = -0.284, p>0.05) while attitude significantly affects food safety practices (ß1 = 0.534, p<0.05). The findings clearly indicate that food safety knowledge does not directly affect food safety practices This is also the first study to provide new empirical findings on thermometer usage among consumers in Malaysia. This study establishes an important point of reference where consumers use visual appearances to determine if food is thoroughly cooked and practice washing raw chicken prior to cooking. Food safety practices at home play a critical role in protecting consumers in reducing risks of foodborne illnesses.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235950, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716964

RESUMO

Study on fresh food safety reliability and temperature control has being a research focus in the fresh food cold distribution optimization study field. On this basis, optimization of transportation routing problem with time windows for fresh food in time-varying road network is studied by considering both economic cost and fresh food safety loss. A calculation method for path division strategy is designed. A food safety value loss measurement function, a metric function of energy and heat conversion a measure function of carbon emission rate are employed by considering time-varying vehicle speeds, fuel consumptions, cost of temperature control, the loss of food safety reliability and carbon emissions from transportation and temperature control. The fresh food cold chain distribution vehicle routing problem model with time windows in time-varying road network is formulated based on the objective of the distribution cost and food safety value loss minimization. According to the characteristics of the model, an adaptive improved ant colony algorithm is designed. Finally, the experimental data show that the model can effectively avoid the congestion period, reasonably control the refrigeration temperature, reduce the distribution cost, and improve food safety.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Carbono/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Temperatura , Transportes/normas , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 245-252, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729563

RESUMO

Establishing trust in national systems for assurance of animal health and food safety is a key step in any importing country's consideration of whether a potential trading partner can meet its appropriate level of protection. Private veterinarians, veterinary para-professionals (VPPs) and aquatic animal health professionals (AAHPs) play a crucial role in national Veterinary Services, formally or informally, and across the whole spectrum of national animal and public health activities. Private veterinarians, AAHPs or VPPs are engaged as part of the national Veterinary Services and in various forms of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in many countries worldwide. In many cases, authorised private veterinarians, AAHPs and VPPs enable the national Veterinary or Aquatic Animal Health Services as a whole to do more work over a wider geographical area and thus have a greater impact than publicly employed professionals working alone. The deployment of private veterinarians, AAHPs and VPPs directly or in PPP arrangements strengthens national services and enhances their ability to deliver reliable animal health and food safety assurance. To ensure that private veterinarians, AAHPs and VPPs deliver to their full potential, effective and efficient systems for training, accreditation, monitoring and audit are essential. This article draws on data from published OIE Performance of Veterinary Services evaluations (from 2007 to the present) and unpublished responses to the OIE 2017 questionnaire on PPPs, to draw insights into the use and accreditation of private veterinarians, AAHPs and VPPs globally.

7.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 235-244, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729564

RESUMO

Sound animal traceability systems and supply chain management rely on data and information to respond to outcomes that will both protect animal and human health and facilitate trade. Digital technologies present opportunities and new methods for identifying and tracking animals, collecting more data, integrating communication flows, sharing data securely in supply chains, and analysing data to inform decisions and predict outcomes. Together, these technologies drive more efficient, productive and traceable supply chains, which can help to build more effective animal traceability systems. In addition, they can improve monitoring of, and response to, animal disease, food safety risks and food fraud risks; ensure compliance with animal health and food safety standards; simplify border procedures; facilitate trade with less friction; and raise consumer awareness. As the cost of these technologies decline and they become more accessible, the implementation of a digitally enabled animal traceability system will require an increase in supply chain capacity, improvements in digital infrastructure, and the development of a regulatory framework of standards and policies. Ensuring that these requirements are met will require strong commitment from governments, intergovernmental organisations and the wider animal health community.

8.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 223-233, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729565

RESUMO

In recent decades, animal welfare in livestock production has been elevated to a topic of global interest. To meet growing requirements from consumers and society, governments have emphasised animal welfare in legislation. Retailers have integrated this topic into their quality assurance systems for the management of their supply chains. The challenge is to avoid conflicts between applicable national legislation and industry standards for quality assurance of livestock production with regard to animal welfare requirements. Where possible and applicable, private schemes refer to local animal welfare legislation, and offer the possibility to integrate animal welfare criteria that go beyond the legislation. Where animal welfare legislation is not in place, the private schemes set the rules. One of the main purposes of private schemes is to grant international market access to certified livestock producers. This paper presents the GLOBALG.A.P. integrated farm assurance (IFA) standard for livestock production and the GLOBALG.A.P. livestock transport standard as examples of private and globally acting quality assurance systems. Both standards integrate food safety, traceability, sustainability and animal welfare criteria. Animal welfare criteria are a fundamental part of IFA and, on average, account for 35% of the control points applicable to livestock. In the livestock transport standard, this accounts for 61% of the control points. Defined processes for accreditation and standard setting safeguard the reliability, feasibility and integrity of accredited third-party certification schemes. The GLOBALG.A.P. system also includes voluntary animal welfare add-on standards to demonstrate compliance with higher animal welfare requirements than those contained in the basic IFA standard. The possibility to customise products to the demands and requirements from specific markets and supply chains increases market access. Market access for producers irrespective of size is possible via single producer or group certification. Group certification offers the best opportunities for smallholders. For local supply chains the Primary Farm Assurance standard, based on parts of the GLOBALG.A.P. IFA standard, is a capacity-building tool. It is preferred by customers who do not require the full IFA standard because of local conditions, or because they source from producers who cannot immediately achieve full GLOBALG.A.P. certification.

9.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 201-211, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729567

RESUMO

In the context of trade, national official assurance systems are the mechanism through which countries provide official assurance to other countries that their products are safe to trade. Regardless of the form in which it is conveyed, an official assurance, for the most part, is a statement from one competent authority to another about the conformity of a consignment with agreed requirements. Effectively, one government is providing a level of guarantee to the other government about matters such as the disease or pest status that exists nationally or regionally and/ or about the risk management activities that have been undertaken as relevant to the traded consignment. Accordingly, the degree of confidence that the importing competent authority has in the ethics, competence and capability of the exporting country's competent authority is central to how much trust the importing country places in the official assurances from the exporting country. The World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code and Aquatic Animal Health Code (Section 5 of both) set out veterinary certificate requirements relating to animal health and zoonoses for both importing and exporting countries engaging in the trade of animals and animal products. These requirements are supplemented by the guidance developed by the Codex Committee on Food Inspection and Certification Systems, which covers the inspection and certification system requirements related to food safety and other non-health-related technical matters (e.g. composition, grade or organic status), as relevant to the international trade in food. This review discusses the need for countries to further align the form and content of their official assurance requirements with the relevant international standards and recommendations. It also notes, however, that there is currently a paucity of recommended standardised attestations. It highlights the increasing movement towards electronic certification and the potential this brings for further amalgamation of different certificate types and the coordination of border clearance processes. The basic components and principles that apply to national official assurance systems are identified and explained. Lastly, future trends and challenges for national official assurance systems, such as the impact of electronic commerce and regional distribution hubs, and the increasing recognition of containment zones and/or risk mitigations, such as treatments, are discussed.

10.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 69-79, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729577

RESUMO

This paper was written to give veterinarians and decision-makers an overview of World Trade Organization (WTO) findings relevant to animal welfare. The article has a practical focus and does not attempt to provide a legal analysis of WTO dispute settlement. The author has simplified very technical legal language so that the paper will be useful to a broader audience. The global trade rules comprise a series of legal agreements that came into effect in 1995, when the WTO was established. The overarching objective of the WTO is to promote international trade by avoiding unjustified discrimination between trading partners. The harmonisation of national measures with relevant international standards is encouraged by the WTO to facilitate safe trade. The broad objective of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is to promote global improvements in animal health and welfare, and veterinary public health. To this end, the OIE sets intergovernmental standards and works to strengthen the capacities of Members to implement them. The OIE standards are recognised as WTO references with respect to animal health and zoonotic diseases and a significant number of WTO disputes have addressed the relevance of these OIE standards to international trade measures. In addition to animal health standards, the OIE also sets standards for animal welfare, and has implemented regional and global strategies to encourage their adoption by Members. In comparison with measures to protect animal health or food safety, few WTO disputes have considered animal welfare related measures. A lack of WTO case law has contributed to uncertainty about the consistency of WTO animal welfare measures. This paper considers some WTO disputes and findings relevant to animal welfare. The outcomes of these disputes suggest that WTO Panels and the Appellate Body are prepared to accept the right of Members to regulate for animal welfare purposes, providing that they respect the established WTO disciplines. This article draws two main conclusions. Firstly, regardless of whether measures are adopted to protect animal welfare or animal health, for WTO consistency, they must not result in unjustifiable, arbitrary or unnecessary discrimination. Secondly, regardless of how the WTO deals with animal welfare, governments must respond to the growing interest of consumers in farm animal welfare. The OIE standards, as recognised references for trading countries and the WTO, will continue to be influential in relation to global trade in animal products. It is important that the OIE update its animal welfare standards regularly, to ensure that they are consistent with latest scientific understanding and appropriate to consumer expectations for ethical food production.

11.
Food Chem ; 330: 127268, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540519

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) are natural, volatile and aromatic liquids extracted from special plants. EOs are complex mixture of secondary metabolites (terpenes, phenolic compounds, alcohol). EOs possess a wide range of biological activities including antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory ones. Particularly, EOs exhibit pronounced antibacterial and food preservative properties that represent a real potential for the food industry. Numerous EOs have the potential to be used as a food preservative for meat and meat products, vegetables and fruits as well as for dairy products. The main obstacles for using EOs as food preservatives are their safety limits, marked organoleptic effects and possible contamination by chemical products such as pesticides. This review aims to provide an overview of current knowledge about EOs food preservative properties with special emphasis on their antibacterial activities and to support their uses as natural, eco-friendly, safe and easily biodegradable agents for food preservation.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Carne , Produtos da Carne , Metabolismo Secundário , Terpenos/análise , Verduras
12.
Food Chem ; 330: 127044, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563930

RESUMO

A complex legal and institutional framework exists in the EU to ensure the safety of the feed-food chain, while such an integrated system for combating food fraud is under development. The European Commission (EC) Knowledge Centre for Food Fraud and Quality is charged with the provision of scientific insight for the policy making of EC services dealing with food fraud, and the creation of expert networks with the competent authorities of the EU Member States. To flag gaps in the existing infrastructure needed for effectively and efficiently fighting food fraud, the Centre together with the competent authorities and several EC services undertook a stocktaking exercise of what works well and which areas will need improvement. Out of several focus areas, (i) the development of early warning systems, (ii) the availability of compositional databases of vulnerable foods, and (iii) the creation of centres of competence were prioritised for further action.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Fraude , Bases de Dados Factuais , Alimentos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233853, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502212

RESUMO

Rapid detection of bacterial pathogens is a critical unmet need for both food and environmental samples such as irrigation water. As a part of the Food safety Modernization Act (FSMA), The Produce Safety rule has established several requirements for testing for the presence of generic Escherichia coli in water, but the current method available for testing (EPA M1603) demands specified multiple colony verification and highly trained personnel to perform these tests. The purpose of the study was to assess a phage induced bacterial lysis using quantitative image analysis to achieve rapid detection of E. coli at low concentrations within 8 hours. This study aimed to develop a simple yet highly sensitive and specific approach to detect target bacteria in complex matrices. In the study, E. coli cells were first enriched in tryptic soy broth (TSB), followed by T7 phage induced lysis, concentration, staining and fluorescent imaging. Image analysis was conducted including image pre-processing, image segmentation and quantitatively analysis of cellular morphological features (area, eccentricity and full width at half maximum). Challenge experiments using realistic matrices, including simulated fresh produce wash water, coconut water and spinach wash water, demonstrated the method can be applied for use in situations that occur in food processing facilities. The results indicated E. coli cells that are lysed by T7 phages demonstrated significantly (P < 0.05) higher extracellular DNA release, altered cellular shape (from rod to circular) and diffused fluorescent signal intensity. Using this biosensing strategy, a sensitivity to detect Escherichia coli at 10 CFU/ml within 8 hours was achieved, both in laboratory medium and in complex matrices. The proposed phage based biosensing strategy enables rapid detection of bacteria and is applicable to analysis of food systems. Furthermore, the steps involved in this assay can be automated to enable detection of target bacteria in food facilities without extensive resources.


Assuntos
Bacteriófago T7 , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , DNA Ambiental/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/virologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/normas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Microbiologia da Água/normas
14.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 24(3): 208-212, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global publications on Q fever have increased after the 2007 epidemic in the Netherlands. However, the epidemiology of Q fever/coxiellosis in Brazil is still poorly understood. Accordingly, there have been few studies investigating the presence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy products around the world, especially in Brazil, where consumption of fresh cheese made from raw-milk is very high. OBJECTIVE: This study was a random survey to assess the prevalence of C. burnetii by PCR in traditional Minas artisanal cheese from the Serro microregion, Brazil, which is manufactured from bovine raw-milk. METHODS: DNA extracted from 53 cheese samples were analyzed by nested PCR with C. burnetii-specific primers and the products confirmed by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Out of the 53 cheese samples five (9.43%) were C. burnetii DNA-positive, each coming from one of the respective randomly selected manufacturing agroindustries. Based on our results, it is estimated that 1.62 tons/day of ready-to-eat cheese made from raw-milk from a total of 16.2 tons produced daily in the study region are contaminated with C. burnetii. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first report of highly heat-resistant zoonotic pathogen in raw-milk Brazilian artisanal cheese. This food safety hazard has been completely neglected in ready-to-eat raw-milk Brazilian artisanal cheese and could imply potential threats to consumers, since C. burnetii survives in artisanal cheese submitted to long ripening periods. Thus, this work established random and representative baseline prevalence of C. burnetii in this food product in Brazil. Further epidemiological studies, monitoring trends and setting control targets are warranted. Finally, these results point out the importance of including C. burnetii in animal and public health surveillance programs.


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Febre Q , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Leite
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234781, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559209

RESUMO

In meat processing, antimicrobial treatment applied during slaughter and deboning may not control pathogens and spoilage organisms during subsequent transportation and storage. "Functional Ice" (FICE), an innovation over traditional ice, was investigated for its effects on food safety, shelf life, and quality of raw poultry thigh meat during refrigerated storage. FICE was prepared by freezing aqueous solutions of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) (2.5% and 5% w/v) and sodium lactate-sodium diacetate (SL-SD) (1% and 2.5% v/v). Potable water was used to prepare ice for the control treatment. Thigh meat inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium (108 CFU/sample) was placed in FICE treatments, stored at 4 °C and sampled at 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h (n = 375). Weight pick-up was recorded for the uninoculated thighs. Additionally, shelf life and quality were evaluated for 8 days on tray-packed thighs that were stored in FICE treatments for 48 h (STPP 5%, and SL-SD 2.5%). Differences among treatments were determined using ANOVA with LSMeans (p ≤ 0.05). Results indicated that inoculated thighs stored in individual STPP 5%, and SL-SD 2.5% treatments lead to a significant reduction in Salmonella Typhimurium compared to the control (p ≤ 0.05) after 48 h of storage. FICE treated thighs showed higher yields, lower cook loss, and an extended shelf life of 1-2 days, without any color changes. FICE has the potential to improve food safety and shelf life while improving the yields and quality during storage and transportation of raw poultry meat.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/microbiologia , Acetatos/química , Acetatos/farmacologia , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Polifosfatos/química , Polifosfatos/farmacologia , Aves Domésticas , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella typhimurium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactato de Sódio/química , Lactato de Sódio/farmacologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233745, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542029

RESUMO

The susceptibility of newly expressed proteins to digestion by gastrointestinal proteases (e.g., pepsin) has long been regarded as one of the important endpoints in the weight-of-evidence (WOE) approach to assess the allergenic risk of genetically modified (GM) crops. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has suggested that current digestion study protocols used for this assessment should be modified to more accurately reflect the diverse physiological conditions encountered in human populations and that the post-digestion analysis should include analytical methods to detect small peptide digestion products.The susceptibility of two allergens (beta-lactoglobin (ß-Lg) and alpha-lactalbumin (α-La)) and two non-allergens (hemoglobin (Hb) and phosphofructokinase (PFK)) to proteolytic degradation was investigated under two pepsin digestion conditions (optimal pepsin digestion condition: pH 1.2, 10 U pepsin/µg test protein; sub-optimal pepsin digestion condition: pH 5.0, 1 U pepsin/10 mg test protein), followed by 34.5 U trypsin/mg test protein and 0.4 U chymotrypsin/mg test protein digestion in the absence or presence of bile salts. All samples were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in conjunction with Coomassie Blue staining and, in parallel, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) detection. The results provide following insights: 1) LC-MS methodology does provide the detection of small peptides; 2) Peptides are detected in both allergens and non-allergens from all digestion conditions; 3) No clear differences among the peptides detected from allergen and non-allergens; 4) The differences observed in SDS-PAGE between the optimal and sub-optimal pepsin digestion conditions are expected and align with kinetics and properties of the specific enzymes; 5) The new methodology with new digestion conditions and LC-MS detection does not provide any differentiating information for prediction whether a protein is an allergen. The classic pepsin resistance assay remains the most useful assessment of the potential exposure of an intact newly expressed protein as part of product safety assessment within a WOE approach.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Peptídeos/química , Proteólise , Alérgenos/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Hemoglobinas/química , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Lactalbumina/química , Lactalbumina/metabolismo , Lactoglobulinas/química , Lactoglobulinas/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fosfofrutoquinases/química , Fosfofrutoquinases/metabolismo , Suínos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tripsina/metabolismo
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110866, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554205

RESUMO

The phytoavailability of heavy metals in soils is important for both food safety and environmental management. Hence soil metal phytoavailability threshold values need to be established based on a firm scientific basis. In this study, optimal Cd phytoavailability threshold values, were determined for bean, rice and sesame cultivated in 100 soils varying widely in soil chemical characteristics by comparing the soil Cd phytoavailability obtained using three commonly used extraction procedures. Subsequently, the transfer functions derived in this study, were used to establish soil Cd phytoavailability threshold value standard limits for each specific crop. In addition, independent experimental data were used to supplement the obtained soil phytoavailable Cd threshold value for rice. Soil phytoavailable Cd concentrations extracted by 1 M NH4NO3, 0.05 M EDTA and Mehlich3 solutions were each more significantly correlated with plant Cd concentrations than total soil Cd concentrations. Thus, the soil Cd phytoavailability threshold values proposed in this study provide a more effective means of ensuring safer agricultural food production. Therefore, it is recommended that current agricultural soil heavy metal management policy; which is based on total concentrations; should be changed to embrace soil metal phytoavailability for safer agricultural food production.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Cádmio/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Oryza/metabolismo , Sesamum/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-144077

RESUMO

In December 2019, a novel laboratory-confirmed coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection, which has caused clusters of severe illnesses, was first reported in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei province, China. This foodborne illness, which reportedly most likely originated in a seafood market where wild animals are sold illegally, has transmitted among humans through close contact, across the world. The aim of this study is to explore health/risk perceptions of and attitudes toward healthy/risky food in the immediate context of food crisis. More specifically, by using the data collected from 1008 respondents in January 2020, the time when China was hit hard by the "Corona Virus Disease 2019" (COVID-19), this study investigates the overall and different generational respondents' health/risk perceptions of and attitudes toward organic food and game meat. The results reveal that, firstly, based on their food health and risk perceptions of healthy and risky food, the respondents' general attitudes are positive toward organic food but relatively negative toward game meat. Secondly, older generations have a more positive attitude and are more committed to organic food. Younger generations' attitude toward game meat is more negative whereas older generations attach more importance to it because of its nutritional and medicinal values. In addition, this research also indicates that the COVID-19 crisis influences the respondents' perceptions of and attitudes toward organic food and game meat consumption. However, the likelihood of its impact on older generations' future change in diets is smaller, which implies that older generations' food beliefs are more stable.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos Orgânicos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Carne , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Alimentos Orgânicos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Carne/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Environ Res ; 186: 109605, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361082

RESUMO

17 years after the outbreak of SARS, the 2019-nCoV broke out in December 2019. It's an unprecedented huge challenge and disaster for people all over the world. According to Web of Science database, The author found that 95,724 virology papers have been published in the past 17 years, 68,632 of which are supported by fund (71.7%). Meanwhile, 50,567 papers related to food safety have been published in the past 17 years, 28,165 of which are supported by fund (55.7%%). It seems that people's safety and global stability are greatly guaranteed. However, whether SARS or 2019-nCoV, scientists were targeting wildlife, the author found that only 515 studies on food safety related to wildlife have been published worldwide in the past 17 years. After SARS, the whole world did not pay enough attention to food safety related to wildlife.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Animais , Humanos
20.
Food Chem ; 327: 127010, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442849

RESUMO

Food adulteration is a growing concern worldwide. The collation and analysis of food adulteration cases is of immense significance for food safety regulation and research. We collected 961 cases of food adulteration between 1998 and 2019 from the literature reports and announcements released by the Chinese government. Critical molecules were manually annotated in food adulteration substances as determined by food chemists, to build the first food adulteration database in China (http://www.rxnfinder.org/FADB-China/). This database is also the first molecular-level food adulteration database worldwide. Additionally, we herein propose an in silico method for predicting potentially illegal food additives on the basis of molecular fingerprints and similarity algorithms. Using this algorithm, we predict 1919 chemicals that may be illegally added to food; these predictions can effectively assist in the discovery and prevention of emerging food adulteration.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Contaminação de Alimentos , China , Simulação por Computador , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Sulfametazina/análise
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