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1.
Food Microbiol ; 102: 103923, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809949

RESUMO

Scientific advances in pathogen decontamination offer great potential to reduce Campylobacter spp. during primary processing. The aim of this study was to collate data from eligible studies using systematic review, meta-analysis followed by meta-regression. Random effect meta-analysis revealed heterogenous (τ2 = 0.6, I2 = 98 %) pooled reduction in Campylobacter concentration of 0.6 log10 CFU/carcass and a decrease in relative risk of Campylobacter spp. prevalence in broiler carcasses by 57.2 %. Decontamination interventions during Inside-Outside-Carcass-Wash were most effective on concentration (0.8 log10 CFU/carcass) while those during evisceration were most effective on prevalence (78.0 % decrease in relative risk). Physical decontamination was more effective on Campylobacter prevalence (68.7 % decrease in relative risk) compared chemical treatment (30.3 %). Application through immersion was superior on Campylobacter concentration (0.9 log10 CFU/carcass odds reduction) to spraying (0.5 log10 CFU/carcass odds reduction). Publication bias and small study effect were observed in trials on Campylobacter prevalence but not for concentration. The meta-regression revealed four and seven potential modifier variables for concentration and prevalence respectively. This meta-analysis provides an overview of the expected magnitude in Campylobacter spp. concentration and prevalence with application of decontamination interventions on broiler carcasses along the slaughter process and forms a basis of quantitative microbial risk assessment and derivation of intervention measures. Even though modest microbial concentration reduction is reported there was a large decrease in contamination prevalence during processing interventions.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Campylobacter , Galinhas , Manipulação de Alimentos , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Descontaminação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Prevalência
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(1): 113-120, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grazed grass is an important component of the majority of beef production systems used in temperate climates. Compared to concentrate-fed beef, 'grass-fed' beef can command a premium in some markets based on perceived differences in appearance and sensory characteristics. The influence of grazed grass per se, as well as the duration of grazing, on selected sensory characteristics of beef within a heifer production system was examined. RESULTS: In general, fat from grass-fed cattle was more yellow than fat from similar cattle fed concentrates, whereas muscle from grass-fed cattle was darker than muscle from cattle fed concentrates. At the same carcass weight, muscle from grass-fed cattle had a lower fat concentration than cattle fed concentrates. In the most extreme situation examined, whereby early-maturing heifers were fed concentrates ad libitum from weaning or grazed grass/conserved grass throughout life, until slaughtered at a similar carcass weight (260 kg) and differed in age by 5 months, beef was rated similarly for tenderness and a range of flavours by a trained sensory panel. CONCLUSION: Within the range of beef heifer production systems examined, the sensory characteristics of grass-fed beef do not differ greatly from concentrate-fed beef. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/química , Poaceae/metabolismo , Matadouros , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cor , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Paladar
3.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127328, 2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597935

RESUMO

Slaughterhouse waste and dead animals are mainly disposed of by incineration, which generates greenhouse gases and NOx. These wastes are a source of nutrients that can be recovered by circular economy techniques if material recycling is given a priority over energy recovery. To valorize high-protein animal waste (containing bones, meat, feather) for fertilizer purposes, the waste was processed by acid solubilization and neutralized with potassium hydroxide solution, which yielded a liquid fertilizer with plant growth biostimulating properties (due to the amino acids presence). The composition analysis showed that new fertilizers met all quality requirements set by the law, contain ~0.5% m/m amino acids and are microbiologically pure. The fertilizer was enriched with microelements to the level of 0.2% m/m and tested for biological effectiveness in germination tests and field studies. Compared with the commercial formulation, the fertilizer increased stem length and chlorophyll content (by 8.2% and 27.0%, respectively), wheat crop yield and grain micronutrients density (Cu by 31.2%, Mn by 10.5%, Zn by 33.9%) and improved the wheat flour baking properties. The described solution propose a safe way to utilize hazardous waste via technological mobile installation, enabling no transportation of waste, which is an important aspect of sanitary-epidemiological risk minimization.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Fertilizantes , Animais , Farinha , Aves Domésticas , Triticum
4.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 113: 219-230, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34963530

RESUMO

The discharge of slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) is increasing and its wastewater has to be treated thoroughly to avoid the eutrophication. The hybrid zeolite-based ion-exchange and sulfur autotrophic denitrification (IX-AD) process was developed to advanced treat SWW after traditional secondary biological process. Compared with traditional sulfur oxidizing denitrification (SOD), this study found that IX-AD column showed: (1) stronger ability to resist NO3- pollution load, (2) lower SO42- productivity, and (3) higher microbial diversity and richness. Liaoning zeolites addition guaranteed not only the standard discharge of NH4+-N, but also the denitrification performance and effluent TN. Especially, when the ahead secondary biological treatment process run at the ultra-high load, NO3--N removal efficiency for IX-AD column was still ~100%, whereas only 64.2% for control SOD column. The corresponding average effluent TN concentrations for IX-AD and SOD columns were 5.89 and 65.55 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, IX-AD is a promising technology for advanced SWW treatment and should be widely researched and popularized.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Zeolitas , Matadouros , Processos Autotróficos , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Nitratos , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , Enxofre , Águas Residuárias
5.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132401, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600930

RESUMO

The progressive increase of slaughterhouse waste production requires actions for both addressing an environmental issue and creating additional value within a biorefinery concept. In this regard, some of these animal by-products exhibit a significant content of fatty acids that could be efficiently converted into bioplastics such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by adequately performing substrate screening with producing bacterial strains and applying affordable pretreatments. One of the main challenges also relies on the difficulty to emulsify these fat-rich substrates within culture broth and make the fatty acids accessible for the producing bacteria. In this work, the potential of two fat-rich animal by-products, grease trap waste (GTW) and tallow-based jelly (TBJ), as inexpensive carbon sources for microbial growth and PHA production was evaluated for the first time. Upon substrate screening, using different pseudomonadal strains (P. resinovorans, P. putida GPo1, P. putida KT2440) and pretreatment conditions (autoclave-based, thermally-treated or saponified substrates), the highest growth and mcl-PHA production performance was obtained for P. resinovorans, thus producing up to 47% w/w mcl-PHA simply using hygienized GTW. The novel bioprocess described in this study was successfully scaled up to 5 and 15 L, resulting in CDW concentrations of 5.9-12.8 g L-1, mcl-PHA contents of 33-62% w/w and PHA yields of 0.1-0.4 gPHA g-1fatty acids, greatly depending on the substrate dosing strategy used and depending on culture conditions. Moreover, process robustness was confirmed along Test Series by the roughly stable monomeric composition of the biopolymer produced, mainly formed by 3-hydroxyoctanoate and 3-hydroxydecanoate. The research here conducted is crucial for the cost-effectiveness of mcl-PHA production along this new slaughterhouse waste-based biorefinery concept.


Assuntos
Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos , Pseudomonas putida , Matadouros , Carbono , Ácidos Graxos
6.
Food Microbiol ; 101: 103887, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579847

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution and specify the transmission and cross-contamination of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) in the beef slaughtering and butchering process. The prevalence of 21.2% (150/708) yielded 208 isolates of C. perfringens, including 80.8% type A and 19.2% type D, 0.4% (3/708) samples carried both type A and D strains, and 72.5% type D isolates carried both cpe and atyp.cpb2 genes. C. perfringens were identified through the whole slaughtering process but no type F (cpe and cpa isolates) was found. 69 isolates were further analyzed and classified into 28 PFGE genotypes and clade I contained 94.2% isolates and 24 PFGE genotypes, which showed the genetic diversity and epidemic correlation. Our study traced C. perfringens contamination along the handling processes and showed a gradually ascending contamination rate during the whole process, revealing widespread cross-contamination from the feces and hides of slaughtered cattle to the carcass in the slaughtering workshop, so as from tools and personnel to meat of the cutting workshops. Strains from different slaughterhouses (regions) have high homology, and type A is the predominant toxinotype. It is necessary to monitor and control several key points of cross-contamination during slaughtering process to reduce a risk of C. perfringens infection.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Clostridium perfringens , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , China , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium perfringens/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Manipulação de Alimentos
7.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103556, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419785

RESUMO

The high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) has been a concern in the meat-processing industry, owing to the manual nature of the work and the high upper-limb and neck exposure to movements that can lead to WRMSD. The ability to perform an accurate and fast assessment of WRMSDs remains a challenge in industrial environments. Most assessment methodologies rely on standard survey-based methods, which are time- and labor-intensive. In this paper, we present an application of inertial measurement units (IMUs) to measure human activity, and the use of artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques to perform task classification and ergonomic assessments in workplace settings. We present the results obtained by using simple low-cost IMUs worn on slaughterhouse worker wrists to capture information on their movements. We describe the use of this information to detect the risk factors of the wrists/hands that can lead to WRMSDs. The results indicate that by using low-cost IMU-based sensors on the wrists of slaughterhouse workers, we can accurately classify the sharpness of the knife and predict the worker RULA score.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Inteligência Artificial , Ergonomia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/diagnóstico
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150000, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517324

RESUMO

Klebsiella spp. are ubiquitous bacteria capable of colonizing humans and animals, and sometimes leading to severe infections in both. Due to their high adaptability against environmental/synthetic conditions as well as their potential in aquiring antimicrobial/metal/biocide resistance determinants, Klebsiella spp. are recognized as an emerging threat to public health, worldwide. Currently, scarce information on the impact of livestock for the spread of pathogenic Klebsiella spp. is available. Thus, the phenotypic and genotypic properties of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing, and colistin-resistant Klebsiella strains (n = 185) from process- and wastewater of two poultry and pig slaughterhouses as well as their receiving municipal wastewater treatment plants (mWWTPs) were studied to determine the diversity of isolates that might be introduced into the food-production chain or that are released into the environment by surviving the wastewater treatment. Selectively-isolated Klebsiella spp. from slaughterhouses including effluents and receiving waterbodies of mWWTPs were assigned to various lineages, including high-risk clones involved in human outbreaks, and exhibited highly heterogeneous antibiotic-resistance patterns. While isolates originating from poultry slaughterhouses showed the highest rate of colistin resistance (32.4%, 23/71), carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella spp. were only detected in mWWTP samples (n = 76). The highest diversity of resistance genes (n = 77) was detected in Klebsiella spp. from mWWTPs, followed by isolates from pig (n = 56) and poultry slaughterhouses (n = 52). Interestingly, no carbapenemase-encoding genes were detected and mobile colistin resistance genes were only obeserved in isolates from poultry and pig slaughterhouses. Our study provides in-depth information into the clonality of livestock-associated Klebsiella spp. and their determinants involved in antimicrobial resistance and virulence development. On the basis of their pathogenic potential and clinical importance there is a potential risk of colonization and/or infection of wildlife, livestock and humans exposed to contaminated food and/or surface waters.


Assuntos
Colistina , Klebsiella , Matadouros , Animais , Antibacterianos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Suínos , Águas Residuárias , beta-Lactamases
9.
Vet Ital ; 57(2)2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34971498

RESUMO

Slaughter of pregnant animals for meat is unethical, counterproductive and enhances zoonotic disease spread. This study determined the prevalence and reasons for slaughtering pregnant cows (SPCs) for meat. Pregnancy status of cows slaughtered was determined by evisceration and longitudinal incision of the uterus for presence of fetus. Closed-ended questionnaire was used to elicit information on causes of SPCs and disposal of eviscerated fetuses. Of the 851 cows slaughtered, 17.4% (148/851) were pregnant. Of the 148 pregnant cows, 87 (58.8) were slaughtered during dry season while 43.2% (64/148) of the recovered fetuses were in their third trimester. Reasons adduced for SPCs by the participants in the questionnaire were: ignorance of the animals' pregnancy status, 69.7% (n=119), high demand for beef, 61.3% (n=148), buyers preference for large-sized animals, 47.9 (n=148), economic hardship, 52.1% (n=148) and disease conditions, 42.9% (n=148). Fetuses or uterine contents were sold for human consumption, 17.6% (n=119), preparation of dog food, 27.7 (n=119) or disposed by open refuse dump method, 54.6% (n=119). The 17.4% SPCs prevalence is unacceptably high. This warrants ante-mortem pregnancy diagnosis in the slaughterhouses and strict implementation of the Animal Welfare Act (Meat Edict of 1968) to conserve livestock production and limit animal cruelty and spread of zoonoses.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Saúde Pública , Abate de Animais , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Feto , Nigéria , Gravidez , Prevalência , Carne Vermelha
10.
Health Hum Rights ; 23(2): 21-33, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34966222

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has shone a bright light on industrial slaughterhouses in the United States and their impacts on the vulnerable beings-both human and animal-they exploit. But the severity of these impacts is the result of a long history of failed regulatory oversight. This paper highlights the inadequacies of the current regulatory system in the United States and how they have contributed to dangerous conditions for slaughterhouse workers, environmental degradation, and severe animal suffering. Further, it argues that a rights-centered One Health approach would provide the necessary conceptual foundation for a new regulatory framework that can meaningfully address the interconnected rights, health, and well-being of humans, animals, and the environment. As a first step in establishing this new framework, the United States should create a federal Slaughterhouse Oversight Commission to strengthen the rights, health, and well-being of humans and animals.


Assuntos
Matadouros , COVID-19 , Animais , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
11.
Water Sci Technol ; 84(9): 2242-2251, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810308

RESUMO

This study shows the effectiveness of the wastewater treatment from a municipal slaughterhouse that has undergone a previous biological treatment applying a sequence of stages, reaching a 75% of elimination of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) using sedimentation in combination with coagulation-flocculation, using 0.5 g/L FeCl3 which is one of the best known inorganic coagulants. Then, the elimination of COD was around 98% adding the Fenton process in which 1,000 mg/L H2O2 and FeSO4 were used. In addition to the COD, other water quality parameters were measured to evaluate the level of purification of the test samples, such as solids of different types, pH, DOC and so on. With the above process, it can be noted that the Fenton process produced a slight improvement in the effluent quality by using a solar concentrator in the now-called photo-Fenton process, reaching around 99% of COD removal (0.36 g/L), 91% of total suspended solids (0.32 g/L) and 89% of dissolved organic carbon (0.20 g/L). These results were the best achieved within a proposed treatment train for this type of complex wastewater. Moreover, this last part of the process adds an improvement by the usage of renewable energy sources such as sunlight.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Matadouros , Catálise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Ferro , Oxirredução , Luz Solar , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 500, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613460

RESUMO

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis that threatens public health and animal agriculture in the endemic areas causing devastating epizootics characterized by abortion storms and high mortalities, especially in newborn animals. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and investigate risk factors associated with exposure to the virus in camels slaughtered in Maiduguri abattoir, Borno State of Nigeria. Camels presented for slaughtered were sampled and data on age, sex, source or origin, utility, presence of post-mortem lesions, body weights and body condition score were collected. Blood samples were collected and sera were harvested and stored at - 20 °C until tested. The sera were tested using a commercial ELISA kit based on the manufacturer's instructions. The overall seroprevalence in the study was 20.7% (95% CI, 13.6-30.0). The analysis showed no significant differences between the presence of antibodies and variables that included the sex of camels (χ2 = 0.015, df = 1, p = 0.904) and the presence of post-mortem lesion on the carcass (χ2 = 0.009, df = 1, p = 0.925). There were significant differences between presence of antibodies and three variables that included the age (χ2 = 4.89, df = 1, p = 0.027), the source (χ2 = 7.077, df = 2, p = 0.029) and the main utility (χ2 = 8.057, df = 3, p = 0.045) of the camels. It was concluded that camels presented for slaughter at the Maiduguri abattoir have evidence of exposure to the RVF virus and maybe means of transmission of the virus. Regular monitoring and control of transboundary animal movements were recommended in the study area.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre do Vale do Rift , Matadouros , Animais , Camelus , Estudos Transversais , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
13.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641435

RESUMO

Sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) is known for its unique flavor and high nutritional value. In this study, the influence of slaughter methods on the volatile compounds (VOCs) in sea bass was investigated using electronic nose (E-nose) technology and gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS). VOCs in raw and cooked sea bass resulting from different slaughter methods were effectively distinguished using both techniques. Aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols were associated with the basic flavor of sea bass, whereas esters, organic acids, and furans enriched the aroma. In raw sea bass, the fishy odor was the strongest in the HSD group (head shot control death), followed by that in the IFD (ice faint to death) and BDS (bloodletting to death) groups. The VOC content increased and stabilized after steaming, enhancing pleasant odors such as fatty and fruity aromas. In cooked sea bass, the content of diacetyl and ethanol was the highest in the EAD group (eugenol anesthesia to death), which may be a residue of eugenol, imparting a distinct irritating chemical odor. Furthermore, abundant (E)-2-octenal, 2-heptanone, benzaldehyde, and esters in the BDS group imparted a strong, pleasant aroma. The findings indicate that heart puncture and bloodletting is the preferred slaughter method to maintain sea bass quality, providing new insights into the volatile changes in sea bass induced by different slaughter methods.


Assuntos
Bass/metabolismo , Nariz Eletrônico/estatística & dados numéricos , Eutanásia Animal/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica/métodos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Matadouros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais
14.
Prev Vet Med ; 197: 105513, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695650

RESUMO

Detection of on farm and transport animal welfare problems at slaughterhouse level is a key issue for the meat industry; however, usually, the assessments do not include basic aspects of animal health. For that reason, it is necessary to develop an assessment method that has an integrative scope and identifies the risk profiles in animals. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to detect cattle welfare indicators that can be implemented at the slaughterhouse level and to develop integrated risk profiles based on the animal's origin, pre-slaughter logistics, and animal-based indicators. We recorded the origin, commercial category, transportation details, and horn size of 1040 cattle upon arrival at the slaughterhouse. Cattle welfare was measured based on individual scores for vocalizations, stunning shots, carcass bruises, meat pH, severe hoof injuries, and organ condemnations. To characterize operational and logistic practices from the farm to the slaughterhouse, a two-step cluster analysis was applied to the aforementioned variables (production system, cattle type, horn size, journey distance, vehicle type), which identified four clusters: small feedlot and free-range profile (C1, n = 216, 20.8 %), feedlot profile (C2, n = 193, 18.6 %), culled dairy cows profile (C3, n = 262, 25.2 %), and free-range profile (C4, n = 369, 35.5 %). The animal's diet and environmental conditions might have influenced the development of hoof disorders in C1 animals (P = 0.023), the proportion of animals that were re-shot was highest in C2 animals (P = 0.033), and C3 and C4 animals were most likely to suffer injuries such as severe bruising (P = 0.001). In addition, the number of stunning shots, meat pH, carcass bruises, severe hoof injuries, and liver condemnations, explained a significant variation in the incidence of various health and welfare consequences based on an animal's origin, which confirmed their importance as 'welfare iceberg' indicators. The study provided detailed data that can be included into assessment methods for the welfare of slaughter cattle, which can be tailored to specific production systems.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Casco e Garras , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Fazendas , Feminino , Transportes
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574535

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is presently one of the most public health critical concerns. The frequent and often incorrect use of antibiotics in animal husbandry has led to the spread of antimicrobial resistance in this setting. Wastewater from slaughterhouses can be contaminated with multidrug-resistant bacteria, representing a possible cross-contamination route. We evaluated the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in wastewater samples from slaughterhouses located in an Italian region. Specifically, 18 slaughterhouses were included in the study. Of the tested samples, 40 bacterial strains were chosen, identified, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., Enterobacter spp., Aeromonas spp., and Citrobacter spp. were the most detected genera. The most resistant strains were on average those belonging to Enterobacter spp. The highest resistance rate was recorded for macrolides. Among ß-lactams, penicillins and cephalosporins were by far the molecules towards which the highest resistance was detected. A very interesting finding is the difference found in strains detected in wastewater from poultry slaughterhouses, in which higher levels for almost all the considered drugs were detected compared to those from ungulates slaughterhouses. Our results indicate wastewater from slaughterhouses as a potential vehicle of resistant bacteria and highlight the importance of correct management of these kinds of waters.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Aeromonas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Esgotos , Sicília
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 944, 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite infecting warm-blooded animals. Infection in people can occur through ingestion of oocysts passed in the faeces of the definitive hosts; ingestion of bradyzoites in the tissue of infected intermediate hosts; or exposure to tachyzoites in raw milk and eggs. Slaughterhouse workers are considered a high-risk group for T. gondii exposure because of their contact with raw meat, although a positive relationship between handling raw meat and T. gondii seropositivity has not been demonstrated in all studies. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to T. gondii in slaughterhouse workers in Kenya and identify risk factors associated with seropositivity. METHODS: A survey of slaughterhouse workers was conducted in 142 slaughter facilities in the study area. Information regarding demographics, contact with livestock, meat consumption, and practices in the slaughterhouse was collected using structured questionnaires. Commercial ELISAs were used to detect IgM and IgG antibodies against T. gondii and a multi-level logistic regression model was used to identify potential risk factors for seropositivity in slaughterhouse workers. RESULTS: The apparent prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii was 84.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 81.2-86.5%) for IgG and 2.2% (95% CI 1.3-3.5%) for IgM antibodies. All IgM positive individuals were IgG positive. Risk factors for exposure to T. gondii were: increasing age (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.03; 95% CI 1.01-1.05); owning poultry (OR 2.00; 95% CI 1.11-3.62); and consuming animal blood (OR 1.92; 95% CI 1.21-3.03). CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of antibodies to T. gondii was very high in this population and considerably higher than published values in the general population. Risk factors included age, owning poultry and drinking animal blood which were consistent with previous reports but none were specifically associated with working in the slaughterhouse. In this instance slaughterhouse workers may represent a useful sentinel for the general population where the level of exposure is also likely to be high and may signify an unidentified public health risk to vulnerable groups such as pregnant women. A detailed understanding of the epidemiology of infection is required, which should include an assessment of incidence, mortality, and burden since T. gondii infection is likely to have life-long sequelae.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Matadouros , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia
17.
Prev Vet Med ; 196: 105495, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547663

RESUMO

Abattoir surveillance for Johne's disease monitoring in Australia has provided valuable feedback to producers about their flock's disease status since its commencement in 1999. The current surveillance system relies on the identification of gross lesions in sheep carcases at an abattoir, followed by sampling and histopathology testing. This manual inspection system has not been adapted to meet the changing disease situation, as infection prevalence levels have declined over time due to vaccination. This simulation study compares the current system with two alternative approaches utilising a validated quantitative (q)PCR method for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in tissues, with random systematic sampling either alone or in conjunction with sampling of a single carcass presenting gross lesions. Consigned sheep were randomly simulated as either infected or uninfected according to defined prevalence levels of infection, with varying histopathological lesion severity and the presence or absence of gross lesions. These sheep were then allocated into multiple 'lines' (group of sheep slaughtered together) within each consignment, with each line subjected to testing with the three sampling strategies for the estimation of line and flock (consignment) sensitivity. The line sensitivity described the proportion of infected lines that tested positive, whereas the flock sensitivity was the proportion of consignments from the simulated infected flocks that had one or more lines test positive for paratuberculosis infection. The tissue qPCR strategy with gross lesion detection achieved marginally higher line sensitivity than the current abattoir surveillance strategy. The simulation of unvaccinated infected flocks with low to moderate prevalence levels demonstrated similar flock sensitivity for all three sampling models. However, the current strategy had very low line sensitivity for the simulated vaccinated infected flocks when the infection prevalence level was <2%. There were substantial differences in flock sensitivity between the two tissue qPCR approaches and the current abattoir surveillance strategy for vaccinated infected flocks, whereas, only marginal differences in flock sensitivity were evident between the two tissue qPCR models. Our results demonstrate that the current strategy is not effective at identifying infected animals at very low infection prevalence levels. The tissue qPCR approach investigated in this study is better as it removes the reliance on meat inspectors to identify gross lesions and can also assist in identifying flocks that have subclinical infected sheep not displaying gross lesions. Therefore, the sheep industry may benefit from incorporating tissue qPCR for Johne's disease surveillance, however the logistics and costs of conducting this type of testing would need to be considered prior to implementing any changes.


Assuntos
Paratuberculose , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Doenças dos Ovinos , Matadouros , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Paratuberculose/diagnóstico , Paratuberculose/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
18.
Prev Vet Med ; 196: 105477, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482152

RESUMO

Abattoir surveillance is an integral component of a bovine tuberculosis (bTB) eradication programme. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of bTB among culled adult dairy cows in Wuhan, China and to further assess two diagnostic procedures as an adjunct to the confirmation of M. bovis in animals with TB-like lesions. The study was conducted in an abattoir located in Wuhan, China over a period of 41 days from June to July 2019. A total of 171 culled adult dairy cows were sampled and inspected, and blood samples collected from 134 of these. The viscera and lymph nodes of the carcasses were visually inspected and palpated for TB-like lesions. A total of 28.1 % (48/171) of the carcasses had gross TB-like lesions. 89.6 % (43/48) of the animals with TB-like lesions were positive to a PCR procedure for bTB. The sensitivity and specificity for post-mortem examination for TB-like lesions using a Bayesian latent class analysis model was estimated to be 60.8 % and 86.6 %, respectively. A seroprevalence of 20.9 % (28/134) was recorded for antibody response to M. bovis antigens MPB70 and MPB83 based on an ELISA procedure. There was a low-moderate agreement between the ELISA and PCR results in the detection of bTB (Kappa = 0.46, 95 % CI: 0.24-0.67). The study confirms a high prevalence of bTB among culled adult dairy cows in the abattoir and highlights the need to implement surveillance for bTB based on post-mortem examination and ELISA and PCR methods in association with backward tracing of infected dairy herds.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium bovis , Tuberculose Bovina , Matadouros , Abate de Animais , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia
19.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(11): 1730-1734, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544937

RESUMO

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) is commonly used for genotyping bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in slaughterhouses. However, unclassified BLV genotypes have been sporadically reported. To assess the current status of BLV genetic characterization in cattle, PCR-RFLP was performed on blood samples of 170 cattle (84 Japanese Black, 60 Japanese Black x Holstein, and 26 Holstein) from 17 farms (5 prefectures) at a slaughterhouse in Aichi Prefecture in 2019. A total of 65 samples (38.2%) were BLV positive, and genotype 1 was the most predominant (56/65 samples), followed by genotypes 3 (6 samples) and 5 (1 sample), and two unclassified samples. No relationship between the genotypes and breeds was observed. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that unclassified BLV genotypes clustered with genotype 1 sequences were, therefore, not new genotypes.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Leucose Enzoótica Bovina , Vírus da Leucemia Bovina , Matadouros , Animais , Bovinos , Leucose Enzoótica Bovina/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Japão/epidemiologia , Vírus da Leucemia Bovina/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(3): 788-793, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339383

RESUMO

Vietnam is a rabies-endemic country where eating dog meat is customary. However, the risks of rabies transmission to dog slaughtering and processing workers have not been identified. This study aimed to determine the rabies neutralizing antibody (NTA) and risk factors in dog slaughterers to propose appropriate intervention methods for this occupational group. In 2016, a cross-sectional study on NTA against rabies virus and related factors was conducted among 406 professional dog slaughterers in Vietnam. The participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, and their sera were tested for rabies NTA by a rapid focus fluorescence inhibition test. Statistical algorithms were used to analyze the data. The results showed that most of the professional dog butchers (344/406 subjects, 84.7%) had no rabies NTA. Interestingly, 7.8% (29/373) had NTA without a rabies vaccination history. Over 5 years of experience as a dog butcher was positively associated with the presence of NTA in unvaccinated individuals (OR = 6.16, P = 0.001). The NTA in vaccinated butchers was present in higher titer and for longer persistence to those of other previously reported professionals, which is possibly as a result of multiple exposures to low levels of rabies virus antigens during dog slaughtering. Our study demonstrated that professional dog butchers in Vietnam are at a high risk of rabies virus infection, apart from those with common bite experiences. In countries where dog meat consumption is customary, rabies control and prevention activities should focus on safety during dog trading and slaughtering.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas , Cães , Feminino , Luvas Protetoras , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Raiva/imunologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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