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1.
N Z Med J ; 135(1554): 111-128, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35728223

RESUMO

AIM: To describe the epidemiology of DRIs in New Zealand. METHODS: A review of Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) new claims for DRIs that required medical attention, and publicly funded hospital discharges identified from the National Minimum Dataset (NMDS) for the period of 1 July 2014 to 30 June 2019. ACC cases were identified using the TE60 READ code and relevant diagnosis or external agency descriptions; NMDS cases with an ICD-10-AM external cause of injury code of W540, W541, or W548 were included. RESULTS: There were 108,324 new ACC claims for DRIs and 3,456 hospitalisations during the five-year review period. The majority of injuries were dog bites (51%, n=54,754 ACC claims; 89%, n=3,084 hospitalisations). The all-age incidence of ACC claims for all DRIs significantly increased by 1.75% per year (p<0.001) during the period reviewed, with a significant increase in claims for dog bite injuries of 1.64% per year (p<0.001), a significant increase in DRI hospitalisations (2.43% per year, p=0.046), and a non-significant annual increase (p=0.217) in dog bite injury hospitalisations. Children aged 0-9 years had similar rates to adults of ACC claims for dog bite injuries; however, children 0-9 years were more likely to be hospitalised. Maori had a higher incidence of ACC claims and hospitalisations for dog bite injuries than non-Maori. ACC claims and hospitalisations for dog bite injuries were more likely to occur in areas of greater deprivation, with substantial regional variation across the country. CONCLUSION: The incidence of injury from dogs in New Zealand is increasing. Inequity exists with substantial regional variation, in higher rates among those living in areas of greater deprivation, and with Maori in the setting of the ongoing effects of colonisation. Children aged 0-9 years are no more likely than other age groups to present for medical attention but are more likely to be hospitalised. Reasons for these disparities require further investigation.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Acidentes , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Cães , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(suppl 2): e20211215, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35730899

RESUMO

Oil spills, intrinsically related to the petroleum production chain, represent a risk to the marine environment and a potential threat to humans through seafood consumption. We revised the NE Brazil oil spill and other accidents along the Brazilian coast, with a focus on seafood contamination, covering topics such as bioaccumulation, bioaccessibility, and risk analysis. Comprehensive knowledge of the impacts of spills helps in the interpretation of the dynamics of hydrocarbons released into the sea, contributing to actions to control their negative impacts. Currently, no legal limits have been established permanently in Brazil for PAHs in seafood edible tissues.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Acidentes , Organismos Aquáticos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Poluição por Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742465

RESUMO

Storm disasters are the most common cause of accidents in offshore oil and gas industries. To prevent accidents resulting from storms, it is vital to analyze accident propagation and to learn about accident mechanism from previous accidents. In this paper, a novel risk analysis framework is proposed for systematically identifying and analyzing the evolution of accident causes. First, accident causal factors are identified and coded based on grounded theory (GT). Then, decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) is integrated with interpretative structural modeling (ISM) to establish accident evolution hierarchy. Finally, complex networks (CN) are developed to analyze the evolution process of accidents. Compared to reported works, the contribution is threefold: (1) the demand for expert knowledge and personnel subjective influence are reduced through the data induction of accident cases; (2) the method of establishing influence matrix and interaction matrix is improved according to the accident frequency analysis; (3) a hybrid algorithm that can calculate multiple shortest paths of accident evolution under the same node pair is proposed. This method provides a new idea for step-by-step assessment of the accident evolution process, which weakens the subjectivity of traditional methods and achieves quantitative assessment of the importance of accident evolution nodes. The proposed method is demonstrated and validated by a case study of major offshore oil and gas industry accidents caused by storm disasters. Results show that there are five key nodes and five critical paths in the process of accident evolution. Through targeted prevention and control of these nodes and paths, the average shortest path length of the accident evolution network is increased by 35.19%, and the maximum global efficiency decreases by 20.12%. This indicates that the proposed method has broad applicability and can effectively reduce operational risk, so that it can guide actual offshore oil and gas operations during storm disasters.


Assuntos
Acidentes , Desastres , Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Indústrias , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás , Medição de Risco
4.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 3712507, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665297

RESUMO

A topologically based neural network algorithm is used to conduct an in-depth study and analysis of domino accident risk data in chemical parks, and this is used to construct a prevention and control system applied to the safety prediction of chemical parks. Firstly, the operating model of the flue gas turbine is expanded and analyzed according to the basic theory of topology, and the object element model is constructed to determine the feature vector and potential risk level. Then, the idea of differential evolution is introduced into the topological neural network to solve the problem that the learning rate and weighting coefficients are difficult to determine, and then the complete DE-ENN algorithm is proposed and tested with the UCI standard data set to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm. Finally, the algorithm is applied to the potential risk identification of the smoke machine operation model, and the experimental results show that the method not only has a simple structure, short running time, and high prediction accuracy but also has excellent generalization ability. For the inherent risk and domino effect risk of chemical equipment in chemical fiber enterprises, the accident risk assessment method based on the protection layer analysis method is proposed; combined with the probability of domino accident and personnel vulnerability model based on the comprehensive analysis of the research results of the allowable risk standard, the allowable risk standard applicable to chemical fiber production enterprises in China is proposed. Given the potential accident risk characteristics of chemical fiber production enterprises, the calculation method of firefighting demand and firefighting capacity of firefighting system is given; the index system of firefighting system emergency response capacity assessment is constructed from three aspects of firefighting system integrity, reliability, and effectiveness, and the assessment model and grade classification standard of firefighting emergency response capacity of chemical fiber production enterprises are determined.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Acidentes , Probabilidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
Appl Ergon ; 103: 103771, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523017

RESUMO

The current study analyzed the root causes of 22 helicopter accidents/incidents that took place between 1998 and 2019. Each root cause was coded using three commonly used classification models in aviation HFACS, ATSB, and IATA to identify recurring factors for better targeting of future prevention strategies. The frequency analysis revealed that not following procedure (22 observations), training inadequate or unavailable (17), inadequate regulatory oversight (17), inadequate procedure guidance (16), company management absent or deficient (10) and incorrect manuals/charts/checklists (9) were the most frequent contributing factors. Since none of the existing models could summarize the root causes of 22 occurrences effectively, a scenario-based human-machine-environment-procedure (HMEP) classification scheme was proposed to use organizational influences, people management, technical failure, procedure and document, and environment as the first-layer subcategories. The HMEP scheme was additionally applied to the analysis and coding of 4 helicopter accidents in the USA published by the NTSB. The HMEP scheme revealed that NTSB had identified a significantly greater number of root causes in the manufacturer design, manufacturing & documentation. Overall, HMEP can be used to guide the data collection during accident investigation and subsequently to aggregate aviation accidents to derive recurring factors and compare accident patterns in an efficient manner.


Assuntos
Acidentes Aeronáuticos , Aviação , Acidentes , Acidentes Aeronáuticos/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trabalho , Aeronaves , Humanos , Análise de Causa Fundamental
6.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(19): e155, 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35578587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the psychosocial symptoms and experiences of bereaved parents of victims and parents of survivors of the Sewol Ferry accident five years after the accident. METHODS: In-depth interviews of 186 bereaved parents of victims or survivors of the Sewol Ferry accident were conducted. We elicited and categorized meaning units relevant to the psychological, cognitive, and physical traits of the participants from these interviews. Differences in responses between bereaved parents and survivors' parents and between genders were examined using frequency analyses and χ² tests. RESULTS: Data were organized under seven headings: observed attitude and impression of participants, difficulties due to mental health problems, difficulties due to physical pain, difficulties in relationships, negative changes following the incident, positive changes following the incident, and help needed. Within these headings, 27 themes, 60 sub-themes, and 80 meaning units were elicited. CONCLUSION: This study explored the psychiatric, physical, and relational problems reported by bereaved parents and those of survivors as well as major changes in their personal and social lives after the Sewol Ferry accident. Differences in responses according to gender were also identified. The results from this study could inform and facilitate the implementation of intervention measures, such as long-term psychological evaluation, to bereaved parents of victims or survivors of disasters.


Assuntos
Desastres , Pais , Acidentes/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sobreviventes/psicologia
7.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 291: 151-160, 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35593763

RESUMO

Accident and emergency informatics has become a new approach to accident research in the era of digitization, where it has become realistic to integrate data recorded at accident sites with data in electronic health records of patients. This chapter deals with the question on whether the existing and well-established evaluation methodologies used in accident-centered research as well as in patient-centered research within clinical medicine are sufficient and should also be used for such integrated data or whether they have to be modified or extended. Based on the Gaus-Muche-Nomenclature on studies in clinical medicine, it will be outlined which types of studies are appropriate here. In addition to observational studies and registers, controlled trials using randomization are also be regarded as an important approach for gaining new knowledge. In order to appropriately access data from health records and from accidents, standards for representing and communicating data for such studies will be of importance. Another criterion is referential integrity. Here and with respect to accidents the International Standard Accident Number (ISAN) may be of importance.


Assuntos
Acidentes , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564653

RESUMO

Snow sports in the backcountry have seen a steep increase in popularity, and therefore preparedness for efficient companion and organized rescue is important. While technical rescue skills are widely taught, there is a lack of knowledge regarding first aid for avalanche patients. The stressful and time-critical situation for first responders requires a rule-based decision support tool. AvaLife has been designed from scratch, applying mathematical and statistical approaches including Monte Carlo simulations. New analysis of retrospective data and large prospective field test datasets were used to develop evidence-based algorithms exclusively for the avalanche rescue environment. AvaLife differs from other algorithms as it is not just a general-purpose CPR algorithm which has been slightly adapted for the avalanche patient. The sequence of actions, inclusion of the ≥150 cm burial depth triage criterion, advice to limit CPR duration for normothermic patients to 6 min in case of multiple burials and shortage of resources, criteria for using recovered subjects as a resource in the ongoing rescue, the adapted definition of "injuries incompatible with life", reasoning behind the utmost importance of rescue breaths, as well as the updated BLS-iCPR algorithm make AvaLife useful in single and multiple burial rescue. AvaLife is available as a companion rescue basic life support (BLS) version for the recreational user and an advanced companion and organized rescue BLS version for guides, ski patrols and mountain rescuers. AvaLife allows seamless interoperability with advanced life support (ALS) qualified medical personnel arriving on site.


Assuntos
Avalanches , Acidentes , Asfixia , Primeiros Socorros , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8179, 2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35581400

RESUMO

High temperature impacts the performance of marathon athletes, and hypothermia harms athletes. Twenty-one runners died, and eight were injured in the China Baiyin marathon on May 22, 2021. It's a typical human life test. The energy equations are combined with the maximum energy supply of Chinese male athletes to study this accident. We analyze the human body's route slope, travel speed, and heat dissipation under low temperatures in this marathon. The study shows that the large slope and long-distance of CP2 to CP3 section and the low temperature during the competition are the main reasons for the accident. The method of quantifying the slope and temperature and calculating the percentage of athletes' physical consumption proposed in this paper can evaluate the route design of field marathons. We suggest that the physical energy consumption ratio of 90%, i.e. 315 cal/min/kg, should be taken as the maximum energy supply for Chinese male marathon runners. Dangerous risk zones for wind speed and temperature on dangerous path sections are also formulated for athletes to make their assessments. This paper's theories and methods can effectively help design the marathon route and determine the race time.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Corrida , Acidentes , Atletas , Humanos , Masculino , Corrida de Maratona
11.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 93(5): 442-449, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35551722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of research on general aviation accidents in Germany. The authorities investigate only a fraction of all national accidents. The current study analyzes existing accident reports and aims to identify injury severity in regard to concomitant risk factors.METHODS: Data of flight accidents was analyzed for aircraft of <5700 kg maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) over a 20-yr period. Besides descriptive data, concomitant factors (type and category of aircraft, date, occupants and outcome, flight phase, etc.) were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-squared test.RESULTS: The authorities list 1595 aircraft accidents between 2000 and 2019, but only 17.9% of these were analyzed in detail. Accidents of aircraft of <2000 kg MTOW were over-represented between May and September and between Friday and Sunday. The fraction of fatal accidents was highest during cruise. During landing, significantly more mishaps of larger aircraft occurred. The number of seriously injured or deceased occupants was significantly higher for accidents involving private pilots. An occupancy rate of more than three persons on board correlated significantly with fewer number of deaths.CONCLUSIONS: The annual count of aircraft accidents has almost halved during the previous 20 yr. Unfortunately, only a small number of mishaps were further investigated by authorities, which leads to a lack of evaluable data needed for in-depth investigations. The accumulation of larger aircraft mishaps in winter and the superior outcome of professional pilots in terms of safety, as well as the fewer number of mishaps in larger aircraft, should be further investigated.Liebold F, Hippler C, Schmitz J, Yücetepe S, Rothschild M, Hinkelbein J. Fixed-wing motorized aircraft accidents: analysis of injury severity and concomitant factors (2000-2019). Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2022; 93(5):442-449.


Assuntos
Acidentes Aeronáuticos , Acidentes , Aeronaves , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
12.
J Safety Res ; 81: 123-133, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35589283

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: All-Terrain Vehicles (ATV) are a popular piece of farming machinery but are linked to many fatalities and injuries every year. Despite evidence that ATV helmets reduce the risk of serious or fatal injury, research suggests that few farmers wear them. The aim of this study was to explore farmer attitudes toward ATV helmets, using the COM-B model as a framework to identify key barriers and enablers of helmet use and suggest potential interventions to increase helmet use in agriculture. METHODS: A mixed-methods online survey featuring quantitative and qualitative questions was used to explore key attitudinal factors relevant to farmer helmet wearing. A total of 211 UK and Irish farmers were recruited, including farm owners, managers, workers, and contractors. RESULTS: Personal exemption from risk, emotional benefits, cognitive barriers, and guideline prompts were all found to be significant predictors of farmer helmet wearing. Key categories within the qualitative data indicated that helmet properties, risk perception, farming culture, and the farming environment could all function as barriers to helmet wearing. Suggested enablers of helmet use included increasing helmet availability and enhancing awareness of the consequences of ATV accidents. CONCLUSIONS: The key barriers and enablers presented within this paper highlight the relevance of capability (helmet design, time pressure), opportunity (social norms), and motivation (perceived control of risk) when considering farmer helmet wearing behaviors. In order to encourage farmers to wear helmets it will be necessary to design specific interventions using the behavior change wheel. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Key interventions to prompt helmet use include the inclusion of more cues to prompt helmet wearing (e.g., stickers on the ATV), enhanced training and education, and modelling (e.g., key farming figures shown to wear helmets in the media).


Assuntos
Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Veículos Off-Road , Acidentes , Atitude , Fazendeiros , Humanos
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(9)2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35591023

RESUMO

The transportation industry is crucial to the realization of a smart city. However, the current growth in vehicle numbers is not being matched by an increase in road capacity. Congestion may boost the number of accidents, harm economic growth, and result in higher gas emissions. Currently, traffic congestion is seen as a severe threat to urban life. Suffering as a result of increased car traffic, insufficient infrastructure, and inefficient traffic management has exceeded the tolerance limit. Since route decisions are typically made in a short amount of time, the visualization of the data must be presented in a highly conceivable way. Also, the data generated by the transportation system face difficulties in processing and sometimes lack effective usage in certain fields. Hence, to overcome the challenges in computer vision, a novel computer vision-based traffic management system is proposed by integrating a wireless sensor network (WSN) and visual analytics framework. This research aimed to analyze average message delivery, average latency, average access, average energy consumption, and network performance. Wireless sensors are used in the study to collect road metrics, quantify them, and then rank them for entry. For optimization of the traffic data, improved phase timing optimization (IPTO) was used. The whole experimentation was carried out in a virtual environment. It was observed from the experimental results that the proposed approach outperformed other existing approaches.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Transportes , Acidentes , Cidades
14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(5)2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35606029

RESUMO

A stablehand in his 20s presented with increasing dyspnoea on exertion and chest pain months after being kicked directly in the chest by a horse. Further investigations revealed severe isolated, primary tricuspid regurgitation due to partial avulsion of the anterior leaflet. Open surgical repair was successfully performed from which he recovered uneventfully with resolution of his symptoms and minimal residual tricuspid regurgitation. Although uncommon, blunt force trauma to the chest is becoming increasingly recognised as a rare cause of tricuspid regurgitation. Symptoms may be insidious, and a high index of suspicion is required to avoid missing the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Torácicos , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide , Ferimentos não Penetrantes , Acidentes , Animais , Cavalos , Humanos , Masculino , Traumatismos Torácicos/complicações , Traumatismos Torácicos/cirurgia , Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Tricúspide/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/cirurgia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações
18.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 33(2): 197-203, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491311

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While avalanche fatalities have remained relatively steady per year, data suggest a possible increase in sidecountry use and snowmobile fatalities. Limited information is known regarding the accident details and preparedness among different groups of backcountry users including snowmobiles, sidecountry, and backcountry skiers, and what specific factors could contribute to their fatalities. METHODS: Avalanche fatality reports covering all US states posted by the Colorado Avalanche Information Center available online for 10 seasons (2009-2010 through 2018-2019 seasons) were analyzed for group size, specific equipment carried, burial depth, burial time, and other details. Only reports in the 3 following categories were included in the analysis: backcountry ski/snowboard, sidecountry ski/snowboard, and snowmobile/snowbike. These aspects were compared among the 3 tourer types using statistical analyses (ANOVA). RESULTS: Two hundred and five fatalities were analyzed (n=32 sidecountry, n=91 skier/snowboard, n=82 snowmobile/snowbike). Using 2 preparedness scores, the ski/snowboard group had the greatest distribution of high scores when evaluated by equipment carried and group size, with significant differences per group (P<0.01). Of the fatalities that were buried, burial time was related to the tourer group (P=0.04), with the ski/snowboard group having the highest proportion of burials <15 min. Burial depth was significantly different among the 3 tourer groups, with snowmobiles buried the deepest on average (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Despite limited data available on fatalities, an analysis of preparedness suggests that backcountry skiers and snowboarders are more prepared for avalanche accidents compared to snowmobiles and sidecountry users when evaluated by equipment carried and group size.


Assuntos
Avalanches , Veículos Off-Road , Esqui , Acidentes , Colorado/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 57: 102062, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421833

RESUMO

Autoerotic asphyxia is a form of deviant sexual behavior that seeks sexual gratification by means of manipulation with one's own body resulting in asphyxia, and may sometimes turn out to be fatal. Autoerotic fatalities involving autoerotic asphyxia are divided into two groups: "typical" autoerotic fatalities involve mechanical compression of the neck, chest or abdomen, whereas "atypical" autoeroticism involves sexual self-stimulation by other means. Cases where asphyxiophilic behavior is accompanied by volatile substance abuse are reported to be rather rare, but may involve a high risk of fatal results. This paper presents a case of accidental "atypical" autoeroticism involving victim's abuse of toluene, which, combined with asphyxiophilic airway occlusion, led to death. For the sake of comprehensiveness, both a verbal description and a schematic representation of the major metabolic pathways of acute and chronic abuse metabolic markers is provided.


Assuntos
Transtornos Parafílicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Acidentes , Asfixia/etiologia , Humanos , Transtornos Parafílicos/complicações , Comportamento Sexual , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Tolueno
20.
J Pediatr Orthop ; 42(Suppl 1): S35-S38, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405700

RESUMO

Systems-level solutions are needed to combat human fallibility in health care delivery. We propose 3 key strategies to promoting patient safety: incorporating work-aids into clinical workflows, promoting interdisciplinary collaboration and teamwork, and investing in a culture of psychological safety.


Assuntos
Segurança do Paciente , Gestão da Segurança , Acidentes , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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