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1.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 131915, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455121

RESUMO

Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) synthesized from biological sources play a significant role in biomedical and environmental applications, including bioimaging, biosensing, metal ions detection and electrocatalytic oxidations. Herein, we synthesized blue-emitting carbon quantum dots using maple tree leaves via a one-step hydrothermal process to detect Cesium ions selectively. The synthesized CQDs' functional group composition, morphology, and pH stability was analytical and morphologically investigated. The maple leaves derived carbon quantum dots (M-CQDs) exhibited blue fluorescence, and their sizes ranged from 1 to 10 nm. They exhibited emission at 445 nm upon excitation at 360 nm. M-CQDs PL intensity was highly stable for about 100 d without any changes and confirmed that the as-prepared CQDs could be used as a probe for Cesium ion sensing. M-CQDs were effectively used as Cesium sensing probes based on the electron transfer process and simultaneously used as a catalyst for glycerol electrooxidation. The PL intensity of M-CQDs was quenched while adding the varies concentration of Cesium ions in the linear range from 100 µM to 100 nM with the detection limit of (LOD) 160 nM, simultaneously electrocatalytic oxidation of glycerol showed an onset potential of 1.32 V at a current density of 10 mA/cm2.


Assuntos
Acer , Pontos Quânticos , Carbono , Césio , Glicerol , Folhas de Planta , Árvores
2.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562913

RESUMO

Acer Linn. is a highly divergent species morphology in the maple family (Aceraceae). It is one of the genera facing a very difficult taxonomic situation. The phylogeny of the genus and the taxonomic system under the genus remain unclear. The use of electrochemical fingerprints for plant phylogenetic study is an emerging application in biosensors. In this work, leaves of 18 species of Acer Linn. with an exo-taxa were selected for electrochemical fingerprint recording. Two different conditions were used for improving the data abundance. The fingerprint of all species showed a series of oxidation peaks. These peaks can be ascribed to the oxidation of flavonols, phenolic acids, procyanidins, alkaloids, and pigments in plant tissue. These electrochemical fingerprints can be used for the identification of plant species. We also performed a phylogenetic study with data from electrochemical fingerprinting. The phylogenetic tree of Acer is divided into three main clades. The result is in full agreement with A. shangszeense var. anfuense, A. pictum subsp. mono, A. amplum, A. truncatum, and A. miaotaiense, belonging to the subsection Platanoidea. A. nikoense and A. griseum were clustered together in the dendrogram. Another group that fits the traditional classification results is in the subsection Integrifolia.


Assuntos
Acer , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Filogenia , Técnicas Biossensoriais
3.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 307, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376237

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this paper, we present and employ symbolic Maple software algorithm for solving initial value problems (IVPs) of partial differential equations (PDEs). From the literature, the proposed algorithm exhibited a great significant in solving partial differential equation arises in applied sciences and engineering. RESULTS: The implementation include computing partial differential operator (PartialDiffOperator), Greens function (GreensFunction) and exact solution (ExactSolution) of the given IVP. We also present syntax, ApplyPartialDiffOp, to apply the partial differential operator to verify the solution of the given IVP obtained from ExactSolution. Sample computations are presented to illustrate the maple implementation.


Assuntos
Acer , Algoritmos , Resolução de Problemas , Software
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 459, 2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216278

RESUMO

It has been established that resurvey of historical vegetation stands, even those not marked permanently, could foster our understanding of vegetation dynamics and changes in structure and composition over time. However, such studies are poorly available, particularly in remote landscapes of the Indian Himalaya. There exists a complete lack of resurveys, which has limited our ability to provide reliable evidence of changes over the decades. This study, for the first time in the Indian Himalaya, considered repeat surveys (nearly after 25 years) of vegetation stands in eleven forest communities of the buffer zone of NDBR (Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve). Thirty historical forest stands, earlier studied in 1988-1990, were revisited during 2012-2014 and investigated using the same survey methods as used in the previous study. We found that previously reported dominant tree species, i.e., Alnus nepalensis, Acer cappadocicum, Quercus floribunda, Quercus semecarpifolia, Hippophae salicifolia, and Betula utilis, in nine out of eleven communities in the study area are continuing to exhibit dominance in the community. However, a significant increase in species richness and density in the seedling and sapling layer in Quercus floribunda, Quercus semecarpifolia, Rhododendron arboreum, and Abies pindrow is indicative of the ongoing process of change in forest composition. The compositional features of plant communities, when analyzed through Community Change Sensitivity (CCS) approach, identified Quercus floribunda, mixed Quercus-deciduous spp., Hippophae salicifolia, and Abies pindrow as the most change-sensitive communities in the study area and thus can be prioritized as the long-term ecological monitoring sites in the west Himalaya to understand intensity and patterns of changes. The potential changes based on the ecological information from two time period compositional data sets, having conservation and management implications, should be accommodated in the long-term perspective plans of the reserve.


Assuntos
Acer , Quercus , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Árvores
5.
Fungal Biol ; 125(8): 585-595, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281652

RESUMO

The introduction, spread, and impact of fungal plant pathogens is a critical concern in ecological systems. In this study, we were motivated by the rather sudden appearance of Acermacrophyllum heavily infected with powdery mildew. We used morphological and genetic analyses to confirm the pathogen causing the epidemic was Sawadaea bicornis. In subsequent field studies, this pathogen was found in several locations in western North America, and in greenhouse studies, A. macrophyllum was found to be significantly more susceptible to S. bicornis than nine other Acer species tested. A genetic analysis of 178 specimens of powdery mildew from freshly collected and old herbarium specimens from 15 countries revealed seven different haplotypes. The high diversity of haplotypes found in Europe coupled with sequence results from a specimen from 1864 provides evidence that S. bicornis has a European origin. Furthermore, sequence data from a specimen from 1938 in Canada show that the pathogen has been present in North America for at least 82 years revealing a considerable lag time between the introduction and current epidemic. This study used old herbarium specimens to genetically hypothesize the origin, the native host, and the invasion time of a detrimental fungal plant pathogen.


Assuntos
Acer , Ascomicetos , Espécies Introduzidas , Doenças das Plantas , Acer/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
6.
New Phytol ; 232(3): 1297-1310, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176137

RESUMO

Hydraulic conductance is recognized as a major determinant of gas exchange and productivity. However, whether this also applies to seedlings, a critically important stage for vegetation regeneration, has been largely unknown. We analyzed the hydraulic and stomatal conductance of leaves and shoots for 6-wk-old Acer pseudoplatanus seedlings emerging in different lowland and treeline habitats and under glasshouse conditions, respectively, as well as on 9-, 15- and 18-wk-old plants, and related findings to leaf and xylem anatomical traits. Treeline seedlings had higher leaf area-specific shoot hydraulic conductance (Kshoot-L ), and stomatal conductance (gs ), associated with wider xylem conduits, lower leaf area and higher stomatal density than lowland and glasshouse-grown plants. Across the first 18 wk of development, seedlings increased four-fold in absolute shoot hydraulic conductance (Kshoot ) and declined by half in Kshoot-L , with correlated shifts in xylem and leaf anatomy. Distal leaves had higher leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf ) and gs compared to basal leaves. Seedlings show strong variation across growth environments and ontogenetic shifts in hydraulic and anatomical parameters. Across growth sites, ontogenetic stages and leaf orders, gs was tightly correlated with Kshoot-L and Kleaf , balancing hydraulic supply with demand for the earliest stages of seedling establishment.


Assuntos
Acer , Plântula , Folhas de Planta , Estômatos de Plantas , Árvores , Água , Xilema
7.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(5): 961-965, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092152

RESUMO

Atypical myopathy (AM) is an acute seasonal rhabdomyolysis seen primarily in equids, caused by the ingestion of sycamore maple samaras containing hypoglycin A (HGA) and methylenecyclopropyl-glycine (MCPG). Toxic metabolites inhibit acyl-CoA dehydrogenases and enoyl-CoA hydratases, causing selective hyaline degeneration of type I muscle fibers. Two zoo-kept Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) with a fatal course of AM had sudden onset of muscle pain and weakness, recumbency, and dysphagia, accompanied by increased serum creatine kinase activity and detection in serum of HGA, MCPG, and metabolites. Medical treatment was ineffective. At postmortem examination, sycamore maple tree material was found within the first gastric compartment of the 2-y-old gelding. Although musculature was macroscopically normal, histologically, monophasic hyaline degeneration was marked within type I fibers of intercostal and hypoglossal muscles of the gelding, and in neck, tongue, and masticatory muscles of the cow. The ingestion of sycamore maple material can cause AM in Bactrian camels, and trees of the Sapindaceae family should be avoided in enclosures.


Assuntos
Acer , Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças dos Cavalos , Doenças Musculares , Animais , Camelus , Bovinos , Doenças dos Cavalos/induzido quimicamente , Cavalos , Doenças Musculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Musculares/veterinária
8.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 383, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leaf color is an important ornamental trait of colored-leaf plants. The change of leaf color is closely related to the synthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins in leaves. Acer pseudosieboldianum is a colored-leaf tree native to Northeastern China, however, there was less knowledge in Acer about anthocyanins biosynthesis and many steps of the pathway remain unknown to date. RESULTS: Anthocyanins metabolite and transcript profiling were conducted using HPLC and ESI-MS/MS system and high-throughput RNA sequencing respectively. The results demonstrated that five anthocyanins were detected in this experiment. It is worth mentioning that Peonidin O-hexoside and Cyanidin 3, 5-O-diglucoside were abundant, especially Cyanidin 3, 5-O-diglucoside displayed significant differences in content change at two periods, meaning it may be play an important role for the final color. Transcriptome identification showed that a total of 67.47 Gb of clean data were obtained from our sequencing results. Functional annotation of unigenes, including comparison with COG and GO databases, yielded 35,316 unigene annotations. 16,521 differentially expressed genes were identified from a statistical analysis of differentially gene expression. The genes related to leaf color formation including PAL, ANS, DFR, F3H were selected. Also, we screened out the regulatory genes such as MYB, bHLH and WD40. Combined with the detection of metabolites, the gene pathways related to anthocyanin synthesis were analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Cyanidin 3, 5-O-diglucoside played an important role for the final color. The genes related to leaf color formation including PAL, ANS, DFR, F3H and regulatory genes such as MYB, bHLH and WD40 were selected. This study enriched the available transcriptome information for A. pseudosieboldianum and identified a series of differentially expressed genes related to leaf color, which provides valuable information for further study on the genetic mechanism of leaf color expression in A. pseudosieboldianum.


Assuntos
Acer , Antocianinas , Acer/genética , Acer/metabolismo , China , Cor , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Transcriptoma
9.
Glob Chang Biol ; 27(16): 3883-3897, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977598

RESUMO

Phenological escape, a strategy that deciduous understory plants use to access direct light in spring by leafing out before the canopy closes, plays an important role in shaping the recruitment of temperate tree seedlings. Previous studies have investigated how climate change will alter these dynamics for herbaceous species, but there is a knowledge gap related to how woody species such as tree seedlings will be affected. Here, we modeled temperate tree seedling leaf-out phenology and canopy close phenology in response to environmental drivers and used climate change projections to forecast changes to the duration of spring phenological escape. We then used these predictions to estimate changes in annual carbon assimilation while accounting for reduced carbon assimilation rates associated with hotter and drier summers. Lastly, we applied these estimates to previously published models of seedling growth and survival to investigate the net effect on seedling demographic performance. Our models predict that temperate tree seedlings will experience improved phenological escape and, therefore, increased spring carbon assimilation under climate change conditions. However, increased summer respiration costs will offset the gains in spring under extreme climate change leading to a net loss in annual carbon assimilation and demographic performance. Furthermore, we found that annual carbon assimilation predictions depend strongly on the species of nearby canopy tree that seedlings were planted near, with all seedlings projected to assimilate less carbon (and therefore experience worse demographic performance) when planted near Quercus rubra canopy trees as opposed to Acer saccharum canopy trees. We conclude that changes to spring phenological escape will have important effects on how tree seedling recruitment is affected by climate change, with the magnitude of these effects dependent upon climate change severity and biological interactions with neighboring adults. Thus, future studies of temperate forest recruitment should account for phenological escape dynamics in their models.


Assuntos
Acer , Árvores , Mudança Climática , Demografia , Folhas de Planta , Estações do Ano , Plântula
10.
J Exp Bot ; 72(18): 6319-6335, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993245

RESUMO

The v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (MYB) family of transcription factors is extensively distributed across the plant kingdom. However, the functional significance of red maple (Acer rubrum) MYB transcription factors remains unclear. Our research identified 393 MYB transcription factors in the Acer rubrum genome, and these ArMYB members were unevenly distributed across 34 chromosomes. Among them, R2R3 was the primary MYB sub-class, which was further divided into 21 sub-groups with their Arabidopsis homologs. The evolution of the ArMYB family was also investigated, with the results revealing several R2R3-MYB sub-groups with expanded membership in woody species. Here, we report on the isolation and characterization of ArMYB89 in red maple. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that ArMYB89 expression was significantly up-regulated in red leaves in contrast to green leaves. Sub-cellular localization experiments indicated that ArMYB89 was localized in the nucleus. Further experiments revealed that ArMYB89 could interact with ArSGT1 in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of ArMYB89 in tobacco enhances the anthocyanin content of transgenic plants. In conclusion, our results contribute to the elucidation of a theoretical basis for the ArMYB gene family, and provide a foundation for further characterization of the biological roles of MYB genes in the regulation of Acer rubrum leaf color.


Assuntos
Acer , Antocianinas , Acer/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes myb , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
11.
Zoo Biol ; 40(5): 436-443, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032313

RESUMO

Young leaves are favored by mantled guereza (Colobus guereza) and the gastrointestinal tract of this species is well adapted to such a high fiber diet. Fresh maple leaves are often used in the diets for guereza in captivity but their use in winter feeding time is limited. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of additives on chemical composition and fermentation parameters of maple leaf silage, as well as inclusion of maple leaf silage in the diet for mantled guereza on feed and nutrient intake. Maple leaves were ensiled without additives (MLS), with a mixture of bacterial inoculants (MLS + BI) and with carrot additives (MLS + C). The chemical composition and fermentation parameters were determined in fresh and ensiled material. A group of seven mantled guerezas were fed a standard diet, and afterwards shifted to a diet with maple leaf silage (contained 20% of MLS; as fed). Each diet was fed for 7 days when the feed and nutrient intake were measured. The ensiling process did not change the concentration of most nutrients compared to the fresh material. The inclusion of leaf silage increased dry matter intake by guereza (125.3 vs. 163.3 g dry matter/day). Therefore, higher nutrient intake (crude protein, NDF, ADF) was observed when maple leaf silage was included in the diet. In conclusion, the ensiling process (even without additives) proved to be a good conservation method for maple leaves. Furthermore, inclusion of maple leaf silage in the winter diets for guereza, and possibly other folivorous primates, may increase dry matter and nutrients (particularly fiber) intake.


Assuntos
Acer , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Colobus , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Fermentação , Lactação , Estado Nutricional , Folhas de Planta/química , Rúmen/química , Rúmen/metabolismo
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(33): 45183-45198, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864209

RESUMO

University campuses usually have more trees and can provide various ecosystem services. However, there are few reports on tree ecosystem services of Chinese university campuses, especially in northern China. This study investigated the trees in the campus of Shenyang Institute of Technology and analyzed its ecological benefits and monetary value through i-Tree Streets. The campus trees contained a total of 5193 trees of 66 species, of which Catalpa ovata G. Don, Acer mono Maxim., Rhus typhina Nutt, and Salix babylonica L. accounted for 59.7% of the total number. The age structure of the trees in the campus was not ideal, with 71.5% of young trees, 24.0% of maturing trees, 4.5% of mature trees, and only 0.04% of old trees. The trees in the campus provided more energy saving benefits ($60,850, $11.7/tree), carbon reduction benefits ($34,318, $6.6/tree) and aesthetic benefits ($30,150, $5.8/tree). The benefits resulted from air pollutant removal ($12,889, $2.5/tree) and rainwater runoff interception ($15,534, $3.0/tree) were smaller. In addition, tree species with more maturing trees and mature trees (i.e., with larger diameter at breast height) and large leaf area in the campus contributed significantly to ecosystem services. Our results can provide suggestions and certain insights for Chinese campus greening managers in tree species selection and tree management.


Assuntos
Acer , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ecossistema , Humanos , Árvores , Universidades
13.
J Proteome Res ; 20(5): 2882-2894, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848166

RESUMO

Metaproteomics by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful approach to profile a large number of proteins expressed by all organisms in a highly complex biological or ecological sample, which is able to provide a direct and quantitative assessment of the functional makeup of a microbiota. The human gastrointestinal microbiota has been found playing important roles in human physiology and health, and metaproteomics has been shown to shed light on multiple novel associations between microbiota and diseases. MS-powered proteomics generally relies on genome data to define search space. However, metaproteomics, which simultaneously analyzes all proteins from hundreds to thousands of species, faces significant challenges regarding database search and interpretation of results. To overcome these obstacles, we have developed a user-friendly microbiome analysis pipeline (MAPLE, freely downloadable at http://maple.rx.umaryland.edu/), which is able to define an optimal search space by inferring proteomes specific to samples following the principle of parsimony. MAPLE facilitates highly comparable or better peptide identification compared to a sample-specific metagenome-guided search. In addition, we implemented an automated peptide-centric enrichment analysis function in MAPLE to address issues of traditional protein-centric comparison, enabling straightforward and comprehensive comparison of taxonomic and functional makeup between microbiota.


Assuntos
Acer , Microbiota , Humanos , Peptídeos , Proteoma/genética , Proteômica
14.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 483, 2021 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875783

RESUMO

Fine roots vary dramatically in their functions, which range from resource absorption to within-plant resource transport. These differences should alter resource availability to root-associated microorganisms, yet most root microbiome studies involve fine root homogenization. We hypothesized that microbial filtering would be greatest in the most distal roots. To test this, we sampled roots of six temperate tree species from a 23-year-old common garden planting, separating by branching order. Rhizoplane bacterial composition was characterized with 16S rRNA gene sequencing, while bacterial abundance was determined on a subset of trees through flow cytometry. Root order strongly impacted composition across tree species, with absorptive lower order roots exerting the greatest selective pressure. Microbial carrying capacity was higher in absorptive roots in two of three tested tree species. This study indicates lower order roots as the main point of microbial interaction with fine roots, suggesting that root homogenization could mask microbial recruitment signatures.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbiota , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Árvores/microbiologia , Acer/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Carya/microbiologia , Juglans/microbiologia , Liriodendron/microbiologia , Pinus/microbiologia , Quercus/microbiologia , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
15.
New Phytol ; 231(3): 996-1007, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908055

RESUMO

Wood anatomical traits shape a xylem segment's hydraulic efficiency and resistance to embolism spread due to declining water potential. It has been known for decades that variations in conduit connectivity play a role in altering xylem hydraulics. However, evaluating the precise effect of conduit connectivity has been elusive. The objective here is to establish an analytical linkage between conduit connectivity and grouping and tissue-scale hydraulics. It is hypothesized that an increase in conduit connectivity brings improved resistance to embolism spread due to increased hydraulic pathway redundancy. However, an increase in conduit connectivity could also reduce resistance due to increased speed of embolism spread with respect to pressure. We elaborate on this trade-off using graph theory, percolation theory and computational modeling of xylem. The results are validated using anatomical measurements of Acer branch xylem. Considering only species with vessels, increases in connectivity improve resistance to embolism spread without negatively affecting hydraulic conductivity. The often measured grouping index fails to capture the totality of the effect of conduit connectivity on xylem hydraulics. Variations in xylem network characteristics, such as conduit connectivity, might explain why hypothesized trends among woody species, such as the 'safety-efficiency' trade-off hypothesis, are weaker than expected.


Assuntos
Acer , Xilema , Água , Madeira
16.
J Vet Intern Med ; 35(2): 1170-1176, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypoglycin A (HGA) intoxication after ingestion of Acer spp. tree material has never been confirmed in domesticated ruminants despite their similar grazing habitats. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether sheep have low HGA bioavailability caused by rumen HGA breakdown. ANIMALS: Stomach and rumen fluid samples from 5 adult horses and 5 adult sheep respectively. Residual serum samples from 30 ewes and lambs. METHODS: Experimental and retrospective cohort study. Hypoglycin A concentration was quantified in horse gastric and sheep ruminal samples after in vitro incubation with Acer pseudoplatanus seeds. Serum samples from grazing sheep (n = 20) and nursing lambs (n = 10) obtained before and after their release onto pastures with and without Sycamore seedlings were analyzed for HGA and methylenecyclopropyl-acetic acid carnitine, and serum biochemistry. RESULTS: Neither ovine rumen nor equine gastric fluid affected HGA content in samples incubated for up to 2 hours. Despite HGA's detection in serum from sheep (n = 13/15; median, 23.71 ng/mL; range, 5.62-126.4 ng/mL) grazing contaminated pastures and in their nursing lambs (n = 2/5; median, 12.5 ng/mL; range, 8.82-15.67 ng/mL), there was no apparent clinical or subclinical disease. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Any reduced sensitivity to HGA intoxication in sheep seems unrelated to ruminal degradation. Serum HGA concentrations in sheep were similar to those of subclinically affected atypical myopathy horses. Any reduced sensitivity of sheep to HGA might be related to greater metabolic resistance rather than selective grazing habits or lower bioavailability. Hypoglycin A was found in nursing lambs, suggesting that HGA is excreted in milk.


Assuntos
Acer , Doenças dos Cavalos , Hipoglicinas , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Feminino , Cavalos , Hipoglicinas/toxicidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ovinos
17.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248463, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765023

RESUMO

Streetlamps enforce night lighting on urban forest trees, but scarce information is available concerning the ecophysiological performance of street trees under these conditions. In this study, maple (Acer truncatum Bunge) and oak (Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb.) seedlings were cultured with simulated exposure to streetlamp spectra in white (red/green/blue, 7.7:1.0:2.2) and red plus blue (RB; red/green/blue, 4.6:0.0:1.0) lights with photosynthetic photon flux rate of 80 µmol m-2 s-1 in a 18-h photoperiod. Nitrogen (N) was loaded through 15 weekly applications to an amount of 80 mg N plant-1 to mimic the mineral N deposition to landscape trees. Variables of biomass, carbohydrate accumulation, N and water contents were rarely found difference between the two LED-spectra treatments for both species. Compared to the un-lighted control, the RB spectrum lowered N concentration in oak seedlings and water content in maple seedlings. The white light spectrum resulted in an increase of starch concentration. Carbohydrate concentration had a positive relationship with biomass and N content across two species but a negative relationship with water content in maple seedlings. Overall, streetlamp-lights imposed effects on tree growth by a prolonged photoperiod instead of specific spectrum. Maple had a strong response of water uptake to streetlamp lighting at the cost of carbohydrate consumption, but oak had scarce demand of water-use for growth.


Assuntos
Acer/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Quercus/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , China , Cidades , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
18.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(6): 2843-2852, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748874

RESUMO

A Gram-reaction-negative, strictly aerobic, betaproteobacterial strain, designated SAP-35T, was isolated from sap extracted from Acer pictum in Mt. Halla in Jeju, Republic of Korea, and its taxonomic status was examined by a polyphasic approach. Cells of the organism were non-sporulating, motile rods and grew at 4-30 °C, pH 6-7 and in the absence of NaCl. 16S rRNA gene- and whole genome-based phylogenetic analyses showed that strain SAP-35T belonged to the family Oxalobacteraceae and was closely related to Rugamonas rivuli (98.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Rugamonas aquatica (98.4%). The phylogenomic clustering and average amino acid identity values supported that strain SAP-35T belonged to the genus Duganella and two Rugamonas species should be transferred to the genus Duganella. The major isoprenoid quinone of the isolate was Q-8. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified aminophospholipid. The predominant fatty acids were summed feature 3, C16:0 and C17:0 cyclo. The G + C content of genome was 64.9%. The average nucleotide identity and dDDH values between strain SAP-35T and the members of the genera Rugamonas and Duganella were < 85.1% and < 49%, respectively. Based on the combined data presented here, strain SAP-35T (= KCTC 72227T = NBRC 113903T) represents a novel species of the genus Duganella, for which the name Duganella aceris sp. nov. is proposed. Also, Rugamonas aquatica Lu et al. (Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 70: 3328-3334, 2020) and Rugamonas aquatica Lu et al. 2020 are reclassified as Duganella aquatica comb. nov., with the emended description of the genus Rugamonas.


Assuntos
Acer/microbiologia , Oxalobacteraceae/classificação , Oxalobacteraceae/genética , Oxalobacteraceae/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
19.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 23 Suppl 1: 221-231, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527649

RESUMO

Regional warming and atmospheric ozone (O3 ) pollution are two of the most important environmental issues, and commonly coexist in many areas. Both factors have an intense impact on plants. However, little information is available on the combined and interactive effects of air warming and elevated O3 concentrations on physiological characteristics of plants. To explore this issue, we studied variations in growth, photosynthesis and physiological characteristics of leaves of Acer ginnala seedlings exposed to control (ambient temperature and O3 ), increasing air temperature (ambient temperature + 2 °C), elevated O3 (ambient O3 concentration + 40 ppb) and a combination of the two abiotic factors at different phenological stages by using open-top chambers. The results showed that increasing air temperature had no significant effect on growth, but increased photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activity at the leaf unfolding and defoliation stages. In contrast, elevated O3 decreased growth and photosynthesis and caused oxidative stress injury in A. ginnala leaves at each phenological stage. The combination of increasing air temperature and elevated O3 improved growth and net photosynthetic rates of tested plants and alleviated the oxidative stress compared to O3 alone. Our findings demonstrated that moderate warming was beneficial to A. ginnala at leaf unfolding and defoliation stages, and alleviated the adverse effects of O3 stress on growth, photosynthesis and the antioxidant system. These results will provide a theoretical reference and scientific basis for the adaptation and response of A. ginnala under regional air warming and atmospheric O3 pollution.


Assuntos
Acer , Ozônio , Ozônio/farmacologia , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta , Temperatura
20.
Funct Integr Genomics ; 21(2): 265-281, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611764

RESUMO

Plant sugars serve to balance nutrition, regulate development, and respond to biotic and abiotic stresses, whereas non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) are essential energy sources that facilitate plant growth, metabolism, and environmental adaptation. To better elucidate the mechanisms of NSCs in red maple, ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatograph Q extractive mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QE-MS) and high-throughput RNA-sequencing were performed on green, red, and yellow leaves from a selected red maple mutant. In green leaves, the fructose phosphorylation process exhibited greater flux. In yellow leaves, sucrose and starch had a stronger capacity for synthesis and degradation, whereas in red leaves, there was a greater accumulation of trehalose and manninotriose. ArTPS5 positively regulated amylose, which was negatively regulated by ArFBP2, whereas ArFRK2 and ArFBP13 played a positive role in the biosynthesis of Sucrose-6P. Sucrose-6P also regulated anthocyanins and abscisic acid in red maple by affecting transcription factors. The results of this paper can assist with the control and optimization of the biosynthesis of NSCs in red maple, which may ultimately provide the foundation for influencing sugar production in Acer.


Assuntos
Acer/genética , Carboidratos/genética , Metaboloma/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
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