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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 557433, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566947

RESUMO

The occurrence of allergic diseases induced by aeroallergens has increased in the past decades. Among inhalant allergens, mites remain the important causal agent of allergic diseases. Storage mites- Tyrophagus putrescentiae are found in stored products or domestic environments. Major allergen Tyr-p3 plays a significant role in triggering IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. However, its effects on pulmonary inflammation, internalization, and activation in human epithelium remain elusive. Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are activated upon cleavage by proteases. A549 cells were used as an epithelial model to examine the PAR activation by Tyr-p3 and therapeutic potential of PAR-2 antagonist (GB88) in allergic responses. Enzymatic properties and allergen localization of Tyr-p3 were performed. The release of inflammatory mediators, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and cell junction disruptions were evaluated after Tyr-p3 challenge. Enzymatic properties determined by substrate digestion and protease inhibitors indicated that Tyr-p3 processes a trypsin-like serine protease activity. The PAR-2 mRNA levels were significantly increased by nTyr-p3 but inhibited by protease inhibitors or GB88. Protease allergen of nTyr-p3 significantly increased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α), chemokine (IL-8), and IL-1ß in epithelial cells. nTyr-p3 markedly increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and MAP kinase. When cells were pretreated with GB88 then added nTyr-p3, the phosphorylated ERK1/2 did not inhibit by GB88. GB88 increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in human epithelium cells. GB88 is able to block PAR-2-mediated calcium signaling which inhibits the nTyr-p3-induced Ca2+ release. Among the pharmacologic inhibitors, the most effective inhibitor of the nTyr-p3 in the induction of IL-8 or IL-1ß levels was GB88 followed by SBTI, MAPK/ERK, ERK, and p38 inhibitors. Levels of inflammatory mediators, including GM-CSF, VEGF, COX-2, TSLP, and IL-33 were reduced by treatment of GB88 or SBTI. Further, GB88 treatment down-regulated the nTyr-p3-induced PAR-2 expression in allergic patients with asthma or rhinitis. Tight junction and adherens junction were disrupted in epithelial cells by nTyr-p3 exposure; however, this effect was avoided by GB88. Immunostaining with frozen sections of the mite body showed the presence of Tyr-p3 throughout the intestinal digestive system, especially in the hindgut around the excretion site. In conclusion, our findings suggest that Tyr-p3 from domestic mites leads to disruption of the airway epithelial barrier after inhalation. Proteolytic activity of Tyr-p3 causes the PAR-2 mRNA expression, thus leading to the release of numerous inflammatory mediators. Antagonism of PAR2 activity suggests GB88 as the therapeutic potential for anti-inflammation medicine, especially in allergy development triggered by protease allergens.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Receptor PAR-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Células A549 , Acaridae/imunologia , Alérgenos/toxicidade , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/metabolismo , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Proteínas de Insetos/toxicidade , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Receptor PAR-2/imunologia , Mucosa Respiratória/imunologia
2.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 97(10)2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448854

RESUMO

Interactions among endosymbiotic bacteria inside their eukaryotic hosts are poorly understood, particularly in mites. The mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae is a common, medically important generalist species that has many intracellular and gut bacterial symbionts. In the experiments, we examined bacterial abundances and composition in mite populations obtained by controlled mixing of stock mite populations that differed in the presence/absence of the major intracellular bacteria Wolbachia and Cardinium. Changes in microbial communities were characterized using 16S ribosomal RNA high-throughput sequencing (pooled mite individuals) and quantitative PCR for key microbial taxa (individual mites). Mite fitness was estimated as a parameter of population growth. We detected that in mixed mite populations, Cardinium and Wolbachia can co-occur in the same mite individual. The presence of Cardinium was negatively correlated with the presence of Wolbachia and Bartonella, while the Bartonella and Wolbachia were positively correlated in individual level samples. Since mixed populations had lower abundances of Wolbachia, while the abundance of Cardinium did not change, we suggest that the presence of Cardinium inhibits the growth of Wolbachia. The mixed mite populations had lower population growth than parental populations. The possible effect of symbionts on the fitness of mixed population is discussed.


Assuntos
Acaridae , Microbiota , Ácaros , Wolbachia , Animais , Bacteroidetes/genética , Humanos , Simbiose , Wolbachia/genética
3.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1956): 20211069, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344179

RESUMO

Conditional strategies occur when the relative fitness pay-off from expressing a given phenotype is contingent upon environmental circumstances. This conditional strategy model underlies cases of alternative reproductive tactics, in which individuals of one sex employ different means to obtain reproduction. How kin structure affects the expression of alternative reproductive tactics remains unexplored. We address this using the mite Rhizoglyphus echinopus, in which large males develop into aggressive 'fighters' and small males develop into non-aggressive 'scramblers.' Because only fighters kill their rivals, they should incur a greater indirect fitness cost when competing with their relatives, and thus fighter expression could be reduced in the presence of relatives. We raised mites in full-sibling or mixed-sibship groups and found that fighters were more common at higher body weights in full-sibling groups, not less common as we predicted (small individuals were almost exclusively scramblers in both treatments). This result could be explained if relatedness and cue variability are interpreted signals of population density, since fighters are more common at low densities in this species. Alternatively, our results may indicate that males compete more intensely with relatives in this species. We provide the first evidence of kin-mediated plasticity in the expression of alternative reproductive tactics.


Assuntos
Acaridae , Ácaros , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Densidade Demográfica , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e046519, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312197

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Identification and characterisation of single allergens at molecular level is important. Component-resolved diagnosis offers the possibility of higher diagnostic precision, thereby allowing better patient management. House dust mites (HDM) have a worldwide distribution. Studies from different countries have shown that IgE-mediated allergy to storage mites (SM) is important in rural and urban populations. With the availability of HDM and SM molecular allergen components, studies have investigated whether different molecular sensitisation profiles are associated with clinical disease outcomes. However, no previous systematic review has synthesised the underlying evidence. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search Cochrane Library (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Cochrane Methodology Register), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, ISI Web of Science (Science and Social Science Index) from inception to March 2020. Unpublished and ongoing work, as well as research in progress will be searched in www.ClinicalTrials.gov; www.controlledtrials.com and wwwanzctrorgau. We will contact an international panel of experts in this field. No language restrictions will apply; translations will be undertaken where necessary. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme quality assessment tool will be used to appraise the methodological quality of included studies. A descriptive summary with data tables will be constructed, and if adequate, meta-analysis using random effects will be performed. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist will be followed for reporting. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Since this systematic review will be only based on published and retrievable literature, no ethics approval is required. We will publish the systematic review in an international peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: reviewregistry959.


Assuntos
Acaridae , Asma , Hipersensibilidade , Rinite , Animais , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Pyroglyphidae , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
5.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 84(2): 445-458, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970406

RESUMO

Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), commonly known as the cereal mite, cheese mite, or ham mite, is a cosmopolitan species reported from various environments in the wild, including soil, plant material and vertebrate nests. It has also been recognized as a common pest of food storages, mycological collections as well as plant and invertebrate laboratory cultures. Laboratory observations indicate that T. putrescentiae feeds on a large range of dermatophytes, yeasts and molds. We have observed the interspecific relation between this mite and several species of true slime molds (Mycetozoa) under laboratory conditions, which confirms the very broad spectrum of feeding habits of T. putrescentiae. Mycetozoans were grown in semi-sterile in vitro cultures and fed with oat flour or oat flakes. Tyrophagus putrescentiae displayed affinity to all macroscopically identifiable stages of the life cycle of Fuligo septica (L.) F.H. Wigg, Physarum polycephalum Schwein and the Didymium sp. complex [Didymium iridis (Ditmar) Fr., Didymium nigripes (Link) Fr. and Didymium bahiense Gottsb.]: live, decaying or dead plasmodia, sporangia, aethalia, spores and sclerotia. The relation carrying symptoms of various types of interspecific interaction, is hypothesized to form an evolutionarily young phenomenon, which not only identifies a new aspect of mycetozoal biology, but also presents the cereal mite as a species of high adaptive potential.


Assuntos
Acaridae , Physarum polycephalum , Acidentes , Animais , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Leveduras
6.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 84(2): 271-363, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988815

RESUMO

Cheliceral chelal design in free-living astigmatid mites (Arthropoda: Acari) is reviewed within a mechanical model. Trophic access (body size and cheliceral reach) and food morsel handling (chelal gape and estimated static adductive crushing force) are morphologically investigated. Forty-seven commonly occurring astigmatid mite species from 20 genera (covering the Acaridae, Aeroglyphidae, Carpoglyphidae, Chortoglyphidae, Glycyphagidae, Lardoglyphidae, Pyroglyphidae, Suidasiidae, and Winterschmidtiidae) are categorised into functional groups using heuristics. Conclusions are confirmed with statistical tests and multivariate morphometrics. Despite these saprophagous acarines in general being simple 'shrunken/swollen' versions of each other, clear statistical correlations in the specifics of their mechanical design (cheliceral and chelal scale and general shape) with the type of habitat and food consumed (their 'biome') are found. Using multivariate analyses, macro- and microsaprophagous subtypes are delineated. Relative ratios of sizes on their own are not highly informative of adaptive syndromes. Sympatric resource competition is examined. Evidence for a maximum doubling of approximate body volume within nominal taxa is detected but larger mites are not more 'generalist' feeding types. Two contrasting types of basic 'Bauplan' are found differing in general scale: (i) a large, chunk-crunching, 'demolition'-feeding omnivore design (comprising 10 macrosaprophagous astigmatid species), and (ii) a small selective picking, squashing/slicing or fragmentary/'plankton' feeding design (which may indicate obligate fungivory/microbivory) comprising 20 microsaprophagous acarid-shaped species. Seventeen other species appear to be specialists. Eleven of these are either: small (interstitial/burrowing) omnivores-or a derived form designed for processing large hard food morsels (debris durophagy, typified by the pyroglyphid Dermatophagoides farinae), or a specialist sub-type of particular surface gleaning/scraping fragmentary feeding. Six possible other minor specialist gleaning/scraping fragmentary feeders types each comprising one to two species are described. Details of these astigmatid trophic-processing functional groups need field validation and more corroborative comparative enzymology. Chelal velocity ratio in itself is not highly predictive of habitat but with cheliceral aspect ratio (or chelal adductive force) is indicative of life-style. Herbivores and pest species are typified by a predicted large chelal adductive force. Pest species may be 'shredders' derived from protein-seeking necrophages. Carpoglyphus lactis typifies a mite with tweezer-like chelae of very feeble adductive force. It is suggested that possible zoophagy (hypocarnivory) is associated with low chelal adductive force together with a small or large gape depending upon the size of the nematode being consumed. Kuzinia laevis typifies an oophagous durophage. Functional form is correlated with taxonomic position within the Astigmata-pyroglyphids and glycyphagids being distinct from acarids. A synthesis with mesostigmatid and oribatid feeding types is offered together with clarification of terminologies. The chelal lyrifissure in the daintiest chelicerae of these astigmatids is located similar to where the action of the chelal moveable digit folds the cheliceral shaft in uropodoids, suggesting mechanical similarities of function. Acarid astigmatids are trophically structured like microphytophagous/fragmentary feeding oribatids. Some larger astigmatids (Aleuroglyphus ovatus, Kuzinia laevis, Tyroborus lini) approximate, and Neosuidasia sp. matches, the design of macrophytophagous oribatids. Most astigmatid species reviewed appear to be positioned with other oribatid secondary decomposers. Only Dermatophagoides microceras might be a primary decomposer approximating a lichenivorous oribatid (Austrachipteria sp.) in trophic form. Astigmatid differences are consilient with the morphological trend from micro- to macrophytophagy in oribatids. The key competency in these actinotrichid mites is a type of 'gnathosomisation' through increased chelal and cheliceral height (i.e., a shape change that adjusts the chelal input effort arm and input adductive force) unrestricted by the dorsal constraint of a mesostigmatid-like gnathotectum. A predictive nomogram for ecologists to use on field samples is included. Future work is proposed in detail.


Assuntos
Acaridae , Artrópodes , Ácaros , Animais , Tamanho Corporal
7.
Microb Ecol ; 81(2): 506-522, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852571

RESUMO

Arthropod-associated microorganisms are important because they affect host fitness, protect hosts from pathogens, and influence the host's ability to vector pathogens. Stored product mites (Astigmata) often establish large populations in various types of food items, damaging the food by direct feeding and introducing contaminants, including their own bodies, allergen-containing feces, and associated microorganisms. Here we access the microbial structure and abundance in rearing diets, eggs, feces fraction, and mite bodies of 16 mite populations belonging to three species (Carpoglyphus lactis, Acarus siro, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) using quantitative PCR and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicon sequencing. The mite microbiomes had a complex structure dominated by the following bacterial taxa (OTUs): (a) intracellular symbionts of the genera Cardinium and Wolbachia in the mite bodies and eggs; (b) putative gut symbionts of the genera Solitalea, Bartonella, and Sodalis abundant in mite bodies and also present in mite feces; (c) feces-associated or environmental bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Kocuria in the diet, mite bodies, and feces. Interestingly and counterintuitively, the differences between microbial communities in various conspecific mite populations were higher than those between different mite species. To explain some of these differences, we hypothesize that the intracellular bacterial symbionts can affect microbiome composition in mite bodies, causing differences between microbial profiles. Microbial profiles differed between various sample types, such as mite eggs, bodies, and the environment (spent growth medium-SPGM). Low bacterial abundances in eggs may result in stochastic effects in parent-offspring microbial transmission, except for the intracellular symbionts. Bacteria in the rearing diet had little effect on the microbial community structure in SPGM and mite bodies. Mite fitness was positively correlated with bacterial abundance in SPGM and negatively correlated with bacterial abundances in mite bodies. Our study demonstrates critical host-microbe interactions, affecting all stages of mite growth and leading to alteration of the environmental microbiome. Correlational evidence based on absolute quantitation of bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies suggests that mite-associated microorganisms are critical for modulating important pest properties of mites by altering population growth.


Assuntos
Acaridae/microbiologia , Microbiota , Acaridae/classificação , Acaridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Óvulo/microbiologia , Filogenia
8.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 48(6): 619-625, nov.-dic. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-199251

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) is the only allergic disease-modifying therapy available for children and adults, and recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and ASIT. Tyrophagus putrescentiae is a common storage mite that produces potent allergens. The aim of this study was to express and characterize recombinant group 4 allergen protein of T. putrescentiae (Tyr p 4), and to further investigate allergenicity and potential epitopes of Tyr p 4. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cDNA encoding Tyr p 4 was generated by RT-PCR and subcloned into pET-28a(+) plasmid. The plasmid was then transformed into E. coli cells for expression. After purification by nickel affinity chromatography and identification by SDS-PAGE, recombinant Tyr p 4 protein was used for a skin prick test and an ELISA to determine the allergic response. RESULTS: Study participants' allergic response rate to Tyr p 4 protein was 13.3% (16/120). Eight B-cell epitopes and three T-cell epitopes of Tyr p 4 were predicted. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to group 4 allergens of other species of mite, allergenicity of Tyr p 4 is weak. The expression, characterization and epitope prediction of recombinant Tyr p 4 protein provide a foundation for further study of this allergen in the diagnosis and ASIT of storage mite allergy


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acaridae , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Alérgenos/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Testes Cutâneos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Proteínas Recombinantes/sangue , Alérgenos/sangue , Epitopos/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
9.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(6): 618-622, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325197

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To obtain the transcriptome data of Tyrophagus putrescentiae, so as to provide insights into the subsequent functional studies. METHODS: The mixture of male and female T. putrescentiae was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeqTM 2000 high-throughput sequencing platform. Unigenes were obtained after assembling the sequencing data using the Trinity software and compared with the protein sequences in the RefSeq non-redundant protein sequence (NR) database, nucleotide sequence (NT) database, Swiss-Prot database, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) database and clusters of orthologous groups (COG) database, and the function of the Unigenes was annotated. In addition, the coding DNA sequences (CDS) were predicted through alignment of the Unigenes in NR and Swiss-Prot protein databases. The SSR loci were identified by analysis of the Unigenes in T. putrescentiae with the MISA software, and the SNPs were detected using the SOAPsnp technique. RESULTS: A total of 4.67 GB high-quality data were obtained from raw sequencing data. A total of 51 271 Unigenes were obtained after assembling the sequencing data, with a total length of 41 848 995 nucleotide (nt) and a mean length of 816 nt. A total of 29 053 annotated Unigenes were obtained following comparisons with the public protein databases, and 27 443 CDS were predicted. In addition, there were 23 092 SSR loci and 148 027 SNPs identified. CONCLUSIONS: The database of T. putrescentiae transcriptome is created by sequencing, and a large number of T. putrescentiae transcripts are obtained, which provides a basis for the subsequent functional studies of allergy-related genes.


Assuntos
Acaridae/genética , Biologia Computacional , Transcriptoma , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
10.
Zootaxa ; 4857(1): zootaxa.4857.1.9, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056350

RESUMO

In mites of the family Acaridae, usually two developmental stages, adult (males, females) and deutonymphal stage (=hypopus) are used for diagnostic descriptions. Because these taxonomically important stages live in different habitats (i.e. deutonymphs are phoretic on a hymenopteran host, while adults live inside the nest of the host), one of these can be missing or they cannot be confidently corelated with each other. Sennertionyx manicati (Acari: Acaridae) was only known from hypopus. Herein, we describe all post-embryonic stages of S. manicati based on material obtained from a nest of Anthidium manicatum in Auckland, New Zealand, and provide a key to all life stages of this species. We also conducted a phylogenetic analysis of the 18S gene and the D2/D3 region of 28S genes from field-collected specimens and GenBank data. The molecular analysis indicated the New Zealand specimen shared the identical 18S and 99.5% identity of the D2D3 region of 28S sequences with S. manicati from Italy, and clustered together in the phylogenetic trees.


Assuntos
Acaridae , Ácaros , Animais , Abelhas , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia ,
11.
J Econ Entomol ; 113(6): 2604-2612, 2020 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979269

RESUMO

Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) is one of the most important biological control agents and has been used in many countries. In this study, the suitability of Carpoglyphus lactis L. (Acari: Carpoglyphidae), Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), and their mixture for rearing A. swirskii was evaluated by using the two-sex life table. When reared on C. lactis, the durations of egg, deutonymph, total preadult, total preoviposition period, and adult male longevity of A. swirskii (1.95, 1.17, 6.13, 6.30, and 10.09 d, respectively) were significantly shorter than those reared on the mixed prey (2.05, 1.45, 6.55, 6.64, and 15.56 d, respectively). When reared on the mixed prey, however, the fecundity (110.21 eggs/female) of A. swirskii was significantly higher in comparison with those solely reared on C. lactis (82.17 eggs/female) or on T. putrescentiae (98.23 eggs/female). When reared on the mixed diet, the intrinsic rate of increase (r = 0.3792 d-1), finite rate of population increase (λ = 1.4611 d-1), and net reproductive rate (R0 = 79.69 offspring) of A. swirskii were significantly higher than those on single-species diets. For a daily production of 10,000 eggs of A. swirskii, a smaller population size (2,626 individuals) of A. swirskii is needed when reared on the mixed diet, in contrast to the 4,332 individuals on C. lactis and 3,778 individuals on T. putrescentiae. The population projection and mass-rearing analysis based on life table showed that the mixed diet was the most suitable and economical diet for the mass-rearing of A. swirskii.


Assuntos
Acaridae , Ácaros , Animais , Dieta , Feminino , Masculino , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Comportamento Predatório
12.
J Evol Biol ; 33(10): 1433-1439, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654292

RESUMO

Sexual selection and conflict can act on genes with important metabolic functions, potentially shaping standing genetic variance in such genes and thus evolutionary potential of populations. Here, using experimental evolution, we show how reproductive competition intensity and thermal environment affect selection on phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6Pgdh)-a metabolic gene involved in sexual selection and conflict in the bulb mite. The S allele of 6Pgdh increases male success in reproductive competition, but is detrimental to S-bearing males' partners. We found that the rate of the S allele spread increased with the proportion of males in the experimental populations, illustrating that harm to females is more easily compensated for males under more intense sexual competition. Furthermore, we found that under equal sex ratio, the S allele spreads faster at higher temperature. While the direction of selection on 6Pgdh was not reversed in any of the conditions we tested, which would be required for environmental heterogeneity to maintain polymorphism at this locus, our study highlights that ecological and sexual selection can jointly affect selection on important metabolic enzymes.


Assuntos
Acaridae/genética , Evolução Biológica , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Fosfogluconato Desidrogenase/genética , Seleção Sexual , Alelos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético , Reprodução , Razão de Masculinidade , Temperatura
13.
Evolution ; 74(8): 1851-1855, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519389

RESUMO

Elaborate sexually selected ornaments and armaments are costly but increase the reproductive success of their bearers (usually males). It has been postulated that high-quality males can invest disproportionately more in such traits, making those traits honest signals of genetic quality. However, genes associated with such traits may have sexually antagonistic effects on fitness. Here, using a bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini, a species in which a distinct dimorphism exists between males in the expression of a sexually selected weapon, we compare inbreeding and gender load between lines derived from armed fighters and unarmed scramblers. After four generations of sib-mating, inbreeding depression for female fitness was significantly lower in fighter-derived lines compared to scrambler-derived lines, suggesting that fighter males had significantly higher genetic quality. However, outbred females from fighter-derived lines had significantly lower fitness compared to outbred females from scrambler-derived lines, demonstrating significant gender load associated with the presence of a sexually selected male weapon. Our results imply that under outbreeding, genetic benefits of mating with bearers of elaborate sexually selected traits might be swamped by the costs of decreased fitness of female progeny due to sexually antagonistic effects.


Assuntos
Acaridae/genética , Aptidão Genética , Depressão por Endogamia , Caracteres Sexuais , Seleção Sexual , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade/genética , Carga Genética , Masculino
14.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 48(6): 619-625, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418775

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) is the only allergic disease-modifying therapy available for children and adults, and recombinant allergens are an interesting approach to improve allergy diagnosis and ASIT. Tyrophagus putrescentiae is a common storage mite that produces potent allergens. The aim of this study was to express and characterize recombinant group 4 allergen protein of T. putrescentiae (Tyr p 4), and to further investigate allergenicity and potential epitopes of Tyr p 4. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cDNA encoding Tyr p 4 was generated by RT-PCR and subcloned into pET-28a(+) plasmid. The plasmid was then transformed into E. coli cells for expression. After purification by nickel affinity chromatography and identification by SDS-PAGE, recombinant Tyr p 4 protein was used for a skin prick test and an ELISA to determine the allergic response. RESULTS: Study participants' allergic response rate to Tyr p 4 protein was 13.3% (16/120). Eight B-cell epitopes and three T-cell epitopes of Tyr p 4 were predicted. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to group 4 allergens of other species of mite, allergenicity of Tyr p 4 is weak. The expression, characterization and epitope prediction of recombinant Tyr p 4 protein provide a foundation for further study of this allergen in the diagnosis and ASIT of storage mite allergy.


Assuntos
Acaridae/imunologia , Alérgenos/imunologia , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Hipersensibilidade/terapia , Acaridae/genética , Adulto , Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Alérgenos/genética , Alérgenos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/isolamento & purificação , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos de Linfócito B/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Farinha/efeitos adversos , Farinha/parasitologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Testes Cutâneos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 80(4): 521-530, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162137

RESUMO

In this study, we de novo sequenced and analyzed the circular mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Tyrophagus putrescentiae. It was 14,156 bp long and contained a complete set of 37 genes, contrary to the initial published sequences; it included 22 tRNA sequences and the largest non-coding region. The mtDNA gene order of T. putrescentiae was found to be identical to that of Aleuroglyphus ovatus, Caloglyphus berlesei, and Rhizoglyphus robini (all Acaroidea). Most tRNAs of T. putrescentiae lack at least a D-arm or T-arm. Tyrophagus putrescentiae tRNAs also shared considerable structural and sequence similarity with the tRNAs of other reported Acaroidea species that have the full set of tRNAs. The largest non-coding region was located between trnF and trnS1, and it contained a microsatellite-like (AT)n sequence, short palindromic sequences, and several hairpin loops, as observed in other reported Acaroidea species (excepting Tyrophagus longior).


Assuntos
Acaridae/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Ordem dos Genes , RNA de Transferência/genética
16.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 35, 2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differing evolutionary interests of males and females may result in sexual conflict, whereby traits or behaviours that are beneficial for male reproductive success (e.g., traits related to male-male competition) are costly for females. Since sexual conflict may play an important role in areas such as speciation, population persistence or evolution of life history traits, understanding what factors modulate the intensity of sexual conflict is important. This study aims to examine juvenile diet quality as one of the underestimated ecological factors that may affect the intensity of sexual conflict via individual conditions. I used food manipulation during the development of the mite Sancassania berlesei to investigate the effects on male reproductive behaviour and competitiveness, male-induced harm to female fitness and female resistance to this harm. RESULTS: Males that were exposed to low-quality food started mating later than the control males, and number of their mating attempts were lower compared to those of control males. Moreover, males from the low-quality diet treatment sired fewer offspring under competition than males from the control treatment. However, the fitness of females exposed to males reared on a poor diet did not differ from that of females mated with control males. Furthermore, female diet quality did not alter their resistance to male-induced harm. CONCLUSION: Overall, diet quality manipulation affected male reproductive behaviour and mating success. However, I found no evidence that the intensity of sexual conflict in S. berlesei depends on male or female conditions. Investigating a broader range of environmental factors will provide a better understanding of sexual conflict dynamics and its feedback into associated evolutionary mechanisms.


Assuntos
Acaridae/fisiologia , Dieta , Ácaros/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Acaridae/classificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual , Territorialidade
17.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 172: 107365, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201240

RESUMO

Insect wing deformities can be caused by viruses, mites and other environmental stressors during development. Here we conducted differential diagnostics of deformed wings in small hive beetles, Aethina tumida (SHB). Adult SHB with and without deformed wings from individual and mass reared scenarios were evaluated for the mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae and for deformed wing virus. Viral load and mite number were similar for SHB with deformed wings and unaffected beetles. Because deformed wings were only observed in individually pupating SHB, a humidity challenge most likely explains the observed clinical symptoms. Our observations support the importance of differential diagnostics.


Assuntos
Acaridae/fisiologia , Besouros/anatomia & histologia , Vírus de RNA/fisiologia , Asas de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alabama , Animais , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Besouros/parasitologia , Besouros/virologia , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia
18.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 80(3): 381-398, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030607

RESUMO

Sensitization to mites is a considerable factor in the development of allergic diseases. Because of its abundance, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Tp) is the predominant storage mite found in home storage rooms, kitchens, and bakeries. Patients allergic to mites might exhibit a severely hypersensitive reaction upon ingesting Tp-contaminated food. The objective of this study was to investigate the rates of Tp contamination in commercial storage products from various areas, storage conditions, and environments in Taiwan. A specific antibody against Tyr p 3, the allergen on Tp, could be used as an indicator to monitor the contamination condition in storage foods. The microscopic mite examination, allergen detection by ELISA and cultured mite chemotaxis were used to evaluate the prevalence of T. putrescentiae contamination. Moreover, the IgE responses of patients allergic to mites were examined. We found that pet food and mushrooms were commonly contaminated with Tp, and this was validated through Tyr p 3 concentration and chemotaxis experiments. Tp contamination rates decreased significantly when samples were sealed and stored at a low temperature (<  4 °C), low relative humidity (RH < 60%), or for longer periods at a low temperature. The results of the clinical study indicated that the mites that elicited major positive IgE responses in allergic subjects were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae. Thus, people who are sensitized to D. pteronyssinus or D. farinae might be at risk of a second anaphylactic reaction due to cross-reactivity upon ingestion of Tp-contaminated food. Accordingly, Tp contamination can be prevented by keeping food packages sealed and stored at a low temperature. This prevents the severe allergic reaction caused by the inadvertent ingestion of contaminated food-borne Tp.


Assuntos
Acaridae , Contaminação de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Hipersensibilidade , Animais , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Prevalência , Taiwan
19.
J Med Entomol ; 57(2): 329-335, 2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742345

RESUMO

Initial data on the prevalence of storage mites in dry-stored food products and estimates of the presence of mites in human stool in the city of Minia, Egypt are provided. In total, 847 samples were collected randomly from houses and retail stores between March 2017 and February 2018. In addition, 1,000 human stool samples were collected for the detection of the presence of mites. Mites were extracted from 285 of 840 (33.9%) samples, and mite contamination was found to be most prevalent in wheat flour (73.3%). In total, 11 mite species belonging to six families were identified, with the pest species Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Acari: Acaridae) (TP) being the most prevalent (91.2% of samples). The seasonal density distribution showed the highest storage mite density in March-April, followed by October, and the lowest in January. In addition, mites were detected in 87 (8.7%) human stool samples, with significant associations between certain occupations and some personal characteristics. Therefore, more attention needs to be paid to intestinal acariasis arising from mite infestation of dry-stored food products.


Assuntos
Fezes/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Ácaros/fisiologia , Acaridae/fisiologia , Animais , Grão Comestível , Egito/epidemiologia , Fabaceae , Farinha , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Prevalência
20.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 50(3): 372-382, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic sensitization to storage mites has mostly been related to occupational exposures like farming, grain/cattle handling, whereas for non-occupational settings, storage mite sensitization has been attributed to cross-reactivity with house dust mite (HDM) allergens. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the prevalence of allergic sensitization to storage mites, co-sensitization to HDM allergens and respiratory symptoms in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. METHODS: The population comprised of 1180 participants born 1945-1972 of the third follow-up of the population-based cohort European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) in Aarhus, Bergen, Reykjavik and Uppsala. A clinical examination included skin prick tests (SPT) to Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus siro and common inhalant allergens, as well as standardized interviews. RESULTS: 8% were sensitized to HDM and 10% to storage mite, with some variation by study centre: Reykjavik 13%, Bergen 8% and Aarhus 7%. In Uppsala, only L destructor (3%) was measured. Storage mite sensitization was higher among men (11%) than women (8%). Among storage mite sensitized, 44% were also sensitized to HDM. Storage mite sensitization was associated with asthma and nasal allergies, but not with age, education, pet keeping or place of upbringing. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In this Northern European population-based study, allergic sensitization to storage mite was as common as HDM sensitization. Storage mite sensitization was, independently of HDM sensitization, associated with respiratory symptoms and asthma. Our findings suggest that storage mite sensitization should be evaluated with regard to inclusion into the common inhalant allergen panel in Northern Europe.


Assuntos
Acaridae/imunologia , Alérgenos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Testes Cutâneos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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