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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 13(1): 1-7, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET1-7180

RESUMO

Sexual double standard (SDS) involves evaluating the same sexual behaviors in men and women using different criteria. The support for man-favorable SDS is related to sexual aggression and sexual victimization. Yet to date, studies have not examined the prevalence of SDS adherence. This study aims to identify the prevalence per gender and age of the Spanish population who adheres to the SDS typologies (man-favorable, woman-favorable, egalitarian, ambivalent) by considering sexual freedom and sexual shyness areas. A sample of 2,002 Spanish heterosexual adults (50% men, 50% women), distributed into four age groups (18-25, 26-35, 36-55 and over 55 years old), answered the Sexual Double Standard Scale. The results showed differences in the prevalence of SDS typologies by gender and age. By gender, a higher prevalence of the man-favorable typology was observed in men and a higher prevalence of the egalitarian typology and the woman-favorable typology was observed in women. By age groups, significant differences in man-favorable and woman-favorable typologies were found in both men and women. Based on the evidence of four adherence to SDS typologies, it is recommended studying the relation of these typologies with sexual aggression/victimization to design more efficient programs for prevention and intervention of sexual violence


El doble estándar sexual (DES) consiste en evaluar los mismos comportamientos sexuales en hombres y mujeres usando diferentes criterios. El apoyo al DES favorable al hombre está relacionado con la agresión y la victimización sexual. Sin embargo, hasta la fecha, los estudios no han examinado la prevalencia de la adhesión al DES. Este estudio pretende identificar la prevalencia por género y edad de la población española que se adhiere a las tipologías de DES (favorable al hombre, favorable a la mujer, igualitaria, ambivalente) considerando los ámbitos de la libertad sexual y del recato sexual. Una muestra de 2.002 adultos heterosexuales españoles (50% hombres, 50% mujeres), distribuidos en cuatro grupos de edad (18-25, 26-35, 36-55 y más de 55 años), respondió a la Sexual Double Standard Scale. Los resultados mostraron diferencias en la prevalencia de las tipologías de DES por género y edad. Por género se observó una mayor prevalencia de la tipología favorable al hombre en los hombres y una mayor prevalencia de la tipología igualitaria y la tipología favorable a la mujer en las mujeres. Por grupos de edad se encontraron diferencias significativas en las tipologías favorable al hombre y favorable a la mujer, tanto en hombres como en mujeres. De acuerdo con la evidencia de las cuatro tipologías de adhesión al DES, se recomienda estudiar la relación de estas tipologías con la agresión/victimización sexual para diseñar programas más eficientes de prevención de la violencia sexual e intervención en la misma

2.
Span J Psychol ; 24: e13, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612140

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the consequences of conspiracy theories and the COVID-19 pandemic raised this interest to another level. In this article, I will outline what we know about the consequences of conspiracy theories for individuals, groups, and society, arguing that they are certainly not harmless. In particular, research suggests that conspiracy theories are associated with political apathy, support for non-normative political action, climate denial, vaccine refusal, prejudice, crime, violence, disengagement in the workplace, and reluctance to adhere to COVID-19 recommendations. In this article, I will also discuss the challenges of dealing with the negative consequences of conspiracy theories, which present some opportunities for future research.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Política , Preconceito , Recusa de Vacinação , Apatia , Atitude , Mudança Climática , Crime , Cultura , Negação em Psicologia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Lealdade ao Trabalho , Violência
4.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 20, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is little information on care-seeking patterns for sexual assault and domestic violence during the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this study was to examine the changes in emergency department (ED) admissions for sexual assault and domestic violence since the COVID-19 pandemic was declared. METHODS: Observational ED admissions data from The Ottawa Hospital were analyzed from March 4 to May 5 (62 days) in 2020 (COVID-19 period) and compared to the same period in 2018 (pre-COVID-19). Total and mean weekly admissions were calculated for all-cause ED admissions and for sexual and domestic violence cases. A Poisson regression (without offset term) was used to calculate the weekly case count ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between the two time periods. Case characteristics were compared using chi-square tests, and percent differences were calculated. RESULTS: Compared to pre-COVID-19, total ED admissions dropped by 1111.22 cases per week (32.9% reduction), and the Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence Program cases dropped 4.66 cases per week. The weekly case count ratio for sexual assault cases was 0.47 (95% CI 0.79-0.27), equivalent of 53.49% reduction in cases, and 0.52 (95% CI 0.93-0.29), equivalent to a 48.45% reduction in physical assault cases. The characteristics of presenting cases were similar by age (median 25 years), sex (88.57% female), assault type (57.14% sexual assault, 48.57% physical assault), and location (31.43% patient's home, 40.00% assailant's home). There was a significant increase in psychological abuse (11.69% vs 28.57%) and assaults occurring outdoors (5.19% vs 22.86%). CONCLUSION: This study found a decrease in ED admissions for sexual assault and domestic violence during COVID-19, despite societal conditions that elevate risk of violence. Trends in care-seeking and assault patterns will require ongoing monitoring to inform the provision of optimal support for individuals experiencing violence, particularly as countries begin to re-open or lock-down again.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Violência Doméstica/tendências , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/tendências , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Delitos Sexuais/tendências , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/tendências , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ontário/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(2): 115-133, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565950

RESUMO

Working with Fathers to Prevent Child Abuse. A Pilot Evaluation of the Caring Dads Program in Germany Selective and indicated prevention programs for fathers at high risk of (repeated) child maltreatment are lacking within early childhood intervention and child protection. The Canadian Caring Dads Program has been started in Germany in 2008. The aim of this study was to examine fathers who participated in a Caring Dads program in Düsseldorf, Hanover or Groß-Gerau until 2016. The study of n = 60 fathers and n = 34 mothers included the longitudinal examination of self-reported aggression, parenting behaviors and co-parenting in fathers as well as quality of life and co-parenting in mothers, the comparison of fathers participating in the program in Germany and Canada (n = 59/64) and a postal catamnesis (n = 20). Results have shown mean improvements in paternal aggression (d = .39) and parenting behaviors (d = .80, categorized: φ = .46) as well as maternal co-parenting (d = .46) and paternal behavior toward the partner (d = .47). In one-fourth to one-third of fathers at risk-levels, improvements controlled for measurement errors by the Reliable Change Index were clinically significant. German fathers reported higher motivation for change (t1/t2: d = 1.37/1.59) and verbal aggression (t1/t2: d = 1.29/1.36) compared to Canadian fathers. The catamnesis showed subjectively significant improvements in family relationships and parenting from the paternal point of view. The evaluation does not provide any evidence of culturally induced barriers of implementing Caring Dads in Germany.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Pai/psicologia , Canadá , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida
6.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385280

RESUMO

Violence experience has been consistently associated with HIV risks and substance use behaviors. Although many studies have focused on intimate partner violence (IPV), the role of violence at a structural level (i.e., police abuse) remains relevant for people who inject drugs. This study evaluated the association of IPV and police-perpetrated violence experiences with HIV risk behaviors and substance use in a cohort of HIV-positive people who inject drugs in Ukraine. We also evaluated possible moderation effects of gender and socioeconomic status in the links between violence exposure and HIV risk and polysubstance use behaviors. Data came from the Providence/Boston-CFAR-Ukraine Study involving 191 HIV-positive people who inject drugs conducted at seven addiction treatment facilities in Ukraine. Results from logistic regressions suggest that people who inject drugs and experienced IPV had higher odds of polysubstance use than those who did not experience IPV. Verbal violence and sexual violence perpetrated by police were associated with increased odds of inconsistent condom use. The odds of engaging in polysubstance use were lower for women in relation to police physical abuse. We found no evidence supporting socioeconomic status moderations. Violence experiences were associated with substance use and sexual HIV risk behaviors in this cohort of HIV-positive people who inject drugs in Ukraine. Trauma-informed prevention approaches that consider both individual and structural violence could improve this population's HIV risks.

7.
Lancet ; 397(10273): 511-521, 2021 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503458

RESUMO

The nature of armed conflict throughout the world is intensely dynamic. Consequently, the protection of non-combatants and the provision of humanitarian services must continually adapt to this changing conflict environment. Complex political affiliations, the systematic use of explosive weapons and sexual violence, and the use of new communication technology, including social media, have created new challenges for humanitarian actors in negotiating access to affected populations and security for their own personnel. The nature of combatants has also evolved as armed, non-state actors might have varying motivations, use different forms of violence, and engage in a variety of criminal activities to generate requisite funds. New health threats, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, and new capabilities, such as modern trauma care, have also created new challenges and opportunities for humanitarian health provision. In response, humanitarian policies and practices must develop negotiation and safety capabilities, informed by political and security realities on the ground, and guidance from affected communities. More fundamentally, humanitarian policies will need to confront a changing geopolitical environment, in which traditional humanitarian norms and protections might encounter wavering support in the years to come.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Saúde da Criança , Socorro em Desastres , Violência , Saúde da Mulher , Conflitos Armados/prevenção & controle , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Política , Medidas de Segurança , Violência/prevenção & controle
9.
Harv Rev Psychiatry ; 29(1): 81-89, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417376

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This article outlines a four-part strategy for future research in mental health and complementary disciplines that will broaden understanding of mass shootings and multi-victim gun homicides. First, researchers must abandon the starting assumption that acts of mass violence are driven primarily by diagnosable psychopathology in isolated "lone wolf" individuals. The destructive motivations must be situated, instead, within larger social structures and cultural scripts. Second, mental health professionals and scholars must carefully scrutinize any apparent correlation of violence with mental illness for evidence of racial bias in the official systems that define, measure, and record psychiatric diagnoses, as well as those that enforce laws and impose criminal justice sanctions. Third, to better understand the role of firearm access in the occurrence and lethality of mass shootings, research should be guided by an overarching framework that incorporates social, cultural, legal, and political, but also psychological, aspects of private gun ownership in the United States. Fourth, effective policies and interventions to reduce the incidence of mass shootings over time-and to prevent serious acts of violence more generally-will require an expanded body of well-funded interdisciplinary research that is informed and implemented through the sustained engagement of researchers with affected communities and other stakeholders in gun violence prevention. Emerging evidence that the coronavirus pandemic has produced a sharp increase both in civilian gun sales and in the social and psychological determinants of injurious behavior adds special urgency to this agenda.


Assuntos
Incidentes com Feridos em Massa/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , /complicações , /psicologia , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Carência Cultural , Violência com Arma de Fogo/prevenção & controle , Violência com Arma de Fogo/psicologia , Homicídio/prevenção & controle , Homicídio/psicologia , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa/prevenção & controle , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Psicopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
10.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(1): 6-23, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459215

RESUMO

Legal Aspects of Child Protection Several legal codes (e. g. family, social and criminal law) are of importance in child protection cases in Germany. The intention of legal codes differs between family law (relations between family members), social law (support for families) and criminal law (penal aspects). Mental health professionals have to know the prevailing legal norms concerning child-welfare. Collaborative work between medicine and youth welfare and child protection services (CPS) requires a weighing of data protection issues and the risk for the child. German child protection law provides a stepped model for health care professionals to inform CPS. This includes a careful weighing of the risk for child abuse and own competences to provide support. Medical personnel should be aware of several further legislative regulations concerning child protection issues.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/legislação & jurisprudência , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Proteção Infantil/legislação & jurisprudência , Bem-Estar da Criança/legislação & jurisprudência , Criança , Família , Alemanha , Humanos
13.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e24562, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Twitter has emerged as a novel way for physicians to share ideas and advocate for policy change. #ThisIsOurLane (firearm injury) and #GetUsPPE (COVID-19) are examples of nationwide health care-led Twitter campaigns that went viral. Health care-initiated Twitter hashtags regarding major public health topics have gained national attention, but their content has not been systematically examined. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that Twitter discourse on two epidemics (firearm injury and COVID-19) would differ between tweets with health care-initiated hashtags (#ThisIsOurLane and #GetUsPPE) versus those with non-health care-initiated hashtags (#GunViolence and #COVID19). METHODS: Using natural language processing, we compared content, affect, and authorship of a random 1% of tweets using #ThisIsOurLane (Nov 2018-Oct 2019) and #GetUsPPE (March-May 2020), compared to #GunViolence and #COVID19 tweets, respectively. We extracted the relative frequency of single words and phrases and created two sets of features: (1) an open-vocabulary feature set to create 50 data-driven-determined word clusters to evaluate the content of tweets; and (2) a closed-vocabulary feature for psycholinguistic categorization among case and comparator tweets. In accordance with conventional linguistic analysis, we used a P<.001, after adjusting for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni correction, to identify potentially meaningful correlations between language features and outcomes. RESULTS: In total, 67% (n=4828) of #ThisIsOurLane tweets and 36.6% (n=7907) of #GetUsPPE tweets were authored by health care professionals, compared to 16% (n=1152) of #GunViolence and 9.8% (n=2117) of #COVID19 tweets. Tweets using #ThisIsOurLane and #GetUsPPE were more likely to contain health care-specific language; more language denoting positive emotions, affiliation, and group identity; and more action-oriented content compared to tweets with #GunViolence or #COVID19, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Tweets with health care-led hashtags expressed more positivity and more action-oriented language than the comparison hashtags. As social media is increasingly used for news discourse, public education, and grassroots organizing, the public health community can take advantage of social media's broad reach to amplify truthful, actionable messages around public health issues.


Assuntos
Violência com Arma de Fogo/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Mídias Sociais/instrumentação , /complicações , Estudos Transversais , Violência com Arma de Fogo/psicologia , Violência com Arma de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Mídias Sociais/tendências
14.
J Surg Res ; 257: 232-238, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern of injuries that relates to abuse and neglect in children with burn injuries. METHODS: The Nationwide Readmissions Database for 2010-2014 was queried for all patients aged less than 18 y admitted with burn injuries. The primary outcome was child maltreatment identified at the index admission. The secondary outcome was readmission for maltreatment. A subgroup analysis was performed on patients without a diagnosis of maltreatment during the index admission. Multivariable logistic regression was performed for each outcome. RESULTS: There were 57,939 admissions identified and 1960 (3.4%) involved maltreatment at the index admission. Maltreatment was associated with total body surface area burned >20% (odds ratio (OR) 2.79, P < 0.001) and burn of the lower limbs (OR 1.37, P < 0.001). Readmission for maltreatment was found in 120 (0.2%), and the strongest risk factor was maltreatment identified at the index admission (OR 5.11, P < 0.001). After excluding the patients with maltreatment identified at the index admission, 96 (0.17%) children were found to have a readmission for maltreatment that may have been present on the index admission and subsequently missed. The strongest risk factor was burn of the eye or ocular adnexa (OR 3.79, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that a portion of admissions for burn injuries in children could involve maltreatment that was undiagnosed. Identifying these at-risk individuals is critical to prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/etiologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/diagnóstico , Criança Hospitalizada/estatística & dados numéricos , Diagnóstico Ausente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Queimaduras/terapia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
15.
S Afr Med J ; 0(0): 13183, 2020 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In response to the coronavirus pandemic, lockdown restrictions and a ban on alcohol sales were introduced in South Africa. Objectives. To investigate the impact of lockdown measures on the number of patients who visited a tertiary urban trauma centre. Methods. The period of investigation was from 1 February to 30 June 2020 and was segmented into three intervals: pre-lockdown (February and March 2020), hard lockdown (April and May 2020) and immediately post lockdown (June 2020). The electronic HECTIS health record registry was interrogated for the total number of patients that were seen per month. These were further categorised according to mechanism of injury (stab, gunshot, blunt assault and road traffic injuries). Penetrating (stab and gunshot) and blunt assault victims were collectively grouped as violent trauma. Results. The mean total number of patients seen decreased by 53% during the hard lockdown period. There was a moderate reduction (15%) in patients with gunshot injuries seen during the hard lockdown phase, but there was an 80% increase in the post-lockdown period. The proportion of patients injured in road traffic collisions pre lockdown, hard lockdown and immediate post lockdown was 16.4%, 8.9% and 11.1%, respectively. Patients injured in road traffic collisions decreased by 74% during the hard lockdown period and maintained a reduction of 32% during the immediate post-lockdown period. The mean total number of patients who visited the trauma unit returned to pre-lockdown levels in June. Conclusions. There was an overall trend of reduced number of patients who visited the trauma unit during the hard lockdown period; however, these numbers returned to pre-lockdown levels during the immediate post-lockdown period. The number of road traffic injury admissions remained reduced during all three phases of lockdown, while the number of gunshot victims increased substantially during the post-lockdown period.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , /prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Rev. crim ; 62(3): 39-48, sep.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144419

RESUMO

Abstract Cali is one of the cities in Colombia and Latin America with the highest rate of homicides, with around one third of homicides being attributed to street gang-related violence. In 2016, the Mayor's office from Santiago the Cali - Colombia, the Police Department and the Cisalva institute from Universidad del Valle worked together to develop an holistic intervention, "TIP -Youth without frontiers", to reduce street gang-related violence in Cali's communes. The intervention comprised six components focusing on developing personal/emotional skills, improving access to health and other public services, reducing substance use, connecting youth with employment and educational opportunities, promoting participation in sports and recreational activities, and improving the restitution of citizen rights to street gang members. This study aimed to describe the characteristics and implementation of this transformative street gang program and to describe changes in street gang-related homicides that could be associated with the implementation of this program. The program started contacting street gangs in January 2016, recruiting the first street gang members in August 2016. As of December 2018, 2.107 youth (from 84 Police identified street gangs) have participated in the program. A reduction in street gang-related homicides was observed in Cali's communes from 2015 to 2018. In intervened communes these homicides decreased on average by 80%, suggesting that the program could have contributed to the reduction of street gang-related violent behavior in these areas.


Resumen Cali es una de las ciudades de Colombia y de Latinoamérica con la tasa de homicidios más alta, con alrededor de un tercio de los homicidios atribuidos a la violencia entre pandillas. En 2016, la Alcaldía de Santiago de Cali - Colombia, la Policía Nacional y el Instituto Cisalva de la Universidad del Valle trabajaron juntos para desarrollar una intervención holística, "TIP - Jóvenes sin fronteras", con el fin de reducir la violencia relacionada con las pandillas en las comunas de Cali. La intervención abarcó seis componentes centrados en desarrollar habilidades personales/emocionales, mejorar el acceso a los servicios de salud y otros servicios públicos, reducir el consumo de sustancias, conectar a los jóvenes con oportunidades laborales y educativas, fomentar la participación en actividades deportivas y recreativas, y restituir los derechos cívicos a integrantes de las pandillas. El objetivo de este estudio era describir las características y la implementación de este programa de transformación de pandillas, y describir los cambios en la tasa de homicidios relacionados con pandillas que podrían estar asociados con la implementación de este programa. El programa comenzó contactando a las pandillas en enero del 2016, reclutando a los primeros miembros de estas en agosto del 2016. A diciembre del 2018, 2.107 jóvenes (de 84 pandillas identificadas por la policía) han participado en el programa. Se observó una reducción de los homicidios relacionados con pandillas en las comunas de Cali entre 2015 y 2018. En las comunas intervenidas, estos homicidios disminuyeron en promedio un 80%, lo que sugiere que el programa podría haber contribuido a la reducción del comportamiento violento relacionado con las pandillas en estas áreas.


Resumo Cali é uma das cidades da Colômbia e da América Latina com a maior taxa de homicídios, com cerca de um terço dos homicídios atribuídos à violência de gangues. Em 2016, a Prefeitura de Santiago de Cali - Colômbia, a Polícia Nacional e o Instituto Cisalva da Universidad del Valle trabalharam juntos para desenvolver uma intervenção holística, "TIP - Jovens sem fronteiras", a fim de reduzir a violência das gangues nas comunas de Cali. A intervenção abrangeu seis componentes focados no desenvolvimento de habilidades pessoais/emocionais, melhoria do acesso aos serviços de saúde e outros serviços públicos, redução do uso de substâncias, conexão dos jovens com oportunidades de emprego e educação, incentivo à participação em atividades esportivas e recreativas, e a restauração dos direitos cívicos para os membros das gangues. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as características e a implementação do programa de transformação de gangues e descrever as mudanças na taxa de homicídios por gangues que poderiam estar associadas à implementação deste programa. O programa começou contatando as gangues em janeiro de 2016 e foram recrutados os primeiros membros das gangues em agosto de 2016. Em dezembro de 2018, participaram do programa 2.107 jovens (de 84 gangues identificadas pela polícia). Uma redução dos homicídios relacionados a gangues nas comunas de Cali foi observada entre 2015 e 2018. Nas comunas intervencionadas, esses homicídios diminuíram em média 80%, sugerindo que o programa possa ter contribuído para a redução do comportamento violento relacionado a gangues nessas áreas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Homicídio , Violência , Conflitos Armados , Criminosos
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2028499, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351083

RESUMO

Importance: Engaging adolescent boys and young men in preventing violence against women is a potentially impactful public health strategy. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based, gender-transformative program (ie, Manhood 2.0) on perpetration of gender-based violence by adolescent boys and young men. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this unblinded cluster randomized clinical trial, neighborhoods were designated as the unit of clustering (1:1 allocation). Three-month (ie, time point 2 [T2]) and 9-month (ie, time point 3 [T3]) follow-ups were conducted. The trial took place in 20 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, neighborhoods and 1 centrally located site with concentrated disadvantage. Pittsburgh-based adolescent boys and young men (ages 13 to 19 years) were recruited between July 27, 2015, and June 5, 2017, through youth-serving organizations and community-based alternatives to residential placement for juvenile justice-involved youth. Intention-to-treat analysis was conducted from June 2018 to November 2019. Interventions: Manhood 2.0, an international program adapted for adolescent boys and young men in US urban communities, encourages these individuals to challenge gender norms that foster violence against women and unhealthy sexual relationships. Individuals in the control population received job-readiness training. Each program was 18 hours. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was change in participant-level perpetration of sexual violence (SV) or adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) at T3. Results: Among 866 participants, 465 individuals (54%) enrolled in 11 intervention clusters and 401 individuals (46%) enrolled in 10 control clusters. In the intervention group, 325 participants (70%) were analyzed at T2 and 334 participants (72%) were analyzed at T3; in the control group, 262 participants (65%) were analyzed at T2 and 301 participants (75%) were analyzed at T3. Mean (SD) age was 15.5 (1.6) years; 609 participants (70%) self-identified as non-Hispanic Black, and 178 (20%) self-identified as Hispanic, multiracial, or other race/ethnicity other than White. Among individuals in the intervention group, 296 participants (64%) reported any SV or ARA perpetration at baseline, and 173 participants (52%) reported any SV or ARA perpetration at T3. Among individuals in the control group, 213 participants (53%) reported any SV or ARA perpetration at baseline, and 124 participants (41%) reported any SV or ARA perpetration at T3). The difference in reduction between groups was not significant. There was no evidence of an intervention effect for the primary outcome (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.32; 95% CI, 0.86-2.01; P = .20). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings from this evaluation of a community-based gender-transformative program for adolescent boys and young men did not show a significant intervention effect in reducing SV or ARA perpetration between Manhood 2.0 and a job-readiness control program. Combining gender-transformative approaches with job-readiness programs may be relevant for violence prevention in low-resource urban settings. Attention to improving implementation and strategies to sustain such community-based efforts are needed. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02427061.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Saúde Pública/métodos , Tratamento Domiciliar/métodos , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Eficiência Organizacional , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 23(271): 4961-4970, dez.2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1146993

RESUMO

Objetivo: Identificar os riscos para depressão e ansiedade em gestantes de uma unidade de saúde da Atenção Primária. Métodos: Estudo descritivo exploratório de abordagem quantitativa realizado entre fevereiro a abril de 2020 em uma unidade de Saúde de Olinda-PE (Brasil); foi utilizado o instrumento validado "Cartão de Babel". A análise dos dados foi realizada pelo Statistical Package for Social Sciencies por meio do teste Qui-quadrado com correção de Yates (significância de 5% - p≤0,05). Resultados: 71 gestantes foram analisadas, dentre os quais 32,3% referiram já ter sofrido violência psicológica. Por meio do Cartão de Babel verificou-se que 49,3% das gestantes tinham alto risco para o desenvolvimento de transtorno de ansiedade (p-valor: 0,004) e 29,5% apresentou risco moderado para depressão (p-valor: 0,004). Conclusão: Iniciativas preventivas à ocorrência da depressão e ansiedade na gestação, como o monitoramento da saúde mental e o seu rastreio durante a consulta de pré-natal são necessários.(AU)


Objective: To identify the risks for depression and anxiety in pregnant women in a Primary Health Care unit. Methods: Descriptive exploratory study with a quantitative approach carried out between February and April 2020 at a Health Unit in Olinda-PE (Brazil); the validated instrument "Babel Card" was used. Data analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciencies using the Chi-square test with Yates correction (significance of 5% - p≤0.05). Results: 71 pregnant women were analyzed, among which 32.3% reported having suffered psychological violence. Through the Babel Card, it was found that 49.3% of pregnant women were at high risk for the development of anxiety disorder (p-value: 0.004) and 29.5% had a moderate risk for depression (p-value: 0.004). Conclusion: Preventive initiatives for the occurrence of depression and anxiety during pregnancy, such as monitoring mental health and tracking it during the prenatal consultation are necessary.(AU)


Objetivo: Identificar los riesgos de depresión y ansiedad en gestantes en una unidad de Atención Primaria de Salud. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo exploratorio con abordaje cuantitativo realizado entre febrero y abril de 2020 en una Unidad de Salud de Olinda-PE (Brasil); Se utilizó el instrumento validado "Babel Card". El análisis de los datos se realizó mediante el paquete estadístico para ciencias sociales mediante la prueba de Chi-cuadrado con corrección de Yates (significancia del 5% - p≤0.05). Resultados: Se analizaron 71 mujeres embarazadas, de las cuales el 32,3% refirió haber sufrido violencia psicológica. A través de la Tarjeta Babel, se encontró que el 49,3% de las mujeres embarazadas tenían alto riesgo de desarrollar trastorno de ansiedad (valor p: 0,004) y el 29,5% tenían un riesgo moderado de depresión (valor p: 0,004). Conclusión: Son necesarias iniciativas preventivas para la aparición de depresión y ansiedad durante el embarazo, como el seguimiento de la salud mental y su seguimiento durante la consulta prenatal.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Enfermagem Materno-Infantil , Depressão/complicações , Saúde Materna , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Risco
19.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 23(2): 460-470, jul.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124052

RESUMO

Abstract Previous studies indicate that being a victim of child maltreatment and witnessing parental violence are predictors of dating violence in adolescence. The influence of the peer group, alcohol use and being female also increase the risk for dating violence, although they are still poorly researched variables. Thus, this descriptive cross-sectional study investigated personal and contextual variables associated with the perpetration of dating violence in 403 adolescents, aged 14-19, from public and private schools in the Metropolitan Region of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that having suffered psychological maltreatment in childhood increases 5.37 (95% IC = 2.30-12.57) the likelihood of an adolescent being a perpetrator of verbal/emotional dating violence. Other predictive variables (witnessing parental violence, peer group influence, alcohol use and being female) were not significant. This study gathers evidence of intergenerational aspects of dating violence and indicates the need for preventive work with adolescents.


Resumen Los estudios previos sobre el tema indican que ser víctima de malos tratos en la infancia y ser testigo de violencia conyugal en los padres son variables predictoras de la violencia en el noviazgo entre adolescentes; así como que la influencia del grupo de pares, el uso del alcohol y el sexo femenino aumentan el riesgo para la violencia en el noviazgo, aunque estas son variables todavía poco investigadas. Teniendo esto en cuenta, con el presente estudio transversal y descriptivo se investigó respecto a las variables personales y contextuales asociadas a la perpetración de violencia en el noviazgo en 403 adolescentes, de 14 a 19 años, de escuelas públicas y privadas en la Región Metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Como resultados, una regresión logística multivariada indicó que haber sufrido maltrato psicológico en la infancia aumenta 5.37 veces (95 % IC = 2.30-12.57) la probabilidad de que un adolescente sea perpetrador de violencia verbal-emocional en el noviazgo. Otras variables, como ser testigo de violencia conyugal, la influencia del grupo de pares, el consumo de alcohol y el sexo femenino, no se mostraron significativas. Este estudio recoge evidencia de aspectos intergeneracionales de la violencia en el noviazgo e indica la necesidad de programas de prevención e intervención con los adolescentes.


Resumo Estudos prévios indicam que ser vítima de maus-tratos na infância e testemunhar a violência conjugal dos pais são preditores da violência no namoro na adolescência. A influência do grupo de pares, o uso de álcool e ser do sexo feminino igualmente aumentam o risco para a violência no namoro, embora ainda sejam variáveis pouco investigadas. Dessa forma, este estudo transversal descritivo investigou variáveis pessoais e contextuais associadas à perpetração de violência no namoro em 403 adolescentes, de 14 a 19 anos, de escolas públicas e privadas da Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Uma análise de regressão logística multivariada indicou que ter sofrido maus-tratos psicológicos na infância aumenta em 5,37 (IC 95 % = 2,30-12,57) a probabilidade de um adolescente ser perpetrador de violência verbal ou emocional no namoro. Demais variáveis preditoras (testemunhar violência parental, influência do grupo de pares, uso de álcool e ser do sexo feminino) não se mostraram significativas. Este estudo reúne evidências de aspectos intergeracionais da violência no namoro e indica a necessidade de programas de prevenção com adolescentes.

20.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180481, Jan.-Dec. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1059142

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate the knowledge and attitude of school adolescents regarding sexual violence. Method: a qualitative study with data gathering, based on Maurice Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Perception, conducted in April 2018 with 12 adolescents from a state school in Recife, using the focus group technique. For data systematization, thematic content analysis was used in the following steps: pre-analysis, material exploration, treatment of results and interpretation. Results: three thematic categories were established: adolescents' perceptions of sexual violence; reflective construction of adolescents on the factors of exposure to sexual violence; and facilitating aspects for the prevention of adolescent sexual violence. Conclusion: the perception of adolescents regarding sexual violence is influenced by cultural, structural, social, economic, psychological and biological aspects, which should be considered in the planning of actions aimed at preventing sexual violence for this public.


RESUMEN Objetivo: investigar el conocimiento y la actitud de los adolescentes escolares con respecto a la violência sexual. Método: un estudio cualitativo con captura de datos, basado en la Fenomenología de la percepción de Maurice Merleau-Ponty, realizado en abril de 2018 con 12 adolescentes de una escuela estatal en Recife, utilizando la técnica de grupos focales. Para la sistematización de datos, el análisis de contenido temático se utilizó en los siguientes pasos: preanálisis, exploración de materiales, tratamiento de resultados e interpretación. Resultados: se establecieron tres categorías temáticas: percepción de los adolescentes de la violencia sexual; construcción reflexiva de adolescentes sobre los factores de exposición a la violencia sexual; y facilitando aspectos para la prevención de la violencia sexual adolescente. Conclusión: la percepción de los adolescentes con respecto a la violencia sexual está influenciada por aspectos culturales, estructurales, sociales, económicos, psicológicos y biológicos, que deben tenerse en cuenta al planificar acciones destinadas a prevenir la violencia sexual para este público.


RESUMO Objetivo: investigar o conhecimento e a atitude de adolescentes escolares a respeito da violência sexual. Método: estudo qualitativo, com apreensão dos dados, embasada na Fenomenologia da Percepção de Maurice Merleau-Ponty, realizada em abril de 2018 com 12 adolescentes de uma escola estadual do Recife, por meio da técnica de grupo focal. Para sistematização dos dados, utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo temática nas seguintes etapas: pré-análise, exploração do material, tratamento dos resultados e interpretação. Resultados: foram estabelecidas três categorias temáticas: percepções dos adolescentes sobre violência sexual; construção reflexiva de adolescentes sobre os fatores de exposição à violência sexual; e aspectos facilitadores para a prevenção da violência sexual dos adolescentes. Conclusão: a percepção dos adolescentes em relação a violência sexual é influenciada por aspectos culturais, estruturais, sociais, econômicos, psicológicos e biológicos, que devem ser considerados no planejamento de ações que visem a prevenção da violência sexual para esse público.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Delitos Sexuais , Educação em Saúde , Adolescente , Enfermagem , Promoção da Saúde
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