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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 13(1): 1-7, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET1-7180

RESUMO

Sexual double standard (SDS) involves evaluating the same sexual behaviors in men and women using different criteria. The support for man-favorable SDS is related to sexual aggression and sexual victimization. Yet to date, studies have not examined the prevalence of SDS adherence. This study aims to identify the prevalence per gender and age of the Spanish population who adheres to the SDS typologies (man-favorable, woman-favorable, egalitarian, ambivalent) by considering sexual freedom and sexual shyness areas. A sample of 2,002 Spanish heterosexual adults (50% men, 50% women), distributed into four age groups (18-25, 26-35, 36-55 and over 55 years old), answered the Sexual Double Standard Scale. The results showed differences in the prevalence of SDS typologies by gender and age. By gender, a higher prevalence of the man-favorable typology was observed in men and a higher prevalence of the egalitarian typology and the woman-favorable typology was observed in women. By age groups, significant differences in man-favorable and woman-favorable typologies were found in both men and women. Based on the evidence of four adherence to SDS typologies, it is recommended studying the relation of these typologies with sexual aggression/victimization to design more efficient programs for prevention and intervention of sexual violence


El doble estándar sexual (DES) consiste en evaluar los mismos comportamientos sexuales en hombres y mujeres usando diferentes criterios. El apoyo al DES favorable al hombre está relacionado con la agresión y la victimización sexual. Sin embargo, hasta la fecha, los estudios no han examinado la prevalencia de la adhesión al DES. Este estudio pretende identificar la prevalencia por género y edad de la población española que se adhiere a las tipologías de DES (favorable al hombre, favorable a la mujer, igualitaria, ambivalente) considerando los ámbitos de la libertad sexual y del recato sexual. Una muestra de 2.002 adultos heterosexuales españoles (50% hombres, 50% mujeres), distribuidos en cuatro grupos de edad (18-25, 26-35, 36-55 y más de 55 años), respondió a la Sexual Double Standard Scale. Los resultados mostraron diferencias en la prevalencia de las tipologías de DES por género y edad. Por género se observó una mayor prevalencia de la tipología favorable al hombre en los hombres y una mayor prevalencia de la tipología igualitaria y la tipología favorable a la mujer en las mujeres. Por grupos de edad se encontraron diferencias significativas en las tipologías favorable al hombre y favorable a la mujer, tanto en hombres como en mujeres. De acuerdo con la evidencia de las cuatro tipologías de adhesión al DES, se recomienda estudiar la relación de estas tipologías con la agresión/victimización sexual para diseñar programas más eficientes de prevención de la violencia sexual e intervención en la misma

2.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 78, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information and communications technologies (ICTs) have empowered people to communicate and network at a global scale. However, there is lack of in-depth understanding of the use of ICTs for women's empowerment. This study examines how the concept empowerment is defined, utilized and measured in research studies, the existing evidence on the use of ICTs for women's empowerment and the gaps in knowledge at the global level. METHODS: The authors' conducted a scoping review using the Arksey and O'Malley methodology. The search identified papers from ten databases, including Scopus, Embase, ABI Inform, Soc Index, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies, Springer Link, PsychInfo, Science Direct, and Academic Search Complete over the period of 2012-2018. Search criteria included articles that focused on women's empowerment and utilized technologies as interventions. Out of a total of 4481 articles that were initially identified, 51 were included. RESULTS: Technology played a variety of roles in supporting the development of women's capacities and resources. Results revealed the use of ICT interventions in the overarching areas of outreach (e.g., health promotion), education (e.g., health literacy opportunities), lifestyle (e.g., peer coaching and planning), prevention (e.g., screening opportunities), health challenges (e.g., intimate partner violence apps), and perceptions of barriers (i.e., uptake, utilization and ubiquity to ICTs for women). Despite the positive use of technology to support women in their daily lives, there was a lack of consensus regarding the definition and use of the term empowerment. The concept of empowerment was also inconsistently and poorly measured in individual studies making it difficult to determine if it was achieved. CONCLUSION: This scoping review provides a comprehensive review of current and emerging efforts to use ICTs to empower women. The findings suggest a need for collaborative efforts between researchers, program implementers and policy makers as well as the various communities of women to address the persistent gender disparities with respect to ICTs.

3.
Med Confl Surviv ; : 1-19, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567882

RESUMO

This paper sets out to explore sexual violence in armed conflict from the perspective of the combatants themselves. We interviewed combatants in South Kivu in eastern DRC about their experiences with sexual violence, what they think causes it, and how it might be mitigated. Although respondents in this study strongly believe that sexual violence is a serious crime and an immoral act which should be avoided in their ranks, they sometimes perpetrate it systematically, suggesting a disconnect between their good soldiering ideals and own actions. Combatants report that they want to protect women and men in armed conflicts, but the contexts in which they operate lead them, contrary to their wishes, to behave violently against the civilians they are supposed to protect. To mitigate sexual violence in armed conflicts they propose improving their socioeconomic conditions, getting rid of militias and uniting the Congolese army, punishing perpetrators and adequately training new soldiers joining the united army.

4.
Injury ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612252

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Injuries have been a major cause of premature mortality and short-term and long-term disability in Mexico. OBJECTIVE: To report the findings from the Global Burden of Disease 2019 study on injuries in Mexico at a national and subnational scale from 1990 to 2019. METHODS: Following the 2019 Global Burden of Disease study we examined injury mortality, premature mortality, years lived with disability and disability-adjusted life-years according to 14 subcategories. We calculated the Pearson correlation coefficient between the injury burden and the socio-demographic index. RESULTS: While the number of deaths from injuries increased significantly, the changes in the age-standardized mortality rates trended towards declines. Interpersonal violence, road injuries, falls and self-harm accounted for 8 of every 10 deaths from injury in 2019. Injury mortality and the disability-adjusted life-years rates decreased nationally and in most states in the period as a whole, but have increased since 2007. The injury burden was higher for men in all age groups. Interpersonal violence caused the highest disability-adjusted life-years rate in males and road injuries in females. The socio-demographic index increased in all states, while the injury age-standardized disability-adjusted life-years rates between 1990 and 2019 decreased, but there was no statistical association between both indicators. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study represents a comprehensive review of injury burden of disease in Mexico. The injury burden decreased, but improved heterogeneously among states. To further reduce the injury burden of disease, it's necessary for federal, state and local governments to prioritize safety promotion and injury prevention programs, infrastructure improvements, legislation, and enforcement at a national and subnational level. Mexico's injury prevention efforts should also be tailored for specific age groups, such as males aged 20-49 years or females in the younger and older age groups, and high-burden areas.

5.
Work ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612524
6.
Work ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nowadays, workplace violence is found to be a mental health hazard and considered a crucial topic. The collaboration between robots and humans is increasing with the growth of Industry 4.0. Therefore, the first problem that must be solved is human-machine security. Ensuring the safety of human beings is one of the main aspects of human-robotic interaction. This is not just about preventing collisions within a shared space among human beings and robots; it includes all possible means of harm for an individual, from physical contact to unpleasant or dangerous psychological effects. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, Non-linear Adaptive Heuristic Mathematical Model (NAHMM) has been proposed for the prevention of workplace violence using security Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC). Human-Robot Collaboration (HRC) is an area of research with a wide range of up-demands, future scenarios, and potential economic influence. HRC is an interdisciplinary field of research that encompasses cognitive sciences, classical robotics, and psychology. RESULTS: The robot can thus make the optimal decision between actions that expose its capabilities to the human being and take the best steps given the knowledge that is currently available to the human being. Further, the ideal policy can be measured carefully under certain observability assumptions. CONCLUSION: The system is shown on a collaborative robot and is compared to a state of the art security system. The device is experimentally demonstrated. The new system is being evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively.

7.
Eval Program Plann ; 86: 101918, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578229

RESUMO

One in three women globally will experience intimate partner violence (IPV) with devastating consequences for individual survivors, their families and communities. While prevalence remains high, violence against women is not inevitable and community mobilization approaches have emerged as particularly promising for transforming the gender inequitable norms and practices that underlie violence. The SASA! Activist Kit to Prevent Violence Against Women (SASA!), developed by Raising Voices in 2008, provides a theory-based approach for mobilizing communities to transform power imbalances between women and men through critical discussion and positive action. In this article, we provide the rational for revising SASA! after ten years of program learning and formal research. We aim to contribute to the knowledge base around what works to prevent IPV by describing the core enhancements in the revised version--called SASA! Together-and linking these changes to Raising Voices' program learning and broader advancements in the field. In addition, we reflect on how current debates-such as how best to "scale up" violence prevention programs-were considered and resolved in SASA! Together. The paper concludes by sharing lessons learned that may provide guidance for future revisions development and revisions of evidenced-based programs.

8.
Lancet ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617768

RESUMO

New diagnoses of HIV infection have decreased among women in the USA overall, but marked racial and geographical disparities persist. The federal government has announced an initiative that aims to decrease the number of new infections in the nation by 90% within the next 10 years. With this in mind, we highlight important recent developments concerning HIV epidemiology, comorbidities, treatment, and prevention among women in the USA. We conclude that, to end the US HIV epidemic, substantially greater inclusion of US women in clinical research will be required, as will better prevention and treatment efforts, with universal access to health care and other supportive services that enable women to exercise agency in their own HIV prevention and care. Ending the epidemic will also require eliminating the race, class, and gender inequities, as well as the discrimination and structural violence, that have promoted and maintained the distribution of HIV in the USA, and that will, if unchecked, continue to fuel the epidemic in the future.

9.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260521997441, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618574

RESUMO

Intersectional approaches have challenged the field of domestic violence to pay more attention to diversity in women's experiences and highlighted the significance of their social contexts and positions, such as class, race, religion, in shaping their understanding of and responses to violence. In the dating violence (DV) literature, a similar call has been made to develop contextualized accounts of DV and to address the heterogeneity of young people through DV prevention programs. Nevertheless, to date, intersectional thinking has not been fully utilized in DV research. The present study aims to address this gap in the literature and investigate how young people make sense of and experience DV from an intersectional perspective in an urban Turkish context. The data for the current study came from individual interviews conducted with 39 college students, aged 18-25. The interviews inquired into how young people understood, explained, and experienced DV. The interviews were analyzed thematically, culminating into four main themes: (a) DV as control, (b) DV as resulting from traditional gender norms, (c) DV as women's fault, and (d) DV-related socialization processes. Some of these main themes were interpreted and experienced differently by the participants depending on their gender and the impact of traditional, Islamic, and egalitarian discourses on their accounts. The result demonstrated nuanced differences in young people's meaning-making perspectives, needs, and vulnerabilities to DV. In the Turkish context, these results are intended to inform the burgeoning field of DV research and to guide the development of diversity-informed, culturally tailored, and context-sensitive prevention practices.

10.
Psychiatry Res ; 298: 113793, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582528

RESUMO

The research evidence is very strong for high recidivism rates of violence after discharge from forensic facilities. Big data research has found that a substantial proportion of the forensic population with relapse into violence has a psychosis diagnosis and a criminal record. However, more research on the association between psychotic symptoms and violence may inform and enhance risk assessment, prevention, and treatment. We conducted a prospective naturalistic study with a repeated measures design in a sample of 22 psychotic patients during follow-up after discharge from forensic mental health facilities. We had three aims: to test the predictive validity of three psychotic symptom scales for violence, to analyze main and interaction effects between psychotic symptoms and previous criminal conviction, and to explore the feasibility and potential benefit of the repeated measures design for prospective follow-up research. Interpreted within the limitation of the small sample size, the results were promising for all scales, particularly for adjusted effects without interaction. Two scales remained significant when their interaction with criminal conviction was adjusted. This indicates that risk judgment of psychotic patients with criminal conviction can be improved by adding measurement of fluctuations in psychotic symptoms. The repeated measures design was instrumental in this research.

11.
Addict Behav ; 117: 106869, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been a tremendous increase in the use of smartphones among college students and alongside the benefits there is growing concern over problematic/addictive smartphone use (PSU). Among the most robust predictors of behavioral and substance use disorders are a subset of adverse childhood experiences conceptualized as household dysfunction (HHD). Despite the high prevalence of HHD and risk of PSU among college students, research investigating the link between HHD and PSU among college populations is sparse, especially in the United States. METHODS: Students (N = 351) from a diverse, southern California university responded to an online survey. Regression models assessed the association between HHD (e.g., parent alcohol and drug use, mental health, incarceration, suicide, intimate partner violence, separation/divorce, and homelessness; categorized into 0, 1-3, and 4 or more) and PSU using Smartphone Addiction Scale short version (SAS-SV) scale, adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: Over 50% of students reported at least one type of household dysfunction and about 25% were at high risk for PSU. Compared to students who report no household stressors, students with 1-3 had twice the odds (AOR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.13-3.83) and students with 4 or more had four times the odds (AOR: 4.01, 95% CI: 2.35-6.82) of PSU, after adjusting for covariates. There were no sex differences in this association. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that household dysfunction can increase the likelihood of developing behavioral disorders such as PSU. Implications for prevention efforts are discussed.

12.
Child Abuse Negl ; 115: 104993, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are potentially traumatic childhood events associated with negative health outcomes. Limited data on ACEs exists from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). No ACEs studies have been done in Honduras. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the prevalence of ACEs in Honduras and associated health risks and risk behaviors among young adults. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Data from the 2017 Honduras Violence Against Children and Youth Survey (VACS) were used. Analyses were restricted to participants ages 18-24 years (n = 2701). METHODS: This study uses nationally representative VACS data to estimate the weighted prevalence of ACEs (physical, emotional, and sexual violence; witnessing violence; parental migration). Logistic regression analyses assessed the relationship between individual ACEs, cumulative ACEs, and health risks and risk behaviors (psychological distress; suicide ideation or self-harm; binge drinking; smoking; drug use; STIs; early pregnancy). Chi-square tests examined differences by sex. RESULTS: An estimated 77 % of 18-24 year olds in Honduras experienced at least 1 ACE and 39 % experienced 3+ ACEs. Women experienced significantly more sexual, emotional, and physical violence compared to men. Compared to youth with no ACEs, those with 1-2 ACEs and 3+ ACEs had 1.8 and 2.8 increased odds for psychological distress, 2.3 and 6.4 increased odds for suicidal ideation and self-harm, and 1.7 and 1.9 increased odds for smoking, respectively, adjusting for age, education, and food insecurity. Physical violence victimization and witnessing violence in the community were associated with increased odds of all health risks and risk behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of ACEs and associated negative health risks and risk behaviors in this population support the need for prevention and early intervention for ACEs.

13.
Lancet Glob Health ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Violence is a leading global public health problem, and interventions in early childhood are important in the primary prevention of violence. We tested whether the Irie Classroom Toolbox, a violence-prevention teacher-training programme reduced violence against children by teachers and reduced class-wide child aggression in Jamaican preschools (catering to children aged 3-6 years). METHODS: We did a single-blind, cluster-randomised controlled trial in 76 preschools in Kingston and St Andrew, randomly selected, using simple randomisation, from 120 eligible preschools. Inclusion criteria were two to four classes of children; at least ten children per class; and located in an urban area. We randomly assigned preschools (1:1) to either the Irie Classroom Toolbox intervention or waiting-list control that received no intervention, using a computer-generated randomisation sequence by an independent statistician masked to school identity. The Toolbox involved training teachers in classroom behaviour management and promoting child social-emotional competence. All assessors were masked to group assignment. All teachers and classrooms in the selected schools participated in the study. Within each school, we used simple randomisation to randomly select up to 12 children aged 4 years for evaluation of child outcomes. The Toolbox intervention was implemented from August to April the following year. Teacher and classroom measures were done at baseline (the summer school term; ie, May to June), post-intervention (after 8 months of intervention; ie, May to June of the following year), and 1-year follow-up (ie, May to June 2 years later). The primary outcomes were observations of violence against children (including physical violence and psychological aggression) by teachers occurring across one full school day, and class-wide child aggression occurring over five 20-min intervals on another school day, all measured at post-intervention and 1-year follow-up and analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN11968472. FINDINGS: Between June 22, 2015, and April 29, 2016, (after baseline measurements were completed), we assigned 38 preschools (with 119 teachers) to the Toolbox intervention and 38 preschools (with 110 teachers) to control. 441 children in the intervention schools and 424 in the control schools were included in the evaluation. All schools were included in the post-intervention and follow-up analyses. There were fewer counts of violence against children by teachers in the intervention schools compared with control schools at post-intervention (median counts 3 [IQR 0-11] vs 15 [3-35]; effect size -67·12%, 95% CI -80·71 to -53·52, p<0·0001) and 1-year follow-up (median counts 3 [IQR 0-9] vs 6 [1-16]; effect size -53·86, 95% CI -71·08 to -36·65, p<0·0001). No differences between groups were found for class-wide child aggression at post-intervention (effect size 0·07, 95% CI -0·16 to 0·29, p=0·72) or 1-year follow-up (-0·14, -0·42 to 0·16, p=0·72). INTERPRETATION: In Jamaican preschools, the Irie Classroom Toolbox effectively reduced violence against children by teachers. The Toolbox was designed for use with undertrained teachers working in low-resource settings and should be effective with early childhood practitioners in other LMICs. Additional research is needed to further develop the Toolbox to reduce class-wide child aggression. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, UK Aid, and the National Institute of Health Research.

14.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 405, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High rates of maternal mortality and intimate partner violence (IPV) are both major worldwide health challenges. Evidence from single-country samples suggests that IPV may be an important risk factor for low utilization of maternal health services, but there is little large-scale evidence on this association. This paper evaluates whether IPV is a risk factor for low utilization of maternal health services in a large cross-country sample, and also compiles evidence on the relative effects of different forms of IPV. METHODS: We analyze the association between intimate partner violence and utilization of maternal health care, using a dataset compiling all Demographic and Health Surveys that report data on intimate partner violence. Using data on 166,685 women observed in 36 countries between 2005 and 2016, we estimate logistic regression models to analyze the relationship between lifetime experience of IPV and utilization of antenatal care (ANC), facility delivery care, and postnatal care. We estimate both unadjusted models and models adjusted for geographic and sociodemographic characteristics that are generally correlated with utilization of maternal health care (including age, education, number of children, wealth status, marital status, and urbanity). RESULTS: Lifetime experience of any IPV is associated with decreased use of maternal health services in a broad sample of births observed in lower and middle-income countries: in particular, the utilization of four or more ANC visits, the number of ANC visits, and the utilization of facility care at birth. This association remains statistically significant even after adjusting for country of residence, subnational region of residence, and additional individual-level covariates; however, there is no statistically significant association between experience of any IPV and postnatal care. The only form of IPV significantly associated with care utilization is physical IPV. CONCLUSIONS: Women experiencing physical intimate partner violence show lower levels of utilization of maternal health services in a large sample of developing and middle-income countries. Given that reduced utilization of maternal health services is correlated with maternal and neonatal health outcomes, this pattern suggests that IPV prevention may be an important component of interventions targeting enhanced maternal and neonatal health.

15.
Emerg Radiol ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629191

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the pattern and distribution of lower extremity injuries in victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective radiological review of 688 patients reporting IPV to our institution's violence intervention and prevention program between January 2013 and June 2018 identified 88 patients with 154 lower extremity injuries. All lower extremity injuries visible on radiological studies were analyzed. Concomitant, recurrent, and associated injuries were also collected, in addition to the demographic data. RESULTS: The injuries consisted of 103 fractures, 46 soft tissue injuries, and 5 dislocations. The foot was the most common site of injury representing 39% (60/154) of total injuries, 48% (49/103) of fractures, 17% (8/46) of soft tissue injuries, and 3 dislocations. The ankle was the second most common site of injury representing 30% (47/154) of total injuries, 20% (21/103) of fractures, and 57% (26/46) of soft tissue injuries. Recurrent injuries of the lower extremity were seen in 30% (26/88) of victims who had 74 recurrent injuries. The most common sites of recurrent injury were the foot and ankle, representing 72% (53/74) of recurrent injuries. CONCLUSION: Recurrent injuries of the foot and ankle, synchronous craniofacial injuries, and upper extremity injuries in young women (<35 years) should prompt radiologists to consider IPV.

16.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine patterns and trends of firearm injuries in a nationally representative sample of US women. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Gun violence in the United States exceeds rates seen in most other industrialized countries. Due to the paucity of data little is known regarding demographics and temporal variations in firearm injuries among women. METHODS: Data was extracted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (2001 - 2017) for women 18 years and older. Number of non-fatal firearm assaults and homicide per year were extracted and crude population-based injury rates were calculated. Sub-stratification by age-group and time period were performed. RESULTS: Between 2001 and 2017, there were 88,823 non-fatal firearm assaults involving women and 29,106 firearm homicides. There were 4,116 victims of non-fatal firearm assault in 2001 (3.8 per 10) and 12,959 by 2017 (10.0 per 10). Homicide rates were 1.5 per 10 in 2001 and 1.7 per 10 in 2017. Sub-stratification by age-group and time period showed that there were no significant changes in non-fatal firearm assault rates between 2001 and 2010 (P-trend = 0.132 in 18 - 44 yo; 0.298 in 45 - 64 yo). However between 2011 and 2017, non-fatal assault rates increased from 7.10 per 10 to 19.24 per 10 in 18 - 44 yo (P-trend = 0.013) and from 1.48 per 10 to 3.93 per 10 in 45 - 64 yo (P-trend = 0.003). Similar trends were seen with firearm homicide among 18 - 44 yo (1.91 per 10 to 2.47 per 10 in 2011-2017, P-trend = 0.022). However, the trends among 45 - 64 yo were not significant in both time periods. CONCLUSIONS: Female victims of gun violence are increasing and more recent years have been marked with higher rates of firearm injuries, particularly among younger women. These data suggest that improved public health strategies and policies may be beneficial in reducing gun violence against US women.

17.
Trauma Violence Abuse ; : 1524838021995951, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a well-known public health problem occurring worldwide. With a multisectoral approach being emphasized in addressing IPV, the health sector has a key role to play due to many IPV victims who appear in health facilities without their needs being met. A well-designed and implemented IPV curriculum is necessary for effectively training health care professionals to provide quality IPV care and related services. This integrative review was conducted to establish evidence for existing curricular limitations and recommendations for training health care providers to respond to IPV. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted for studies published from 2000 to 2020 in five databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Google, and Scholar). As a criterion, studies that reported curricular limitations in training health care providers/professionals to address IPV were included. A total of 198 studies were identified for screening, with 16 studies meeting the inclusion criteria and included in the review. FINDINGS: Curricular limitations for IPV response training for health care providers were reported in the following areas (themes): time allocated for the training, amount of content in the existing curricula, institutional endorsement for the content, IPV response teachers/facilitators, teaching and learning strategies, and funding to support curricular implementation. Various recommendations to improving IPV response training were provided including guaranteeing the training in all courses, increasing academic capability to teach the content, allocation of funding to improve infrastructure for curriculum development and implementation, comprehensive approaches to teaching, and continuing education for health care providers.

18.
Am J Public Health ; 111(3): 339-341, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566646
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572756

RESUMO

(1) Background: This study examines the associations between risk behaviours and adolescent emotional and physical dating and relationship violence (DRV) victimisation and perpetration, and how these vary by gender. The risk behaviours explored include bullying, cyberbullying, sexting, alcohol, and cannabis use; (2) Methods: Cross-sectional self-report data from the School Health Research Network (SHRN) 2019 Student Health Wellbeing (SHW) survey of 48,397 students aged 11-16 from 149 schools across Wales were analysed using single and multiple-behaviour logistic regression models to explore the associations between each risk behaviour and emotional and physical DRV victimisation and perpetration; (3) Results: Bivariate analyses revealed a statistically significant association between DRV and all risk behaviours. In multivariate analyses, students who reported bullying, cyberbullying, sexting, and substance use, compared to those that had not, had significantly higher odds of experiencing and perpetrating emotional and physical DRV; and (4) Conclusions: Future studies on DRV should consider a mixed-methods approach to explore the context in which DRV and risk behaviours interrelate. Results from this study indicate the possibility that prevention and intervention programmes in school settings that seek to develop healthy school environments and peer-to-peer relationships, could inadvertently reduce the occurrence of future DRV and associated risk behaviours.

20.
Obes Res Clin Pract ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518485

RESUMO

Obesity has been steadily rising in the last few decades and to some extent, have been linked to exposure of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). ACEs are intense stressors or traumatic events experienced or witnessed by children, ranging from all types of abuse (physical, emotional, and sexual), neglect, substance abuse or community violence. These traumatic events deprive the sense of safety and stability of a child, leaving psychological and physiological effects that span into adulthood. The prevalence of ACEs is common across developed and developing countries alike, though the rates differ across ethnicities. Using the United States as an example, the prevalence of ACEs experienced by communities of color is higher than white children. Children around the world could all be exposed to ACEs, hence the original questionnaire capturing the score of ACE has been adapted to different cultural situations. The mechanism linking ACEs to obesity during adulthood include biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Nevertheless, a higher ACE score heightens the risk of poor mental health, attempted suicide and development of obesity and diabetes in adulthood. Prevention of ACEs starts from building positive relationships within families, developing healthy relationship skills, and screening of ACEs during early and routine pediatrician's and primary care visits. Intervention needs to include case management services and psychosocial support programs. When these risk factors are intervened early, it lessens the risk of obesity and diabetes in adulthood.

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