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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 303, 2021 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765944

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Proper detection of disease-causing organisms is very critical in controlling the course of outbreaks and avoiding large-scale epidemics. Nonetheless, availability of resources to address these gaps have been difficult due to limited funding. This report sought to highlight the importance of in-country partners and non-governmental organizations in improving detection of microbiological organisms in Ghanaian Public Health Laboratories (PHLs). METHODS/CONTEXT: This study was conducted between June, 2018 to August, 2019. U. S CDC engaged the Centre for Health Systems Strengthening (CfHSS) through the Association of Public Health Laboratories to design and implement strategies for strengthening three PHLs in Ghana. An assessment of the three PHLs was done using the WHO/CDS/CSR/ISR/2001.2 assessment tool. Based on findings from the assessments, partner organizations (CfHSS/APHL/CDC) serviced and procured microbiological equipment, laboratory reagents and logistics. CfHSS provided in-house mentoring and consultants to assist with capacity building in detection of epidemic-prone infectious pathogens by performing microbiological cultures and antimicrobial susceptibility tests. RESULTS: A total of 3902 samples were tested: blood (1107), urine (1742), stool (249) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (804). All-inclusive, 593 pathogenic bacteria were isolated from blood cultures (70; 11.8%); urine cultures (356; 60%); stool cultures (19; 3.2%) and from CSF samples (148; 25%). The most predominant pathogens isolated from blood, urine and stool were Staphylococcus aureus (22/70; 31%), Escherichia coli (153/356; 43%) and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (5/19; 26.3%), respectively. In CSF samples, Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequent pathogen detected (80/148; 54.1%). New bacterial species such as Pastuerella pneumotropica, Klebsiella oxytoca, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Halfnia alvei were also identified with the aid of Analytical Profile Index (API) kits that were introduced as part of this implementation. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis detections in CSF were highest during the hot dry season. Antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed high rate of S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and E. coli resistance to gentamicin (35-55%). In urine, E. coli was highly resistant to ciprofloxacin (39.2%) and ampicillin (34%). CONCLUSION: Detection of epidemic-prone pathogens can be greatly improved if laboratory capacity is strengthened. In-country partner organizations are encouraged to support this move to ensure accurate diagnosis of diseases and correct antimicrobial testing.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Sangre/microbiología , Líquido Cefalorraquídeo/microbiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/efectos de los fármacos , Heces/microbiología , Ghana , Humanos , Laboratorios , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Organizaciones , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estaciones del Año , Orina/microbiología
2.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 30, 2021 01 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413461

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has caused a global pandemic and the death toll is increasing. However, there is no definitive information regarding the type of clinical specimens that is the best for SARS-CoV-2 detection, the antibody levels in patients with different duration of disease, and the relationship between antibody level and viral load. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs, anal swabs, saliva, blood, and urine specimens were collected from patients with a course of disease ranging from 7 to 69 days. Viral load in different specimen types was measured using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Meanwhile, anti-nucleocapsid protein (anti-N) IgM and IgG antibodies and anti-spike protein receptor-binding domain (anti-S-RBD) IgG antibody in all serum samples were tested using ELISA. RESULTS: The positive detection rate in nasopharyngeal swab was the highest (54.05%), followed by anal swab (24.32%), and the positive detection rate in saliva, blood, and urine was 16.22%, 10.81%, and 5.41%, respectively. However, some patients with negative nasopharyngeal swabs had other specimens tested positive. There was no significant correlation between antibody level and days after symptoms onset or viral load. CONCLUSIONS: Other specimens could be positive in patients with negative nasopharyngeal swabs, suggesting that for patients in the recovery period, specimens other than nasopharyngeal swabs should also be tested to avoid false negative results, and anal swabs are recommended. The antibody level had no correlation with days after symptoms onset or the viral load of nasopharyngeal swabs, suggesting that the antibody level may also be affected by other factors.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , /virología , /aislamiento & purificación , Carga Viral , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Canal Anal/virología , Sangre/virología , China/epidemiología , Reacciones Falso Negativas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nasofaringe/virología , Pandemias , Saliva/virología , Manejo de Especímenes , Factores de Tiempo , Investigación en Medicina Traslacional , Orina/virología
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2241: 15-25, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486724

RESUMEN

The choice of isolation technique for human peripheral blood eosinophils contributes to the understanding of clinically relevant data derived from in vitro research. Since the 1990s, eosinophils have been conventionally isolated via density gradient centrifugation followed by negative immunomagnetic selection using anti-CD16 antibody-coated magnetic beads. Due to recent advancements in molecular techniques, "newer" methods have been made commercially available that drastically reduce user handling and processing time while maintaining high population purity. Here, we describe an isolation procedure using one of these methods, the human MACSxpress® Whole Blood Isolation Kit, as well as outline protocols for differential staining and flow cytometry analysis to evaluate the purity and activation state of isolated cells. In addition, we highlight an in vitro degranulation assay that may be used to verify the intact functionality of the isolated eosinophils.


Asunto(s)
Separación Celular/métodos , Eosinófilos/citología , Eosinófilos/fisiología , Sangre/metabolismo , Células Sanguíneas/citología , Centrifugación por Gradiente de Densidad/métodos , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Citometría de Flujo/métodos , Humanos , Separación Inmunomagnética/métodos , Recuento de Leucocitos/métodos , Receptores de IgG/inmunología
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2241: 27-35, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486725

RESUMEN

Eosinophils are granulocytes involved mainly in allergic inflammation and parasitic responses and constitute 1-5% of the circulating leukocytes in human healthy subjects. New immunotherapies targeting eosinophils have been developed and evaluated recently, and the availability of animal models that could mimic human eosinophil responses is important to consider. Differences in eosinophil biology and pathogenesis between humans and murine models have limited their utility in some settings. Isolation of viable eosinophils from rhesus macaque blood suitable for ex vivo and in vitro experimentation could provide a valuable tool for the study of eosinophil-targeted therapies and for the exploration of eosinophilic associated responses. Here, a new technique for the isolation of human eosinophils from rhesus macaque blood by negative selection from whole blood is described.


Asunto(s)
Separación Celular/métodos , Eosinófilos/citología , Eosinófilos/fisiología , Animales , Sangre/metabolismo , Células Sanguíneas/citología , Centrifugación por Gradiente de Densidad/métodos , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Citometría de Flujo/métodos , Separación Inmunomagnética/métodos , Recuento de Leucocitos/métodos , Macaca mulatta/inmunología , Receptores de IgG/inmunología
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2241: 49-58, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486727

RESUMEN

Flow cytometry is a critical tool that can be employed to detect unique cells and to isolate cells from tissues based on their antigen profiles. While mouse eosinophils can be readily detected by one or more distinct antigen profiles, many of these strategies do not result in accurate eosinophil counts. We present here our basic protocol, which permits quantitative detection of eosinophils and isolation of eosinophils from bone marrow, spleen, and lung tissue of allergen-challenged wild-type and unchallenged IL5 transgenic mice. With small protocol variations, eosinophils can be isolated from small intestines and muscle tissue, the latter from infiltrates characteristic of muscular dystrophy (mdx) mice.


Asunto(s)
Separación Celular/métodos , Eosinófilos/citología , Citometría de Flujo/métodos , Alérgenos/inmunología , Animales , Sangre/metabolismo , Células Sanguíneas/citología , Médula Ósea/inmunología , Células de la Médula Ósea/citología , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Eosinófilos/fisiología , Femenino , Separación Inmunomagnética/métodos , Recuento de Leucocitos/métodos , Pulmón/citología , Pulmón/inmunología , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos mdx , Ratones Transgénicos , Receptores de IgG/inmunología , Bazo/citología , Bazo/inmunología
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 443-456, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33505159

RESUMEN

Introduction: Cellular nanovesicles (CNVs), that are shed from cells, have been recognized as promising indicators of health status. We analyzed the effect of long-distance running on concentration of CNVs, along with some standard blood parameters, in 27 athletes two days before and >15 hours after physical effort. Methods: CNVs were isolated by repetitive centrifugation and washing of samples, and assessed by flow cytometry. Cholinesterase (ChE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity were measured spectrophotometrically. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured with immunoturbidimetric determination and lipidogram parameters were measured by enzymatic colorimetric assay. Flow cytometry was used for blood cell count and mean platelet volume (MPV) measurement. Results: More than 15 hours after physical effort a decrease was found in CNVs' concentration in isolates from blood (46%; p<0.05), in ChE activity in whole blood (47%; p<0.001), in plasma (34%; p<0.01), and in erythrocyte suspension (54%; p<0.001), as well as in GST activity in erythrocyte suspension (16%; p<0.01) and in IL-6 concentration in plasma (63%; p<0.05). We found no change in GST activity in plasma and in TNF-α concentration in plasma. Correlations (>0.8; p<0.001) between CNVs' concentration and ChE activity, and GST activity, respectively, in erythrocyte suspension were found. Conclusion: We found that >15 hours post-physical effort, CNVs' concentration was below the initial value, concomitant with other measured parameters: ChE and GST activity as well as IL-6 concentration, indicating a favorable effect of physical effort on health status. CNVs' concentration and ChE activity in isolates from peripheral blood proved to have potential as indicators of the response of the human body to inflammation after physical effort. Physical activity should be considered as an important factor in preparation of subjects for blood sampling in procedures focusing on CNV-containing diagnostic and therapeutic compounds.


Asunto(s)
Atletas , Sangre/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Adulto , Recuento de Células Sanguíneas , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Eritrocitos/metabolismo , Femenino , Citometría de Flujo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangre , Lípidos/química , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Esfuerzo Físico/fisiología , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/sangre , Adulto Joven
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 76, 2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482887

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak to be a pandemic. As the mosquito season progressed, the understandable concern that mosquitoes could transmit the virus began to increase among the general public and public health organisations. We have investigated the vector competence of Culex pipiens and Aedes albopictus, the two most common species of vector mosquitoes in Europe, for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Due to the very unusual feeding behaviour of Ae. albopictus, we also evaluated the role of this mosquito in a potential mechanical transmission of the virus. METHODS: For the vector competence study, mosquitoes were allowed to take several infectious blood meals. The mosquitoes were then collected and analysed at 0, 3, 7 and 10 days post-feeding. For the mechanical transmission test, Ae. albopictus females were allowed to feed for a short time on a feeder containing infectious blood and then on a feeder containing virus-free blood. Both mosquitoes and blood were tested for viral presence. RESULTS: Culex pipiens and Ae. albopictus were found not be competent vectors for SARS-CoV-2, and Ae. albopictus was unable to mechanically transmit the virus. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show that the most common species of vector mosquitoes in Europe do not transmit SARS-CoV-2 and that Ae. albopictus is unable to mechanically transmit the virus from a positive host to a healthy host through host-feeding.


Asunto(s)
Aedes/virología , Culex/virología , Mosquitos Vectores/virología , /fisiología , Animales , Sangre/virología , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , ARN Viral/análisis , ARN Viral/aislamiento & purificación , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Ovinos/sangre
8.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200339, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503145

RESUMEN

We evaluated sweat, blood and urine specimens obtained from an ongoing cohort study in Brazil. Samples were collected at pre-established intervals after the initial rash presentation and tested for Zika virus (ZIKV) RNA presence by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). From 254 participants with confirmed infection, ZIKV RNA was detected in the sweat of 46 individuals (18.1%). Sweat presented a median cycle threshold (Ct) of 34.74 [interquartile range (IQR) 33.44-36.04], comparable to plasma (Ct 35.96 - IQR 33.29-36.69) and higher than urine (Ct 30.78 - IQR 28.72-33.22). Concomitant detection with other specimens was observed in 33 (72%) of 46 participants who had a positive result in sweat. These findings represent an unusual and not yet investigated virus shedding through eccrine glands.


Asunto(s)
ARN Viral/genética , Sudor/virología , Infección por el Virus Zika/diagnóstico , Virus Zika/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Sangre/virología , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , ARN Viral/clasificación , ARN Viral/aislamiento & purificación , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Orina/virología , Virus Zika/genética , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología
9.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 1, 2021 01 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388088

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Targeted amplicon deep sequencing (TADS) has enabled characterization of diverse bacterial communities, yet the application of TADS to communities of parasites has been relatively slow to advance. The greatest obstacle to this has been the genetic diversity of parasitic agents, which include helminths, protozoa, arthropods, and some acanthocephalans. Meanwhile, universal amplification of conserved loci from all parasites without amplifying host DNA has proven challenging. Pan-eukaryotic PCRs preferentially amplify the more abundant host DNA, obscuring parasite-derived reads following TADS. Flaherty et al. (2018) described a pan-parasitic TADS method involving amplification of eukaryotic 18S rDNA regions possessing restriction sites only in vertebrates. Using this method, host DNA in total DNA extracts could be selectively digested prior to PCR using restriction enzymes, thereby increasing the number of parasite-derived reads obtained following NGS. This approach showed promise though was only as sensitive as conventional PCR. RESULTS: Here, we expand on this work by designing a second set of pan-eukaryotic primers flanking the priming sites already described, enabling nested PCR amplification of the established 18S rDNA target. This nested approach facilitated introduction of a second restriction digestion between the first and second PCR, reducing the proportional mass of amplifiable host-derived DNA while increasing the number of PCR amplification cycles. We applied this method to blood specimens containing Babesia, Plasmodium, various kinetoplastids, and filarial nematodes and confirmed its limit of detection (LOD) to be approximately 10-fold lower than previously described, falling within the range of most qPCR methods. CONCLUSIONS: The assay detects and differentiates the major malaria parasites of humans, along with several other clinically important blood parasites. This represents an important step towards a TADS-based universal parasite diagnostic (UPDx) test with a sufficient LOD for routine applications. Video Abstract.


Asunto(s)
Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento/métodos , Parásitos/genética , Parásitos/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Sangre/parasitología , Cartilla de ADN/genética , Enzimas de Restricción del ADN/metabolismo , ADN Ribosómico/genética , Humanos , Malaria/parasitología , Parásitos/clasificación , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , ARN Ribosómico 18S/genética
10.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2021.
en Inglés | WHO IRIS | ID: who-340182

Asunto(s)
Sangre , Bancos de Sangre , Guía
12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(6): 627-630, 2020 Apr 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325199

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the quality of malaria blood smears from fever patients in Zibo City from 2011 to 2018, so as to provide the scientific evidence for the development of the malaria post-elimination surveillance strategy. METHODS: All negative malaria blood smears from fever patients reexamined in the municipal microscopic examination station and all positive blood smears in Zibo City during the period from 2011 to 2018 were reexamined, and the blood smear preparation, dyeing, cleanliness and reexamination results were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 2 141 negative malaria blood smears and 39 positive blood smears were re-reviewed by the municipal microscopic examination station of Zibo City from 2011 to 2018, with a 99.44% qualification rate of negative blood smears preparation, a 97.62% qualification rate of dyeing, a 93.65% qualification rate of cleanliness, and a 100% consistence with the re-review, and no missing diagnosis was found. A total of 39 positive blood smears were re-reviewed, with a 46.15% qualification rate of blood smears preparation, a 61.54% qualification rate of dyeing, a 76.92% qualification rate of cleanliness, and a 97.44% consistence with the re-review, and a blood smear mistaking the Plasmodium species was found. There were significant differences in the qualification rate of blood smears preparation and dyeing among all districts (counties) in Zibo City (all P values < 0.05), and no significant difference was detected in the qualification rate of blood smear cleanliness (χ2 = 13.72, P >0.05), while significant differences were seen in the qualification rate of blood smears preparation, dyeing and cleanliness each year from 2011 to 2018 (all P values < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The quality of malaria blood smears is high in all districts of Zibo City; however, the quality of city-level blood smears remains to be improved. Further actions to improve the training of grassroots microscopic examinations and quality control of malaria blood smears are required to ensure the capability of microscopic examinations of Plasmodium during the malaria post-elimination stage.


Asunto(s)
Sangre/parasitología , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/normas , Malaria/diagnóstico , Plasmodium , China , Ciudades , Fiebre/parasitología , Humanos , Malaria/sangre , Microscopía
13.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 58, 2020 Oct 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010808

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids is a major risk factor for the transmission of blood-borne infections to healthcare workers. There are several primary studies in Ethiopia yet they might not be at the national level to quantify the extent of occupational blood and body fluid exposures (splash of blood or other body fluids into the eyes, nose, or mouth) or blood contact with non-intact skin among the healthcare workers. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of occupational blood and body fluid exposure of healthcare workers in Ethiopia. METHODS: PubMed, Science Direct, Hinari, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane library were systematically searched; withal, the references of appended articles were also checked for further possible sources. The Cochrane Q test statistics and I2 tests were used to assess the heterogeneity of the included studies. A random-effects meta-analysis model was used to estimate the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids among healthcare workers in Ethiopia. RESULTS: Of the 641 articles identified through the database search, 36 studies were included in the final analysis. The estimated pooled lifetime and 12-month prevalence on occupational exposure to blood and body fluids among healthcare workers were found to be at 54.95% (95% confidence interval (CI), 48.25-61.65) and 44.24% (95% CI, 36.98-51.51), respectively. The study identified a variation in healthcare workers who were exposed to blood and body fluids across Ethiopian regions. CONCLUSION: The finding of the present study revealed that there was a high level of annual and lifetime exposures to blood and body fluids among healthcare workers in Ethiopia.


Asunto(s)
Sangre , Líquidos Corporales , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Etiopía
14.
Arch Virol ; 165(12): 2847-2856, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034764

RESUMEN

Here, we investigated the fecal, oral, blood, and skin virome of 10 laboratory rabbits using a viral metagenomic method. In the oral samples, we detected a novel polyomavirus (RabPyV), and phylogenetic analysis based on the large T antigen, VP1 and VP2 regions indicated that the novel strain might have undergone a recombination event. Recombination analysis based on related genomes confirmed that RabPyV is a multiple recombinant between rodent-like and avian-like polyomaviruses. In fecal samples, three partial or complete genome sequences of viruses belonging to the families Picobirnaviridae, Parvoviridae, Microviridae and Coronaviridae were characterized, and phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the predicted amino acid sequences of viral proteins. This study increases the amount of genetic information on viruses present in laboratory rabbits.


Asunto(s)
Metagenoma , Poliomavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Conejos/virología , Proteínas Virales/genética , Virus/clasificación , Animales , Animales de Laboratorio/virología , Sangre/virología , Heces/virología , Genoma Viral , Boca/virología , Filogenia , Piel/virología , Virus/aislamiento & purificación , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1632: 461587, 2020 Nov 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059177

RESUMEN

Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), the main fluid in the mobile phase for supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), is non-polar. The majority of polar compounds are little soluble in scCO2, thereby rendering them poor candidates for achieving separation by carbon dioxide-based SFC. There is no reported method for the comprehensive analysis of hydrophilic metabolites by SFC with mobile phases comprising a high CO2 ratio. In this study, we investigated the effect of additives in the modifier for enabling the application of SFC to profile diverse polar compounds for metabolomics. Eleven types of columns were screened by using proteinogenic amino acids as the model compounds. The addition of water and acids (formic acid and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)) to the modifier was also investigated to improve the solubility of the polar compounds and mitigate the unfavorable interaction between the stationary phase and the polar compounds. A significant improvement in the peak shapes of the amino acids was observed upon addition of TFA. The CO2/modifier ratio and TFA concentration in the mobile phases were investigated using the CROWNPAK CR-I (+) column, which showed the best performance during the column-screening. The CO2/methanol/water/TFA ratio of 70/27/3/0.15 (v/v/v/v) was determined as the optimized mobile phase composition. Furthermore, the applicability of the optimized analytical method to other polar compounds was examined; 100 cationic and amphoteric compounds with predicted logPow values that ranged from -5.9 to 1.7 could be simultaneously analyzed without derivatization. Anionic compounds such as organic acids, phosphates, and sugars were excluded from the target analytes. Most of the previously reported SFC methods for analyzing polar compounds employ a gradient elution and require the use of high modifier ratios at 40% or more. In the proposed method, the use of water and TFA enabled the rapid and simultaneous analysis under isocratic elution within 10 min, even with a high CO2 ratio of 70%. Additionally, a rat serum extract was analyzed using the optimized conditions, and 43 polar metabolites were successfully detected. This result demonstrates the applicability of the SFC/tandem mass spectrometry method to real samples.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía con Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Metabolómica/métodos , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Aminoácidos/análisis , Animales , Sangre/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Formiatos/química , Interacciones Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Metanol/química , Ratas , Ácido Trifluoroacético/química , Agua/química
16.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-10-30.
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52966

RESUMEN

Blood transfusions are necessary to improve or save the lives of children with severe anemia, mothers in obstetric emergencies, patients with hemoglobinopathies, cancer patients, transplant patients, patients with chronic age-related diseases, such as bleeding caused by vascular problems and orthopedic surgeries, people injured in accidents, among other causes. Supply and access to safe blood for transfusions are closely related to the organization and degree of development of blood services, with the governance and participation of society through voluntary unpaid donation. Since 2004, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has been collecting and publishing indicators related to blood supply in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. In 2014, the countries of the Region of the Americas reaffirmed their commitment to universal health through the approval of the Action Plan for Universal Access to Safe Blood 2014-2019, approved by the 53rd Directing Council held in October 2014 (CD53.6), this plan promotes universal access to safe blood for transfusion in the region, through unpaid voluntary donations, the organization of blood services, the implementation of quality and safety standards and the implementation of governance actions. The data presented here allows monitoring and reporting on progress and limitations in the implementation of the Action Plan for Universal Access to Safe Blood. Furthermore, it is hoped that these data will promote the analysis and evaluation of the indicators at the national and subregional levels, and that strategies that improve blood safety and accessibility to transfusions will be strengthened or modified. The information was provided by the authorities of the countries and corresponds to the years 2016 and 2017.


Asunto(s)
Sangre , Transfusión Sanguínea , América Latina , Pruebas Serológicas , Vigilancia Sanitaria , Plasma
17.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(5): 551-556, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144208

RESUMEN

Abstract Objectives This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma obtained from the peripheral, autologous blood of the patients in pain complaints reduction and functional improvement of knee osteoarthritis compared with the standard treatment with injectable corticosteroid, such as triamcinolone. Methods The patients were followed-up clinically at the preinfiltrative visit, with quantitative evaluation using the Knee Society Score (KSS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score, and the Kellgren and Lawrence scales. In addition, they were reevaluated with the same scales after 1 month and 6 months of intervention with 2.5 mL of triamcinolone acetate or 5 mL of platelet-rich plasma. The study was performed on 50 patients with knee osteoarthritis treated at the Medical Specialty Center and randomly divided into equivalent samples for each therapy. Results The present study verified the reduction of pain scores, such as the WOMAC score, and elevations of functional scales, such as the KSS, evidenced in 180 days when using platelet-rich plasma, a therapy that uses the autologous blood of the patient and has fewer side effects. Conclusion Although both platelet-rich plasma and corticosteroid therapies have been shown to be effective in the reduction pain complaints and functional recovery, there was a statistically significant difference between them at 180 days. According to the results obtained, platelet-rich plasma presented longer-lasting effects within 180 days in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis.


Resumo Objetivo Analisar a eficácia do uso de plasma rico em plaquetas, obtido do sangue periférico e autólogo dos pacientes, na redução das queixas álgicas e melhoria funcional dos pacientes portadores de osteoartrite de joelhos, em comparação com o tratamento padrão com injeção de corticosteroides de depósito, como a triancilonola. Métodos Os pacientes foram acompanhados clinicamente na consulta pré-infiltrativa, com avaliação quantitativa através das escalas Knee Society Score (KSS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), e Kellgren and Lawrence. Além disso, os pacientes foram reavaliados com as mesmas escalas após 1 mês e 6 meses de intervenção com 2,5 mL de acetato de triancinolona ou 5 mL de plasma rico em plaquetas. O estudo foi feito em 50 pacientes portadores de osteoartrite de joelhos atendidos no Centro de Especialidades Médicas, divididos em amostras equivalentes randomizadas para cada terapia. Resultados No presente estudo, verificaram-se redução dos valores em escalas álgicas, como a WOMAC, e elevação das pontuações em escalas funcionais, como a KSS, evidenciadas em 180 dias após o uso de plasma rico em plaquetas, uma terapia feita a partir do sangue autólogo do paciente e com menos efeitos colaterais. Conclusão Embora ambas as terapias com plasma rico em plaquetas e corticosteroides tenham se mostrado eficazes na redução das queixas álgicas e na recuperação funcional, houve diferença significativa entre as terapias aos 180 dias. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, no tratamento da osteoartrite do joelho, o plasma rico em plaquetas demonstrou efeitos mais duradouros em 180 dias.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Osteoartritis , Sangre , Triamcinolona , Eficacia , Corticoesteroides , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla , Plasma Rico en Plaquetas , Reciclaje , Inyecciones
18.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 50(4): 214-224, 2020 Jul 28.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911919

RESUMEN

In 1952, inspired by the "tissue therapy" which was being carried out nationwide at that time, Yu Changshi, a folk science enthusiast, proposed "chicken blood therapy" . In 1959, it was supported as an important achievement in technological innovation and technological revolution movement. In the following years, some researchers and many hospitals organized by the leaders of Jing'an District of Shanghai successively carried out the animal experiment, the first phase clinical experiment and the second phase clinical experiment of this therapy, and this therapy was also widely spread during this period.However, the expert meeting in 1965 gave it a basically negative conclusion on the basis of insecurity and poor long-term effect.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Sangre , Pollos , Animales , China , Invenciones , Medicina China Tradicional
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4779, 2020 09 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963246

RESUMEN

Highly reproducible smoking-associated DNA methylation changes in whole blood have been reported by many Epigenome-Wide-Association Studies (EWAS). These epigenetic alterations could have important implications for understanding and predicting the risk of smoking-related diseases. To this end, it is important to establish if these DNA methylation changes happen in all blood cell subtypes or if they are cell-type specific. Here, we apply a cell-type deconvolution algorithm to identify cell-type specific DNA methylation signals in seven large EWAS. We find that most of the highly reproducible smoking-associated hypomethylation signatures are more prominent in the myeloid lineage. A meta-analysis further identifies a myeloid-specific smoking-associated hypermethylation signature enriched for DNase Hypersensitive Sites in acute myeloid leukemia. These results may guide the design of future smoking EWAS and have important implications for our understanding of how smoking affects immune-cell subtypes and how this may influence the risk of smoking related diseases.


Asunto(s)
Metilación de ADN/efectos de los fármacos , Epigenoma , Fumar/efectos adversos , Algoritmos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Sangre , Islas de CpG , Epigenómica/métodos , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Humanos , Linfocitos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Estadísticos , Células Mieloides
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008588, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925917

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Significant efforts to control human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) over the two past decades have resulted in drastic decrease of its prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire. In this context, passive surveillance, integrated in the national health system and based on clinical suspicion, was reinforced. We describe here the health-seeking pathway of a girl who was the first HAT patient diagnosed through this strategy in August 2017. METHODS: After definitive diagnosis of this patient, epidemiological investigations were carried out into the clinical evolution and the health and therapeutic itinerary of the patient before diagnosis. RESULTS: At the time of diagnosis, the patient was positive in both serological and molecular tests and trypanosomes were detected in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. She suffered from important neurological disorders. The first disease symptoms had appeared three years earlier, and the patient had visited several public and private peripheral health care centres and hospitals in different cities. The failure to diagnose HAT for such a long time caused significant health deterioration and was an important financial burden for the family. CONCLUSION: This description illustrates the complexity of detecting the last HAT cases due to complex diagnosis and the progressive disinterest and unawareness by both health professionals and the population. It confirms the need of implementing passive surveillance in combination with continued sensitization and health staff training.


Asunto(s)
Diagnóstico Tardío/economía , Enfermedades Desatendidas/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Desatendidas/tratamiento farmacológico , Tripanosomiasis Africana/diagnóstico , Tripanosomiasis Africana/tratamiento farmacológico , Sangre/parasitología , Líquido Cefalorraquídeo/parasitología , Niño , Indicadores de Enfermedades Crónicas , Costa de Marfil/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Enfermedades Desatendidas/parasitología , Manejo de Atención al Paciente/economía , Trypanosoma brucei gambiense/aislamiento & purificación , Tripanosomiasis Africana/parasitología
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