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1.
Acta Med Acad ; 49(1): 67-70, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738119

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe a severe case of infection by Leptospira in a woman in the northwest of Mexico. CASE REPORT: A 55-yearold woman from Sonora, México arrived at the Intensive Care Unit due to severe multiple organ failure primarily affecting the respiratory, renal and hepatic systems. Diagnostic tests were performed, and they were positive for anti-Leptospira antibodies, IgM and IgG; and spirochetes were observed on dark field microscopy and confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Doxycycline and platelet apheresis transfusion were used as treatment, which led to a very slow recovery. CONCLUSION: The information presented in this study may help in the identification of pathology caused by spirochetes. This case report is the first to present a case of severe leptospirosis in Sonora, México.

2.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(7): 1110-1114, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741180

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the etiological characteristics of the patients with fever of unknown origin in Guizhou province through the isolation and identification of Leptospira interrogans and provide evidence for the control, prevention and treatment of human leptospirosis. Methods: Blood and urine samples were collected from patients with fever symptoms in Qiandongnan, an epidemic area, in Guizhou. The suspected Leptospira strains were primarily identified using pathogenic Leptospira specific G1/G2-PCR, and subsequently identified by using Leptospira serogroups specific PCR. The Leptospira strains were then genotyped with multiple locus sequence typing. MLST data based cluster analysis on the isolates and Leptospira reference strains of common serogroups were analyzed by using software NTsys 2.10e. Results: Three suspected strains of Leptospira were isolated from human blood samples, the isolation rate was 8.6%, which were designated as strain 17BX002, 17BX003 and 17AJX008. Strain 17BX002 was further identified as serogroup grippotyphosa by using Leptospira serogroup specific PCR, while the other two strains were negative (excluded as iterohaemorrhagiae, sejroe, canicola, autumnalis, grippotyphosa and hebdomadis). MLST genotyping showed that strain 17BX002 was typed as ST106, most closely clustered with Leptospira grippotyphosa, while strain 17BX003 and 17AJX008 were typed as ST96, the same as serogroup badaviae. Conclusion: There are leptospirosis cases in epidemic area of Guizhou in high incidence season, grippotyphosa and bataviae are the newly discovered serogroups of Leptospira in Guizhou.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614679

RESUMO

The geographical and climatic conditions, hot and humid in Côte d'Ivoire, are favorable to the prolonged survival of leptospira in the environment. In this country, cases of human leptospirosis are underestimated and the wild reservoirs unknown. In this study, 16S rDNA PCR-sequencing and variable number of tandem repeats typing investigations were performed in kidneys collected from 60 grasscutters (Thryonomys swinderianus) around the city of Yamoussoukro, including 10 bred grasscutters and 50 bush meat grasscutters. One sample was positive for Leptospira borgptersenii and another one for Leptospira interrogans; both collected from wild animals. Our study suggests that grasscutters, which are abundant wild rodents hunted and bred for culinary preparations in this region, can be healthy carriers of leptospira. Thus, hygiene measures should be taken, particularly by hunters and cooks.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Death in patients with chikungunya is rare, and has been associated with encephalitis, hemorrhage, and septic shock. We describe clinical, histologic and immunohistochemical findings in individuals who died following chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. METHODS: We identified individuals who died in Puerto Rico during 2014 following an acute illness, and had CHIKV RNA detected by RT-PCR in a pre- or post-mortem blood or tissue specimen. We performed histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CHIKV antigen on tissue specimens and collected medical data via record review and family interviews. RESULTS: Thirty CHIKV-infected fatal cases were identified (0.8 per 100,000 population). Median age was 61 years (range: 6 days-86 years), and 19 (63%) were male. Death occurred a median of four days (range: 1-29) after illness onset. Nearly all (93%) had at least one co-morbidity, most frequently hypertension, diabetes, or obesity. Nine had severe co-morbidities (e.g., chronic heart or kidney disease, sickle cell anemia) or co-infection (e.g., leptospirosis). Among 24 fatal cases with tissue specimens, 11 (46%) were positive by IHC. CHIKV antigen was most frequently detected in mesenchymal tissues and mononuclear cells including tissue macrophages, blood mononuclear cells, splenic follicular dendritic cells, and Kupffer cells. Common histopathologic findings were intra-alveolar hemorrhage and edema in the lung, chronic or acute tenosynovitis, and increased immunoblasts in the spleen. CHIKV infection likely caused fatal septic shock in two patients. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of tissue specimens provided insights into the pathogenesis of CHIKV, which may rarely result in septic shock and other severe manifestations.

5.
mSphere ; 5(4)2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669469

RESUMO

Leptospirosis remains a significant human health issue due to its systemic complications. Therefore, biomarkers that are more effective are urgently needed for the early diagnosis of leptospirosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved regulatory RNAs that have shown the potential to be used as biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of infectious diseases. In this study, we performed an unbiased screen using the miRNome miRNA array to identify circulating miRNAs with the potential to serve as authentic biomarkers for early diagnosis of leptospirosis. Because leptospiral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the predominant leptospiral antigen and plays a vital role in immunological and biological activities, we used LPS treated and untreated in vitro (THP1 cells) and in vivo (BALB/c mice) surrogate models to identify the LPS-specific miRNAs. Differential expression analysis revealed 18 miRNAs to be associated strongly with LPS stimulation in THP1 cells. Of these, three (miR-let-7b-5p, miR-144-3p, and miR-21-5p) were observed to be present at increased levels in vivo The identified miRNAs were validated for their biomarker potential using serum samples from leptospirosis-negative patients and patients with confirmed cases of leptospirosis. Identified miRNAs were able to discriminate the acute leptospiral infection from other febrile diseases with a test sensitivity and specificity of 93.2% and 88.19%, respectively. Gene functional enrichment and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis revealed that the identified miRNAs play important roles in disease signal transduction, signaling by interleukins, the stress-activated protein kinase signaling cascade, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, and the cellular response to a transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) stimulus with a notable interconnection between these biological processes.IMPORTANCE Here, we used miRNAs that are differentially regulated by the LPS/TLR2 immune axis to devise a miRNA-based diagnosis for leptospirosis. The study established the role of the circulating stable miRNAs (miR-21-5p, miR-144-3p, and miR-let-7b-5p) as an early diagnostic marker for leptospirosis. These miRNAs can be used to diagnose acute leptospirosis and also to differentiate leptospiral infection from other bacterial and spirochetal infections, as proved by the use of human clinical samples. Thus, our findings indicate that miRNAs can play a crucial role in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, like leptospirosis, that are generally misdiagnosed.

6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008437, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is one of the most significant zoonoses across the world not only because of its impact on human and animal health but also because of the economic and social impact on agrarian communities. Leptospirosis is endemic in Sri Lanka where paddy farming activities, the use of draught animals in agriculture, and peridomestic animals in urban and rural areas play important roles in maintaining the infection cycle of pathogenic Leptospira, especially concerning animals as a potential reservoir. In this study, an environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding methodology was applied in two different agro-ecological regions of Sri Lanka to understand the eco-epidemiology of leptospirosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Irrigation water samples were collected in Kandy District (wet zone mid-country region 2) and Girandurukotte, Badulla District (intermediate zone low-country region 2); and analysed for the presence of pathogenic Leptospira, associated microbiome and the potential reservoir animals. Briefly, we generated PCR products for high-throughput sequencing of multiple amplicons through next-generation sequencing. The analysis of eDNA showed different environmental microbiomes in both regions and a higher diversity of Leptospira species circulating in Kandy than in Girandurukotte. Moreover, the number of sequence reads of pathogenic Leptospira species associated with clinical cases such as L. interrogans was higher in Kandy than in Girandurukotte. Kandy also showed more animal species associated with pathogenic bacterial species than Girandurukotte. Finally, several pathogenic bacterial species including Arcobacter cryaerophilus, responsible for abortion in animals, was shown to be associated with pathogenic Leptospira. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Leptospirosis has been considered to be endemic in wet regions, consistently, leptospiral sequences were detected strongly in Kandy. The great Leptospira species diversity in Kandy observed in this study shows that the etiological agents of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka might be underestimated. Furthermore, our eDNA metabarcoding can be used to discriminate bacterial and animal species diversity in different regions and to explore environmental microbiomes to identify other associated bacterial pathogens in the environment.

7.
Microbes Infect ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730816

RESUMO

The Complement System (CS) plays an important role in the immune response against leptospirosis and can be activated by the Alternative and Lectin Pathways (Innate Immunity) and by the Classical Pathway (Acquired Immunity). Here we analyzed a broad range of nonpathogenic and pathogenic Leptospira strains considering their interaction with each CS pathway. We determined bacterial survival rate and CS protein deposition in the presence of purified proteins, specific component depleted sera and NHS treated with the chelating agents EDTA (inhibits all three activation pathways) or EGTA (inhibits the Classical and Lectin Pathways). We suggest that the Lectin and the Alternative Pathways have an important role to eliminate saprophytic leptospires since i) approximately 50% survival of both saprophytic strains was observed in the presence of MBL-deficient serum; ii) approximately 50 % survival of L. biflexa Patoc I was observed in the presence of NHS - EGTA and iii) C1q-depleted serum caused significant bacterial lysis. In all serovars investigated the deposition of C5-C9 proteins on saprophytic Leptospira strains was more pronounced when compared to pathogenic species confirming previous studies in the literature. No difference on C3 deposition was observed between nonpathogenic and pathogenic strains. In conclusion, Leptospira strains interact to different degrees with CS proteins, especially those necessary to form MAC, indicating that some strains and specific ligands could favor the binding of certain CS proteins.

8.
Pathogens ; 9(8)2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707797

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a febrile disease and the etiological agents are pathogenic bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The leptospiral virulence mechanisms are not fully understood and the application of genetic tools is still limited, despite advances in molecular biology techniques. The leptospiral recombinant protein LIC11711 has shown interaction with several host components, indicating a potential function in virulence. This study describes a system for heterologous expression of the L. interrogans gene lic11711 using the saprophyte L. biflexa serovar Patoc as a surrogate, aiming to investigate its possible activity in bacterial virulence. Heterologous expression of LIC11711 was performed using the pMaOri vector under regulation of the lipL32 promoter. The protein was found mainly on the leptospiral outer surface, confirming its location. The lipL32 promoter enhanced the expression of LIC11711 in L. biflexa compared to the pathogenic strain, indicating that this strategy may be used to overexpress low-copy proteins. The presence of LIC11711 enhanced the capacity of L. biflexa to adhere to laminin (Lam) and plasminogen (Plg)/plasmin (Pla) in vitro, suggesting the involvement of this protein in bacterial pathogenesis. We show for the first time that the expression of LIC11711 protein of L. interrogans confers a virulence-associated phenotype on L. biflexa, pointing out possible mechanisms used by pathogenic leptospires.

9.
J Microbiol Methods ; : 106007, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710920

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is an emerging worldwide zoonosis with a changing epidemiology responsible for an acute disease in humans and dogs. A better knowledge of the responsible bacterium Leptospira and in particular its various serovars and serogroups prevalence is essential for better diagnosis and prevention of the disease. The gold standard for leptospirosis diagnosis is the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) but it requires long and fastidious laboratory work and sometimes results in controversial data. For these reasons, PCR-based techniques for detection of pathogenic leptospiral DNA in biological samples are currently replacing the MAT. However, these strategies do not provide any information regarding the infecting serovar or serogroup. In this study, an optimized genotyping method is described to allow the identification of Leptospira ssp. directly at serovars level using DNA extracted from canine blood and urine. 16S rDNA, Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) and Multispacer Sequence Typing (MST) protocols were adapted to biological samples. Eighty-eight DNA samples were analyzed from 72 different European canine clinical cases of leptospirosis confirmed by real-time PCR. 92% of DNA samples with Ct values below 34 were fully typed, and typing success decreased to about 30% for the other samples. Typing failure also showed a specie-specific correlation, with 63% of complete typing for L. interrogans and only 40% for L. kirschneri. Additionally, an exact match was observed between serological and molecular data for the few investigated cases where MAT data were available. This methodology is a suitable alternative to the MAT for determining the infecting serovar when Leptospira DNA from blood or urine is detected at Ct values below 34, contributing to clinical surveillance of leptospirosis.

10.
Pathogens ; 9(7)2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679834

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a worldwide-distributed, re-emerging zoonosis due to the large variety of wild and domestic animal species that can play the role of natural or accidental host. Currently, specific animal species play an important role as the reservoir for particular Leptospira serovars, although recent investigations have highlighted new host-pathogen interactions involved in Leptospira epidemiology. Furthermore, the constant modification of ecosystems and wildlife habitats and the constantly increasing number of animal species moving towards urban or peri-urban areas are increasing the possibility of direct or indirect contacts between wildlife and domestic animals; furthermore, the constant modification of animal leptospirosis also causes problems for human health. The studies published in this Special Issue have evidenced and confirmed the hidden role of a large variety of animal species, domestic and wild, in the leptospirosis epidemiology. They highlighted the necessity for continuous monitoring and large-scale surveillance studies to better understand this neglected and re-emerging zoonosis.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236007, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668449

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease of high medical importance that affects humans worldwide. Humans or animals acquire an infection with pathogenic leptospires either by direct contact with infected animals or by indirect contact to contaminated environment. Survival of Leptospira spp. in the environment after having been shed via animal urine is thus a key factor to estimate the risk of infection, but not much is known about the tenacity of pathogenic leptospires. Here, the survival time of both a laboratory strain and a field strain of L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa in animal urine and their tenacity while drying was investigated and compared at different temperatures (15°C-37°C). Leptospira spp. are also often found in rivers and ponds. As the infection risk for humans and animals also depends on the spreading and survival of Leptospira spp. in these environments, the survival of L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa was investigated using a 50-meter-long hose system simulating a water stream. Both strains did not survive in undiluted cattle or dog urine. Comparing different temperatures and dilution media, the laboratory strain survived the longest in diluted cattle urine with a slightly alkaline pH value (3 days), whilst the field strain survived in diluted dog urine with a slightly acid pH value up to a maximum of 24 h. Both strains did not survive drying on a solid surface. In a water stream, leptospires were able to move faster or slower than the average velocity of the water due to their intrinsic mobility but were not able to survive the mechanical damage caused by running water in the hose system. From our results we conclude, that once excreted via animal urine, the leptospires immediately need moisture or a water body to survive and stay infectious.

12.
Pathog Glob Health ; : 1-7, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726193

RESUMO

Neglected tropical diseases affect over 1 billion people, and cause 170,000 deaths each year. They result in disability, stigma and disfigurement, and also push families into poverty. Tropical infections can involve the kidney, presenting as a wide variety of ways, varying from transient urinary abnormalities to severe acute kidney injury (AKI). It is important to assess renal function in patients with tropical infections for earlier detection of AKI, appropriate treatment and prevention of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) outcome in some of them. There was an exponential increase in research on new kidney biomarkers that were earlier and specific for renal damage but few in the scope of tropical infections. In this review, we focus on kidney biomarkers that are being studied in some of the most prevalent tropical infections such as visceral leishmaniasis, leptospirosis, malaria, schistosomiasis and leprosy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the usefulness of renal biomarkers in the early diagnosis of renal diseases associated with tropical infections.

13.
J Vet Cardiol ; 30: 44-56, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668360

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study describes presentation, cardiovascular abnormalities, etiology, and outcome of canine myocarditis in geographic areas not endemic for Trypanosoma or Leishmania. ANIMALS: Sixty-four (presumed antemortem diagnosis) and 137 (postmortem diagnosis only) client-owned dogs at two tertiary care facilities were included. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of dogs with clinical or histopathological diagnosis of myocarditis were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: Common examination findings in dogs with a presumed antemortem diagnosis included fever (21%) and heart murmur (19%). Median cardiac troponin I was 12.2 ng/mL (range: 0.2-808.0 ng/mL), and troponin exceeded 1.0 ng/mL in 26 of 29 (90%) dogs. Ventricular ectopy was the most common arrhythmia (54%), whereas decreased left ventricular systolic function was the most common echocardiographic abnormality (56%). An infectious etiology was diagnosed in 35 of 64 (55%) dogs. Confirmed infectious etiologies included bacterial sepsis (n = 9) or extension of endocarditis (3), toxoplasmosis or neosporosis (3), parvovirus (2), and one case each of bartonellosis, trypanosomiasis, leptospirosis, and dirofilariasis. Median survival time was 4 days (range: 0-828 days) for all dogs vs. 82 days for dogs who survived at least 2 weeks after diagnosis. Presence of pericardial effusion or azotemia was a significant predictor of non-survival. The most common inflammatory infiltrate on histopathology was neutrophilic (47%), and 20 of 137 (14.5%) dogs had concurrent bacterial endocarditis on postmortem. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial infection was the most common confirmed etiology of myocarditis in this study. Prognosis for canine myocarditis is guarded and similar to that reported for infective endocarditis. Criteria for the antemortem diagnosis of canine myocarditis are suggested.

14.
Intern Med ; 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713908

RESUMO

A 21-year-old man presented with the chief complaints of fever and sore throat after visiting Cambodia and Thailand. Computed tomography revealed multiple pulmonary nodules. After performing antibiotic therapy, the pulmonary nodules without bacteremia disappeared completely. Paired microscopic agglutination tests revealed seroconversion against Leptospira serogroup Autumnalis. Thus, he was diagnosed with multiple pulmonary nodules caused by leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is a common zoonosis that occurs in tropical and subtropical areas. Its various clinical features include unspecified fever and Weil's disease. Although diffuse alveolar hemorrhaging is known to occur in severe leptospirosis, multiple pulmonary nodules resembling septic emboli or vasculitis are a rare complication.

15.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; : 1040638720943155, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715980

RESUMO

Detection of Leptospira interrogans is difficult as a result of intermittent leptospiruria and brief leptospiremia. Hence, diagnosis relies heavily on serologic testing, the reference method of which is the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). In horses, clinical leptospirosis has been associated with abortion, recurrent uveitis, and sporadic cases of hepatic and renal disease. Little information exists on the seroprevalence of antibodies to L. interrogans in equids in the United States; past nationwide studies suggest that the seroprevalence in some areas is as high as 77% (reciprocal titer ≥ 100). We tested sera from 124 apparently healthy horses previously submitted for equine infectious anemia (EIA) serology using MAT for 6 serovars-Bratislava, Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona. When using a reciprocal MAT titer cutoff of ≥ 100, 102 of 124 (82%) of the samples were positive for at least one serovar. Seropositivity was significantly associated with increasing age. Query of specimens from clinical cases submitted to the Colorado State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for MAT since 2010 indicated significantly greater seroprevalence (p = 0.015) of pathogenic serovar Pomona in clinical cases compared to sera submitted from healthy equids for routine EIA testing. Information from our diagnostic laboratory submission forms also suggests a correlation between uveitis or other ophthalmic problems and serovar Pomona.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52466

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. This review describes the geographic and temporal distribution of, detection methods for, and other epidemiological features of published leptospirosis outbreaks, with the aim of informing efforts to standardize outbreak-reporting practices. Methods. We conducted a systematic review of leptospirosis outbreaks reported in the scientific literature and ProMED during 1970–2012. Predefined criteria were used to identify and classify outbreaks and a standard form was used to extract information. Results. During 1970–2012, we identified 318 outbreaks (average: 7 outbreaks/year; range: 1–19). Most outbreaks were reported in the Latin America and the Caribbean region (36%), followed by Southern Asia (13%), and North America (11%). Most outbreaks were located in tropical and subtropical ecoregions (55%). Quality classification showed that there was clear description of laboratory-confirmed cases in 40% of outbreaks. Among those, the average outbreak size was 82 cases overall (range: 2–2 259) but reached 253 cases in tropical/subtropical ecoregions. Common risk factors included outdoor work activities (25%), exposure to floodwaters (23%), and recreational exposure to water (22%). Epidemiologic investigation was conducted in 80% of outbreaks, mainly as case interviews. Case fatality was 5% overall (range: 0%–60%). Conclusions. Outbreak reporting increased over the study period with outbreaks covering tropical and non-tropical regions. Outbreaks varied by size, setting, and risk factors; however, data reviewed often had limited information regarding diagnosis and epidemiology. Guidelines are recommended to develop standardized procedures for diagnostic and epidemiological investigations during an outbreak and for reporting.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Describir la distribución geográfica y temporal, los métodos de detección y otras características epidemiológicas de los brotes de leptospirosis publicados con el fin de fundamentar los esfuerzos tendientes a estandarizar las prácticas empleadas en la notificación de brotes. Métodos. Se llevó a cabo una revisión sistemática de los brotes de leptospirosis notificados en la bibliografía científica y en ProMED entre 1970 y 2012. Se utilizaron criterios predefinidos para identificar y clasificar los brotes y se empleó un formulario estándar para extraer la información. Resultados. Entre 1970 y 2012 se identificaron 318 brotes (promedio: 7 brotes/año; rango: 1-19), la mayoría de ellos en América Latina y el Caribe (36%), región seguida por Asia meridional (13%) y América del Norte (11%). La mayoría de los brotes se localizaron en ecorregiones tropicales y subtropicales (55%). La clasificación cualitativa reveló que en el 40% de los brotes había una clara descripción de los casos confirmados por laboratorio. Entre ellos, el tamaño promedio del brote fue de 82 casos (rango: 2-2259 casos) pero alcanzó los 253 casos en ecorregiones tropicales o subtropicales. Entre los factores de riesgo frecuentes figuraban las actividades laborales al aire libre (25%), la exposición a agua proveniente de inundaciones (23%) y la exposición a agua con fines recreativos (22%). En el 80% de los brotes se realizaron investigaciones epidemiológicas, principalmente entrevistas de casos. La mortalidad específica de los casos fue del 5% (rango: 0%-60%). Conclusiones. La notificación de brotes aumentó durante el período de estudio, y los brotes abarcaron regiones tropicales y no tropicales. Los brotes fueron diferentes en cuanto a su tamaño, el entorno y los factores de riesgo; sin embargo, los datos examinados con frecuencia incluían una información limitada respecto del diagnóstico y la epidemiología. Se recomiendan directrices para elaborar procedimientos estandarizados para las investigaciones diagnósticas y epidemiológicas durante un brote y para su notificación.


Assuntos
Leptospirose , Leptospira , Surtos de Doenças , Zoonoses , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Surtos de Doenças , Zoonoses , Vigilância em Saúde Pública
18.
Aust Vet J ; 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691415

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a zoonosis, found worldwide, affecting many species of animals. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of Leptospira borgpetersenii sv Hardjo and Leptospira interrogans sv Pomona in cattle in dairy herds in South-Western Victoria, Australia. Fifty-three herds were enrolled in the study. Urine samples were collected from 15 late-lactation cows in each herd. A questionnaire was provided to herd managers at the time of each herd visit, asking them to describe the methods they used for controlling leptospirosis, including vaccination. Urine samples were pooled at the herd level and tested for leptospira spp. using real time PCR. Urine samples from individual cows within the positive pooled samples were then tested for Leptospira Hardjo and Leptospira Pomona using qPCR. Four of the 53 herds showed positive leptospirosis results giving an apparent prevalence of 8 (95% CI 2-18) leptospira-positive herds per 100 herds at risk. Based on the 53 completed questionnaires, leptospirosis vaccination programs were not compliant with label directions in 36 of the 52 vaccinated herds: 69 (95% CI 55-81) of 100 herd managers that routinely vaccinated for leptospirosis did not comply with label directions. One herd was completely unvaccinated. Based on our findings, we estimate that approximately 10% of dairy farms in South-Western Victoria are likely to be infected with leptospirosis. While most herds are vaccinating for leptospirosis, most are not doing so according to label directions. We conclude that herd managers need to be better educated regarding leptospirosis vaccination programs.

19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700658

RESUMO

A 1-year population-based prospective study was launched in Seychelles, a country with one of the highest human incidence of leptospirosis worldwide, to describe the characteristic features of the epidemiology of the disease and highlight the most prominent risk factors. Diagnosis was based on the IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, microscopic agglutination test, and real-time PCR. A standardized questionnaire was administered to 219 patients aged ≥ 13 years consulting for acute febrile illness. The high incidence of leptospirosis in Seychelles was confirmed. The disease was particularly severe, as the case fatality rate was 11.8%. Leptospirosis was positively associated in univariate analysis with socio-professional and clinical variables including gardening/farming, oliguria, jaundice, conjunctivitis, history of hepatitis C virus infection, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and/or biological renal failure. Epidemiological analyses of the questionnaires highlighted a link of the disease with living in houses (versus apartment), the presence of animals around and in houses, gardening, and misuse of personal protective equipment. Multivariate analyses indicated that being a farmer/landscaper and having cattle and cats around the home are the most significant drivers of leptospirosis. Biological features most associated with leptospirosis were thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, high values for renal function tests, and elevated total bilirubin. We report changes in behavior and exposure compared with data collected on leptospirosis 25 years ago, with indication that healthcare development has lowered case fatality. Continuous health education campaigns are recommended as well as further studies to clarify the epidemiology of human leptospirosis, especially the role of domestic animals.

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