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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15090, 2024 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956124

RESUMO

Arid and semi-arid areas are among the most threatened ecosystems on the planet. The Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Biosphere Reserve (TCBR), in southeastern Mexico, is an arid and semi-arid area with high biological diversity and human settlements of eight ethnic groups. Two rivers drain the reserve, Río Grande (RG) and Río Salado (RS), which are not subject to water quality monitoring by government agencies; however, measures of water quality of these rivers are needed to focus conservation actions on this resource. This work aimed to test the effectiveness of participatory water quality monitoring with the participation of three actors: Reserve management leaders, local communities, and academics, to monitoring water quality in the rivers of the TCBR. Ninety-two residents were trained to carry out water quality biomonitoring using the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) index calibrated for the reserve. The BMWP uses macroinvertebrate families to display numerical and categorical water quality scores. Additionally, the Water Quality Index (WQI) was assessed and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of the riparian zones was estimated in each study site. The mean WQI scores were 69.24 for RS (no treatment necessary for most crops and necessary treatment for public water supply) and 75.16 for RG (minor purification for crops requiring high-quality water and necessary treatment for public water supply). The BMWP showed five water quality categories (Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair, and Poor), showing higher water quality scores in the upper portion of the basins and capable of discriminating study sites with lower scores close to human settlements. At one study site, data from participatory monitoring impelled actions taken to address a pollution source and influenced policy focus, reaching the maximum level of participatory-based monitoring. This led to avoid the discharge of wastewater into the river to conserve and protect the water resource. WQI is closely related to BMWP; however, the latter was far more sensitive to detecting areas affected by domestic water discharges. The NDVI presented low values for the TCBR, being lower in RS (the driest area). Although the NDVI showed a weak relationship with BMWP values, areas with higher NDVI values generally achieved higher BMWP values. The results of this study highlight the high sensitivity of the BMWP to detect several water quality conditions in the rivers running through the TCBR when compared to WQI. In addition, the usefulness of biomonitoring using the BMWP index was evident, as well as the importance of the participation of local inhabitants contributing to the knowledge of water quality in biosphere reserves and carrying out timely measures that allow the rivers in these reserves to be maintained in good condition.


Assuntos
Ciência do Cidadão , Povos Indígenas , Rios , Qualidade da Água , México , Humanos , Ecossistema , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Clima Desértico
3.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(8): 263, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954066

RESUMO

Sustainable management of river systems is a serious concern, requiring vigilant monitoring of water contamination levels that could potentially threaten the ecological community. This study focused on the evaluation of water quality in the Jhelum River (JR), Azad Jammu and Kashmir, and northern Punjab, Pakistan. To achieve this, 60 water samples were collected from various points within the JR Basin (JRB) and subjected to a comprehensive analysis of their physicochemical parameters. The study findings indicated that the concentrations of physicochemical parameters in the JRB water remained within safety thresholds for both drinking and irrigation water, as established by the World Health Organization and Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency. These physicochemical parameters refer to various chemical and physical characteristics of the water that can have implications for both human health (drinking water) and agricultural practices (irrigation water). The spatial variations throughout the river course distinguished between the upstream, midstream, and downstream sections. Specifically, the downstream section exhibited significantly higher values for physicochemical parameters and a broader range, highlighting a substantial decline in its quality. Significant disparities in mean values and ranges were evident, particularly in the case of nitrates and total dissolved solids, when the downstream section was compared with its upstream and midstream counterparts. These variations indicated a deteriorating downstream water quality profile, which is likely attributable to a combination of geological and anthropogenic influences. Despite the observed deterioration in the downstream water quality, this study underscores that the JRB within the upper Indus Basin remains safe and suitable for domestic and agricultural purposes. The JRB was evaluated for various irrigation water quality indices. The principal component analysis conducted in this study revealed distinct covariance patterns among water quality variables, with the first five components explaining approximately 79% of the total variance. Recommending the continued utilization of the JRB for irrigation, we advocate for the preservation and enhancement of water quality in the downstream regions.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Análise Espacial , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos , Rios/química , Abastecimento de Água , Qualidade da Água/normas
4.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 769, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982426

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The United Nation's Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 calls for universal access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), which are crucial elements of health and well-being and fundamental for a life in dignity. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a preventable disease affecting health and quality of life of millions of young children worldwide. This scoping review aims to explore the connection between ECC and access to clean water and sanitation. METHODS: This scoping review, registered on the Open Science Framework and following PRISMA-ScR guidelines, conducted a thorough search in databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Google Scholar, SciELO) and websites (via Google) in November 2023. The search, without date limitations, targeted studies in English and Spanish linking ECC to SDG6. Exclusions were made for studies solely focusing on ECC without a direct connection to clean water and sanitation. Descriptive statistics summarized the retrieved papers. RESULTS: The initial search yielded 303 articles. After removing duplicates, 264 articles remained for title and abstract screening after which 244 were excluded and one report was added through citation searching. The 21 remaining articles underwent full text review. There were no studies on a direct association between access to clean water and sanitation and the prevalence of ECC. There were nine studies that showed indirect associations between ECC and access to clean water and sanitation through the links of: water and sanitation access as a marker for poverty (n = 1), water consumption as a feeding practice (n = 4), and the effectiveness of water fluoridation (n = 4). These were used to develop a conceptual model. CONCLUSIONS: While it is conceivable that a direct link exists between ECC and access to clean water and sanitation, the available body of research only offers evidence of indirect associations. The exploration of potential pathways connecting water access to ECC warrants further investigation in future research.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Saneamento , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Humanos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Abastecimento de Água
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15881, 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38987576

RESUMO

Populations consuming saline drinking water are at greater risk of high blood pressure and potentially other adverse health outcomes. We modelled data and used available datasets to identify countries of higher vulnerability to future saltwater intrusion associated with climate change in 2050 under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP)4.5 and RCP8.5. We developed three vulnerability criteria to capture geographies with: (1) any coastal areas with projected inland saltwater intrusion of ≥ 1 km inland, (2) > 50% of the population in coastal secondary administrative areas with reliance on groundwater for drinking water, and 3) high national average sodium urinary excretion (i.e., > 3 g/day). We identified 41 nations across all continents (except Antarctica) with ≥ 1 km of inland saltwater intrusion by 2050. Seven low- and middle-income countries of higher vulnerability were all concentrated in South/Southeast Asia. Based on these initial findings, future research should study geological nuances at the local level in higher-risk areas and co-produce with local communities contextually appropriate solutions to secure equitable access to clean drinking water.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Água Potável , Humanos , Água Potável/análise , Água Subterrânea/análise , Abastecimento de Água , Hipertensão/epidemiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0307017, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38990908

RESUMO

Water, energy, and food insecurity are significant challenges that affect both economies and households, particularly in developing countries. These resources have an effect on households wellbeing, businesses, and all sectors of the economy, making them critical to ensuring household well-being, which is frequently measured by quintile welfare. As a result, there has been a significant increase in interest in securitizing these resources in order to mitigate their negative effects on household's wellbeing This study provides an empirical investigation of the determinants of water, energy, and food (WEF) security and the effect of water, energy, and food security on household well-being in Ghana. This study provides an empirical investigation of the determinants of water, energy, and food (WEF) security and the effect of water, energy, and food security on household well-being in Ghana. The study used a sample of 2,735 households from the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS) Wave 7. We applied an instrumental variable probit, complementary log-log and ordered Probit estimation techniques for analysis. Empirical analysis reveals several important findings. Firstly, factors such as age, credit access, household location, employment status, and livestock ownership positively contribute to household water security, while remittances, water supply management, water bills, and water quantity have negative impacts. Secondly, age, marital status, household size, remittances, and livestock ownership significantly influence household energy security. Thirdly, marital status, household income, credit access, and household size are crucial determinants of household food security, with residence and region of household location exerting negative effects. Additionally, while water and energy security have a relatively lower impact on household well-being, food security emerges as a key driver in promoting household wellbeing. The study recommends that policymakers and stakeholders design and implement robust programs and interventions to sustain households' water, energy, and food supply.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Segurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Água , Humanos , Gana , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Água , Adulto Jovem
7.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(8): 278, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38958772

RESUMO

Miyun Reservoir plays a vital role as a source of drinking water for Beijing, however it grapples with nitrogen contamination issues that have been poorly understood in terms of their distribution, source, and associated health risks. This study addresses this knowledge gap by employing data on nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N), chloride (Cl-), dual isotopic compositions of NO3- (δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3-) data in water ecosystems, systematically exploring the distribution, source and health risk of nitrogen contaminants in Miyun reservoir watersheds. The results showed that over the past 30 years, surface water runoff has exhibited a notable decrease and periodic fluctuations due to the combined influence of climate and anthropogenic activities, while the total nitrogen (TN) concentration in aquatic ecosystems presented an annual fluctuating upward trend. The TN concentration in the wet season was predominantly elevated because a large amount of nitrogen contaminants migrated into water ecosystems through heavy rainfall or river erosion. The concentration of NO3--N, the main contaminant of the water ecosystems, showed distinct variations across different watersheds, followed as rivers over the Miyun reservoir. Moreover, NO3--N levels gradually increased from upstream to downstream in different basins. NO3--N in surface water was mainly derived from the mixture of agricultural ammonia fertilizer and sewage and manure, with a minority of samples potentially undergoing denitrification. Comparatively, the main sources of NO3--N in groundwater were soil N and sewage and manure, while the denitrification process was inactive. The carcinogenic risks caused by NO3--N in groundwater were deemed either nonexistent or minimal, while the focus should predominantly be on potential non-carcinogenic risks, particularly for infants and children. Therefore, it is crucial to perform proactive measures aimed at safeguarding water ecosystems, guided by an understanding of the distribution, sources, and associated risks of nitrogen contamination.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Medição de Risco , China , Nitrogênio/análise , Abastecimento de Água , Nitratos/análise , Humanos
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(8): 687, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38958826

RESUMO

Fluvial sediment analysis and water quality assessment are useful to identify anthropic and natural sources of pollution in rivers. Currently, there is a lack of information about water quality in the Pixquiac basin (Veracruz state, Mexico), and this scarcity of data prevents authorities to take adequate measures to protect water resources. The basin is a crucial territory for Xalapa, the capital city of Veracruz state, as it gets 39% of its drinkable water from it. This research analyzed 10 physicochemical parameters and 12 metal concentrations in various rivers and sources during two seasons. Dissolved metals presented average concentrations (µg/L): Al (456.25) > Fe (199.4) > Mn (16.86) > Ba (13.8) > Zn (7.6) > Cu (1.03) > Pb (0.27) > As (0.12) > Ni (0.118) (Cd, Cr and Hg undetectable). Metals in sediment recorded average concentrations (ppm): Fe (38575) > Al (38425) > Mn (460) > Ba (206.2) > Zn (65.1) > Cr (29.8) > Ni (20.9) > Cu (16.4) > Pb (4.8) > As (2.1) (Cd and Hg undetectable). During the rainy season, Water Quality Index (WAWQI) classified stations P17 and P18's water as "unsuitable for drinking" with values of 110.4 and 117.6. Enrichment factor (EF) recorded a "moderate enrichment" of Pb in sediment in P24. Pollution was mainly explained by wastewater discharges in rivers but also because of erosion and rainfall events. Statistical analysis presented strong relationships between trace and major metals which could explain a common natural origin for metals in water and sediment: rock lixiviation.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água , México , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Água Potável/química , Rios/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais/análise
9.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 146: 127-139, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969441

RESUMO

Water-level reduction frequently occurs in deep reservoirs, but its effect on dissolved oxygen concentration is not well understood. In this study we used a well-established water quality model to illustrate effects of water level dynamics on oxygen concentration in Rappbode Reservoir, Germany. We then systematically elucidated the potential of selective withdrawal to control hypoxia under changing water levels. Our results documented a gradual decrease of hypolimnetic oxygen concentration under decreasing water level, and hypoxia occurred when the initial level was lower than 410 m a.s.l (71 m relative to the reservoir bottom). We also suggested that changes of hypoxic region, under increasing hypolimnetic withdrawal discharge, followed a unimodal trajectory with the maximum hypoxic area projected under the discharge between 3 m3/sec and 4 m3/sec. Besides, our results illustrated the extent of hypoxia was most effectively inhibited if the withdrawal strategy was applied at the end of stratification with the outlet elevation at the deepest part of the reservoir. Moreover, hypoxia can be totally avoided under a hybrid elevation withdrawal strategy using surface withdrawal during early and mid stratification, and deep withdrawal at the end of stratification. We further confirmed the decisive role of thermal structure in the formation of hypoxia under water-level reduction and withdrawal strategies. We believe the conclusions from this study can be applied to many deep waters in the temperate zone, and the results should guide stakeholders to mitigate negative impacts of hypoxia on aquatic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Abastecimento de Água , Alemanha , Água Potável/química , Qualidade da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Oxigênio/análise
10.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 146: 186-197, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969447

RESUMO

As an important means to solve water shortage, reclaimed water has been widely used for landscape water supply. However, with the emergence of large-scale epidemic diseases such as SARS, avian influenza and COVID-19 in recent years, people are increasingly concerned about the public health safety of reclaimed water discharged into landscape water, especially the pathogenic microorganisms in it. In this study, the water quality and microorganisms of the Old Summer Palace, a landscape water body with reclaimed water as the only replenishment water source, were tracked through long-term dynamic monitoring. And the health risks of indicator microorganisms were analyzed using Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA). It was found that the concentration of indicator microorganisms Enterococcus (ENT), Escherichia coli (EC) and Fecal coliform (FC) generally showed an upward trend along the direction of water flow and increased by more than 0.6 log at the end of the flow. The concentrations of indicator microorganisms were higher in summer and autumn than those in spring. And there was a positive correlation between the concentration of indicator microorganisms and COD. Further research suggested that increased concentration of indicator microorganisms also led to increased health risks, which were more than 30% higher in other areas of the park than the water inlet area and required special attention. In addition, (water) surface operation exposure pathway had much higher health risks than other pathways and people in related occupations were advised to take precautions to reduce the risks.


Assuntos
Microbiologia da Água , Medição de Risco , Qualidade da Água , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Abastecimento de Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos
11.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 146: 55-66, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969462

RESUMO

The effects of cast iron pipe corrosion on water quality risk and microbial ecology in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) were investigated. It was found that trihalomethane (THMs) concentration and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) increased sharply in the old DWDSs. Under the same residual chlorine concentration conditions, the adenosine triphosphate concentration in the effluent of old DWDSs (Eff-old) was significantly higher than that in the effluent of new DWDSs. Moreover, stronger bioflocculation ability and weaker hydrophobicity coexisted in the extracellular polymeric substances of Eff-old, meanwhile, iron particles could be well inserted into the structure of the biofilms to enhance the mechanical strength and stability of the biofilms, hence enhancing the formation of THMs. Old DWDSs significantly influenced the microbial community of bulk water and triggered stronger microbial antioxidant systems response, resulting in higher ARGs abundance. Corroded cast iron pipes induced a unique interaction system of biofilms, chlorine, and corrosion products. Therefore, as the age of cast iron pipes increases, the fluctuation of water quality and microbial ecology should be paid more attention to maintain the safety of tap water.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Ferro , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água , Corrosão , Microbiologia da Água , Água Potável/microbiologia , Água Potável/química , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Trialometanos/análise
12.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 146: 67-80, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969463

RESUMO

Groundwater is the main source of drinking water for the rural population in the chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) zone of the North Central Province (NCP) in Sri Lanka. In this study, a total of 334 groundwater samples (311 dug wells, 21 tube wells and 2 springs) during the wet season from two aquifers in the NCP were collected, and investigated their chemical characteristics and evaluate their water quality, including groundwater chemistry, main ion sources, the corrosion and scaling potential of groundwater. The results showed that the two hydrochemical types of groundwater in the NCP were mainly of the Ca-HCO3, Na·Ca-HCO3 types, with the main HCO3-, Na+ and Ca2+ ions in both types of groundwater originating from silicate and evaporite salt dissolution and influenced by alternating cation adsorption, while the presence of NO3- was mainly anthropogenic. Evaluation of water stability using namely Langelier saturation index (LSI), Ryznar stability index (RSI), Puckorius scaling index (PSI) and Larson-Skold index (LS), indicated that most groundwater presents corrosion potential and has corrosion behavior tendency of metals to some degrees. The water quality of Polonnaruwa was better than that of Anuradhapura in the NCP, and when the groundwater was worse than the "good" grade, which must be properly treated before it is used as drinking water.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Sri Lanka , Água Subterrânea/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Água Potável/química , Água Potável/análise , Abastecimento de Água
15.
Ecol Food Nutr ; 63(4): 435-468, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38889358

RESUMO

This study identifies multiple pathways connecting household water insecurity with child nutrition. Using nationally representative samples for 18 countries, we examine the mediating role of child's dietary diversity as a function of household water status, while also accounting for sanitation. We construct a latent household water insecurity score (HWI) and use Structural Equation approach to model underlying pathways. HWI affected child's HAZ score and hemoglobin both directly and indirectly, with a mediation from child feeding alongside effects from sanitation. Broadening the conception of household water insecurity and accommodating the indirect effects of water could improve explanations of child under-nutrition.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Insegurança Hídrica , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Saneamento , Estado Nutricional , Feminino , Lactente , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Dieta , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil , Criança , Abastecimento de Água
16.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 27: e240029, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38896649

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the consistency of data regarding the provision of fluoridation in Brazilian municipalities with water supply systems. METHODS: Official data from the National Basic Sanitation Survey and the National Information System on Sanitation for 2017 were compared. RESULTS: Out of 5,570 municipalities in Brazil, 4,546 (81.6%) had water supply systems. The agreement between data sources was 84%, with a Kappa of 0.668, indicating substantial agreement. However, the estimates of fluoridation provision exhibited an average discrepancy of 8.1 percentage points, ranging from 1.2 points in the Central-West region to 21.4 points in the Northeast region. CONCLUSION: To address these inconsistencies, it is essential to enhance information sources, ensuring more reliable data for health, sanitation authorities, and society at large.


Assuntos
Fluoretação , Brasil , Fluoretação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fluoretação/normas , Humanos , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Saneamento/normas , Cidades
17.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1491, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection by Legionella bacteria is a risk to elderly individuals in health care facilities and should be managed by preventing bacterial proliferation in internal water systems. Norwegian legislation calls for a mandatory Legionella-specific risk assessment with the subsequent introduction of an adapted water management programme. The present study investigates adherence to legislation and guidelines on Legionella control and prevention in Norwegian nursing homes. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was distributed to Norwegian municipalities to investigate the status of Legionella specific risk assessments of internal water distribution systems and the introduction of water management programmes in nursing homes. RESULTS: A total of 55.1% (n = 228) of the participating nursing homes had performed Legionella-specific risk assessments, of which 55.3% (n = 126) stated that they had updated the risk assessment within the last year. 96.5% introduced a water management programme following a risk assessment, whereas 59.6% of the ones without a risk assessment did the same. Nursing homes with risk assessments were more likely to monitor Legionella levels than those without (61.2% vs 38.8%), to remove dead legs (44.7% vs 16.5%), and to select biocidal preventive treatment over hot water flushing (35.5% vs 4.6%). CONCLUSIONS: This study presents novel insight into Legionella control in Norway, suggesting that adherence to mandatory risk assessment in nursing homes is moderate-low. Once performed, the risk assessment seems to be advantageous as an introduction to future Legionella prevention in terms of the scope and contents of the water management programme.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Casas de Saúde , Microbiologia da Água , Noruega , Estudos Transversais , Casas de Saúde/normas , Casas de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Microbiologia da Água/normas , Legionella , Medição de Risco , Legionelose/prevenção & controle , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Abastecimento de Água/legislação & jurisprudência , Idoso
18.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0297251, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843245

RESUMO

The challenges posed by environmental pollution, water scarcity, and energy limitations resulting from industrialization and modernization pose significant threats to human habitats. Consequently, assessing ecological livability and delineating pathways for improvement carry considerable practical importance. Leveraging panel data encompassing 288 cities in China from 2010 to 2021, this study establishes an evaluation system for ecological livability, encompassing three dimensions: natural greenery level, residential comfort level, and environmental governance level. Subsequently, the study measures the ecological livability level and investigates the impact of "sponge city" pilots on ecological livability and their underlying mechanisms using a multi-period difference-in-differences model. Our findings underscore the substantial role of "sponge city" pilot projects in bolstering ecological livability, with robustness observed across various models and specifications. Specifically, human capital concentration and green technology innovation emerge as pivotal pathways through which "sponge city" pilots augment ecological livability. Moreover, the effectiveness of "sponge city" pilots varies across regions due to disparities in drought severity and water supply, with more pronounced effects observed in arid areas and cities facing water supply shortages. This research furnishes comprehensive theoretical and empirical underpinnings for comprehending the influence of "sponge city" pilots on ecological livability, offering valuable insights and recommendations to inform future efforts aimed at enhancing ecological livability and fostering sustainable development.


Assuntos
Cidades , China , Humanos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Abastecimento de Água , Projetos Piloto , Pilotos , Poluição Ambiental
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13416, 2024 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862670

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to assess the drinking water quality in the selected urban areas of Lahore and to comprehend the public health status by addressing the basic drinking water quality parameters. Total 50 tap water samples were collected from groundwater in the two selected areas of district Lahore i.e., Gulshan-e-Ravi (site 1) and Samanabad (site 2). Water samples were analyzed in the laboratory to elucidate physico-chemical parameters including pH, turbidity, temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness, magnesium hardness, and calcium hardness. These physico-chemical parameters were used to examine the Water Quality Index (WQI) and Synthetic Pollution Index (SPI) in order to characterize the water quality. Results of th selected physico-chemical parameters were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines to determine the quality of drinking water. A GIS-based approach was used for mapping water quality, WQI, and SPI. Results of the present study revealed that the average value of temperature, pH, and DO of both study sites were within the WHO guidelines of 23.5 °C, 7.7, and 6.9 mg/L, respectively. The TDS level of site 1 was 192.56 mg/L (within WHO guidelines) and whereas, in site 2 it was found 612.84 mg/L (higher than WHO guidelines), respectively. Calcium hardness of site 1 and site 2 was observed within the range from 25.04 to 65.732 mg/L but, magnesium hardness values were higher than WHO guidelines. The major reason for poor water quality is old, worn-out water supply pipelines and improper waste disposal in the selected areas. The average WQI was found as 59.66 for site 1 and 77.30 for site 2. Results showed that the quality of the water was classified as "poor" for site 1 and "very poor " for site 2. There is a need to address the problem of poor water quality and also raise the public awareness about the quality of drinking water and its associated health impacts.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Monitoramento Ambiental , Qualidade da Água , Água Potável/análise , Água Potável/química , Paquistão , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Cidades , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Água Subterrânea/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/normas
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14760, 2024 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38926388

RESUMO

The Egyptian Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation launched in 2020 the national project to rehabilitate the canals network to rationalize the use of water resources to face the scarcity problems. The aim of study is to evaluate the impact of canal rehabilitation on the performance of irrigation water delivered laterally to Mesqa's and longitudinally to the end of canal. Qaraqoul Canal et al.-Mallah Area, Alexandria, Egypt, was modeled using Hydrologic Engineering Center's-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) to simulate water levels in the canal before and after rehabilitation using four discharge scenarios: 1.82, 3.7, 2.2, 7.87 m3/s. The calibration before rehabilitation shows that HEC-RAS simulated water levels corresponding to a discharge of 2.2 m3/s were in a good agreement with the actual field measured water levels. HEC-RAS results demonstrated that rehabilitation hydraulically improved the efficiency and performance of water conveyed by the canal. On the other hand, second scenario can be considered as suitable to keep water to reach the canal downstream with minimum suitable discharge, providing the need of two emergency pumps at last two branch canals called Mesqa's. An ideal cross-section is also simulated using HEC-RAS which produced an efficient alternative with 40% less cost than the constructed alternative.


Assuntos
Rios , Egito , Modelos Teóricos , Hidrologia , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Humanos , Abastecimento de Água
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