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1.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1191: 339306, 2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033240

RESUMO

A novel graphene electrochemical transistor (GECT) sensor based on Au-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/reduced graphene oxide (Au-PEDOT/rGO) nanocomposites functionalized the gate electrode and monolayer graphene as channel was proposed and constructed for the ultra-sensitive detection of acetaminophen (AP). Au-PEDOT/rGO nanocomposites were synthesized by a simple one-pot method to modify the gate electrode of GECT. With the high catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles, the good conductivity and stability of PEDOT, the large specific surface area and abundant adhesion sites of rGO, the sensitivity and stability of the device for AP detection could be effectively improved. The sensing mechanism of the device was that the electrochemical reactions of the AP on the surface of gate electrode causes the effective gate voltage on the GECT to change, thereby adjusting the carrier concentration and current of the graphene channel. Combined with the excellent catalytic properties of Au-PEDOT/rGO nanocomposites and the high carrier mobility of the graphene channel, the resulting device has remarkable sensing performance for AP, with a detection limit as low as 1 nM and a linear range from 1 nM to 8 mM. In addition, the device has good anti-interference ability and accuracy in the detection of AP in urine samples and tablets, which proved that it could be used to determine AP in human non-invasive and pharmaceutical products. The GECT sensor based on Au-PEDOT/rGO provides an efficient, sensitive and cost-effective sensing platform for AP detection, and is expected to realize in vitro diagnosis of diseases.


Assuntos
Grafite , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanocompostos , Acetaminofen , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Eletrodos , Ouro , Humanos , Polímeros
2.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e934410, 2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Chronic acetaminophen toxicity has been known to cause an anion gap metabolic acidosis (AGMA) due to accumulation of 5-oxoproline metabolites. This diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion when evaluating a patient with AGMA as occasional acetaminophen use is very common among patients, whom oftentimes are not entirely truthful about the extent of ingestion and have multiple comorbid conditions complicating diagnosis.  CASE REPORT A 68-year-old male with multiple medical comorbidities presented to the emergency room with recurrent generalized weakness. On all occasions the patient denies focal weakness or infectious symptoms. The patient also denies ingestions other than his routine prescribed medications, including acetaminophen 325mg as needed, which he describes taking "a couple times" a day. His prior visits were notable for profound anion-gap metabolic acidosis, hypernatremia, acute kidney injury, and positive urine ketones. As the patient's blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood sugar, liver function tests, lactic acid, and serum osmolality were normal, the patient received a diagnosis of "starvation ketosis" and received supportive care each time. Further investigation at his final admission revealed an extremely elevated 5-oxoproline level revealing a delayed diagnosis of chronic acetaminophen toxicity CONCLUSIONS This report emphasizes the need for a high index of suspicion related to chronic acetaminophen toxicity and other ingestions contributing to a metabolic acidosis in at-risk populations, even when routine history is unrevealing. Furthermore, severe acidosis should prompt more extensive investigation when out of proportion to obvious routine etiologies.


Assuntos
Acidose , Analgésicos não Narcóticos , Cetose , Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Acidose/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Humanos , Cetose/induzido quimicamente , Cetose/diagnóstico , Masculino
3.
BMJ ; 376: e067325, 2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of one and two doses of intravenous dexamethasone in patients after total knee arthroplasty. DESIGN: Randomised, blinded, placebo controlled trial with follow-up at 90 days. SETTING: Five Danish hospitals, September 2018 to March 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 485 adult participants undergoing total knee arthroplasty. INTERVENTION: A computer generated randomised sequence stratified for site was used to allocate participants to one of three groups: DX1 (dexamethasone (24 mg)+placebo); DX2 (dexamethasone (24 mg)+dexamethasone (24 mg)); or placebo (placebo+placebo). The intervention was given preoperatively and after 24 hours. Participants, investigators, and outcome assessors were blinded. All participants received paracetamol, ibuprofen, and local infiltration analgesia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was total intravenous morphine consumption 0 to 48 hours postoperatively. Multiplicity adjusted threshold for statistical significance was P<0.017 and minimal important difference was 10 mg morphine. Secondary outcomes included postoperative pain. RESULTS: 485 participants were randomised: 161 to DX1, 162 to DX2, and 162 to placebo. Data from 472 participants (97.3%) were included in the primary outcome analysis. The median (interquartile range) morphine consumptions at 0-48 hours were: DX1 37.9 mg (20.7 to 56.7); DX2 35.0 mg (20.6 to 52.0); and placebo 43.0 mg (28.7 to 64.0). Hodges-Lehmann median differences between groups were: -2.7 mg (98.3% confidence interval -9.3 to 3.7), P=0.30 between DX1 and DX2; 7.8 mg (0.7 to 14.7), P=0.008 between DX1 and placebo; and 10.7 mg (4.0 to 17.3), P<0.001 between DX2 and placebo. Postoperative pain was reduced at 24 hours with one dose, and at 48 hours with two doses, of dexamethasone. CONCLUSION: Two doses of dexamethasone reduced morphine consumption during 48 hours after total knee arthroplasty and reduced postoperative pain. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03506789.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/terapia , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(1)2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992061

RESUMO

A 59-year-old woman underwent an open pancreaticoduodenectomy. Thoracic patient controlled-epidural anaesthesia provided excellent incisional pain relief; however, the patient experienced intractable left shoulder pain (10/10 on the Numerical Rating Scale). To our knowledge, there is no effective established treatment for patients experiencing shoulder pain after an open pancreaticoduodenectomy. The patient's shoulder pain did not respond to medical management with acetaminophen, ketorolac, lidocaine transdermal patch, oxycodone and hydromorphone. Then, on postoperative day 2, the acute pain service was consulted. Considering that the sphenopalatine ganglion block has been previously reported to be helpful in a number of painful conditions, including shoulder tip pain after thoracic surgery, we offered this treatment to the patient. After just one topical sphenopalatine ganglion block, using a cotton-tipped applicator, the patient's shoulder pain entirely resolved and did not return. This is the first report of a successful treatment of intractable ipsilateral shoulder pain following an open pancreaticoduodenectomy with transnasal sphenopalatine ganglion block.


Assuntos
Bloqueio do Gânglio Esfenopalatino , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Lidocaína , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Pancreaticoduodenectomia , Dor de Ombro/tratamento farmacológico , Dor de Ombro/etiologia
5.
Clin Chim Acta ; 525: 12-14, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906557

RESUMO

Acute liver injury (ALI) is seen in conjunction with elevated iron concentrations in the setting of acute iron toxicity. However, occult or delayed presentations of iron toxicity can be difficult to identify clinically and there is limited data describing iron concentrations in ALI without a confirmed history of iron overdose. This was a single center observational before-and-after study of adult patients who developed acute liver injury during hospitalization. Patients with a serum ALT > 500 U/L were identified by a daily hospital laboratory report and met inclusion if the ALT< 80 U/L at the time of admission, no history of overdose (iron, acetaminophen, or other ingestion), and no underlying liver disease. Serum AST, iron, and ferritin concentrations were obtained from blood samples at the time of admission and at peak serum ALT. Ten patients met inclusion criteria. The median age was 69 years old and 60% were male. There was a significant difference in serum AST (p = 0.005), serum ALT (p = 0.005), and ferritin (p = 0.005) before and after development of ALI. Serum iron concentrations were not clinically or significantly different (median: 23 mcg/dL vs 27 mcg/dL, p = 0.8). In this cohort of patients with non-iron induced acute liver injury, serum iron concentrations did not significantly change with the observed rise in aminotransferases. These data help to further characterize patterns of serum iron concentrations in patients with ALI.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Overdose de Drogas , Acetaminofen , Adulto , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Ferro , Fígado , Masculino
6.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131570, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293559

RESUMO

The increase in pollution increased the threat level of living organisms in the environment. Municipal Solid Waste is one of the most important wastes which contribute to polluted sites affecting livelihood. They pollute the water stream, marine environment ecology, soil fertility, and agriculture production. This, in turn, reduces the microflora of the marine environment, agricultural soil, and fertility. This could be analyzed by setting up a Winogradsky column using dumpsite soil samples. The current work was designed to study the municipal solid wastes from different dumpsite soil. Soil characterization revealed that the pH of Kodungaiyur and Otteri was 7.3 and 6.4. The bulk density was 0.067 g/cm3 and 0.069 g/cm3. The Porosity resulted to be 0.511 particle/volume and 0.513 particle/volume for Kodungaiyur and Otteri. The Kodungaiyur soil containing contaminants supplied with natural sources showed a 100% germination index, and Otteri soil containing contaminants supplied with natural sources showed a maximum vigour index. The presence of medicinal strips in the collected soil samples led to the study on Acetaminophen degradation. HB1 showed to be 79 ± 0.005% at optimum pH 5 containing 100 mg/L of Acetaminophen at day four among the isolated bacterial strains. Further, the intermediate formation was determined using FTIR and GC-MS. The isolated HB1 bacterial strain was identified as Staphylococcus hominis, which is heterotroph.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Agricultura , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
7.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131875, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411933

RESUMO

Herein, an efficient photocatalyst composed of graphitic carbon nitrate and iron-based metal-organic framework (g-C3N4/NH2-MIL-101(Fe)) composite was fabricated by a solvothermal method for the degradation of acetaminophen (AAP) and reduction of Cr(VI) under sunlight illumination. The composite was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. UV-visible spectra showed that the bare g-C3N4, pure Fe-MOF, and composite harvest solar light effectively. The photocatalytic experiment indicated that the composite exhibited superior reduction efficiency of Cr(VI) (66%) compared to the bare g-C3N4 (35%) and pure Fe-MOF (51%) at pH 7. As the pH decreases from 9 to 2, the reduction efficiency increased. The highest Cr(VI) reduction (91%) was observed at pH 2. On the other hand, the catalyst degraded 94% of AAP at pH 7 compared to the bare g-C3N4 (42%) and pure Fe-MOF (60%) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. A radical scavenger experiment endorsed that the generation of superoxide radicals was the main reason for the AAP degradation. The cyclic stability test indicated that there was no substantial decrease in the degradation efficiency of AAP after ten repeated cycles. The kinetic studies showed that the photodegradation of AAP and reduction Cr(VI) was well-fitted to the first-order kinetics. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that hydroquinone, aliphatic carboxylic acids, monohydroxy, and dihydroxy paracetamol were the main products formed as a result of such degradation process. Therefore, the iron-based MOF and their composites can be used as effective photocatalysts for pollutants degradation.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Acetaminofen , Catálise , Cromo , Grafite , Cinética , Compostos de Nitrogênio
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150541, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601175

RESUMO

Even though the toxic effects of paracetamol (PCM) and ciprofloxacin (CPX) have been deeply studied in the last decades, the impact of the PCM-CPX mixture may induce in aquatic organisms is poorly known. Thus, the objective of this work was to investigate the teratogenic effects and oxidative stress that PCM, CPX, and their mixture induce in Danio rerio embryos. Moreover, we aimed to determine whether the PCM-CPX mixture induces more severe effects on the embryos than the individual drugs. For this purpose, zebrafish embryos (4 hpf) were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of PCM, CPX, and their mixture until 96 hpf. In addition, at 72 hpf and 96 hpf, we also evaluated the oxidative stress biomarkers (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, lipid peroxidation, and hydroperoxides and carbonyl content) in the embryos. Our results demonstrated that PCM, CPX, and their mixture reduced the survival rate of embryos by up to 75%. In addition, both drugs, induced morphological alterations in the embryos, causing their death. The most observed malformations were: scoliosis, craniofacial malformations, hypopigmentation, growth retardation, pericardial edema. Concerning oxidative stress, our integrated biomarkers response (IBR) analysis demonstrated that PCM, CPX, and their mixture induce oxidative damage on the embryos. In conclusion, PCM, CPX, and their mixture can alter zebrafish embryonic development via an oxidative stress response.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Peixe-Zebra , Acetaminofen/metabolismo , Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Animais , Ciprofloxacina/metabolismo , Ciprofloxacina/toxicidade , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
9.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 266: 120422, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619510

RESUMO

The development of analytical chemistry is omnipresent in all fields, this leads to considerable consumption of organic solvents and hazardous reagents with an increase in the production of waste to be treated. In this work, we developed simple, fast, cost-effective and above all environmentally friendly methods for the analysis of Acetaminophen (ACT) and Ascorbic acid (ASC) in synthetic mixtures and pharmaceutical formulation, using UV spectroscopy. Four chemometric methods were studied, including PLS-1 with full-spectrum (Full-PLS) and PLS-1 using three variable selection methods, namely subset selection through a genetic algorithm (GA), uninformative variable elimination using iterative predictor weighting (IPW), and variable selection by sub-window permutation analysis (SwPA). The accuracy of the developed methods was evaluated through the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and the recovery values. All methods showed more accurate prediction results in comparison with full-PLS calibration. Furthermore, the results indicate that the GA-PLS models showed the highest prediction accuracy among all other models with RMSEP and MAPE values of (0.0494 and 0.610) and (0.0163 and 0.321) for the estimation of ACT and ASC, respectively. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of ACT and ASC in their combined dosage form. In addition, the results obtained were statistically compared to those of the conventionally used HPLC method and were found to be in good agreement. The main advantages of the developed methods over HPLC during routine analysis are that they are faster, inexpensive, simple to perform, without the need for major pretreatment of samples. Besides, no organic solvents are used, and thus toxicity and pollution are avoided.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen , Ácido Ascórbico , Composição de Medicamentos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectrofotometria
10.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 265: 120308, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509889

RESUMO

Spectrophotometric data analysis using multivariate approaches has many useful applications. One of these applications is the analysis of active ingredients in presence of impurities. Four chemometric-assisted spectrophotometric methods, namely, principal component regression (PCR), partial least-squares (PLS), artificial neural networks (ANN) and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) were proposed and validated. The developed chemometric methods were compared to resolve the severely overlapped spectrum of Paracetamol (PAR) and Phenylephrine HCl (PHE) along with PAR impurities namely, P-Aminophenol (PAP), P-Nitrophenol (PNP), Acetanilide (ACT) and P-Chloroacetanilide (CAC). The four multivariate calibration methods succeeded in simultaneous determination of PAR and PHE with further quantification of PAR impurities. So, the proposed methods could be used with no need of any separation step and successfully applied for pharmaceutical formulation analysis. Furthermore, statistical comparison between the results obtained by the proposed chemometric methods and the official ones showed no significant differences.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen , Redes Neurais de Computação , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Fenilefrina , Espectrofotometria
11.
Med Clin North Am ; 106(1): 169-185, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823729

RESUMO

Buprenorphine formulations (including buprenorphine/naloxone) are effective treatments of pain and opioid use disorder (OUD). Historically, perioperative management of patients prescribed buprenorphine involved abstinence from buprenorphine sufficient to allow for unrestricted mu-opioid receptor availability to full agonist opioid (FAO) treatment. Evidence is mounting that a multimodal analgesic strategy, including simultaneous administration of buprenorphine and FAO, nonopioid adjuncts such as acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and regional anesthesia, is a safe and effective perioperative strategy for the patient prescribed long-term buprenorphine treatment of OUD. This strategy will likely simplify management and more seamlessly provide continuous buprenorphine treatment of OUD after hospital discharge.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Buprenorfina/farmacologia , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Buprenorfina/administração & dosagem , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Masculino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Receptores Opioides mu/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(1): 238-246, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34965133

RESUMO

2-Acetamidophenol (AAP) is an aromatic product with promising activities in agricultural applications and medical research. At present, AAP is synthesized by chemical methods from nonrenewable fossil fuel resources, which cause environmental pollution and the reaction conditions are harsh. In this study, we constructed the artificial biosynthetic pathway of AAP with five different expressed proteins in Escherichia coli for the first time. By introducing the hydrogen peroxide degrading enzyme catalase and improving cell tolerance to toxic intermediates or products, the yield of AAP reached 33.54 mg/L using shaking-flask culture. The best-engineered strain could produce 568.57 mg/L AAP by fed-batch fermentation from glucose and precursor (2-aminophenol, 2-AP) addition. Furthermore, a one-pot whole-cell cascade biocatalytic pathway to AAP and analogues was developed and optimized. This method can efficiently produce 1.8 g/L AAP using the methyl anthranilate hydrolysis product as the substrate. This study provides not only the de novo artificial biosynthetic pathway of AAP in E. coli but also a promising sustainable and efficient strategy to enable the synthesis of AAP on a gram scale.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Engenharia Metabólica , Acetaminofen , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Vias Biossintéticas , Escherichia coli/genética , Fermentação
13.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132070, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478967

RESUMO

This paper presents the use of B and N co-doped reduced graphene oxide (BN-GN) as an electrode for paracetamol electrochemical degradation. The reaction mechanism, focused on active sites in the atom level and dominant radical species generated through the reaction, was analyzed by characterization, density functional theory (DFT) calculation, quenching experiments, and electron paramagnetic resonance analysis. The characterization results indicated that the introduction of N and B functionalities into GN improved catalytic activity due to the generation of new surface defects, active sites, and improvement of conductivity. Results of experiments and DFT showed that co-doping of B and N greatly improved the catalytic activity, and the B atoms in C-N-B groups were identified as main active sites. The main active substances of BN-GN generated in the electrocatalytic oxidation of paracetamol in the solution were O2•- and active chlorine. The influence of O2•- and active chlorine on the efficiency/path of catalytic oxidation and the proposed mechanism were also determined for paracetamol degradation. This study provides an in-depth understanding of the mechanism of BN-GN catalysis and suggests possibilities for practical applications.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen , Grafite , Catálise , Oxirredução
14.
Bioorg Chem ; 118: 105476, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788696

RESUMO

Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus (SCF) was a Traditional Chinese Medicine for protecting liver. However, underlying therapeutic mechanisms of these bioactive lignans from SCF similar hepatoprotective effects against drug-induced liver injury (DILI) by acetaminophen (APAP) are still unclear. This study aims to discover the potential regulation mechanisms of Schisandrol A in the treatment of DILI by APAP. The integrated UPLC-Q-TOF/MS, pharmacodynamic study, histopathological combination with network pharmacology and molecular docking technology were used to explore the potential mechanisms. The results showed that Schisandrol A reduced the level of AST, ALT, MDA, PNP, TNF-α and IL-1ß, increased the levels of the GSH against acute liver failure. Additionally, Schisandrol A could improve the morphological characteristics of DILI by APAP in mice with liver tissue. Molecular docking results had showed that Schisandrol A with high scores when docking with COX-2, ALOX5, CYP2E1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, EGFR SRC, Nrf2, MAPK14 and MAPK8. The study demonstrated that Schisandrol A could play critical roles in DILI by APAP via regulating TNF signaling pathway, inhibiting oxidative stress, inflammation and inhibiting the activities of cytochrome P450 enzymes, which contributed to searching for leading compounds and the development of new drugs for DILI by APAP.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclo-Octanos/uso terapêutico , Lignanas/uso terapêutico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Acetaminofen , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 112: 331-342, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34955216

RESUMO

Nanosized Ba1-xBixFe1-xCuxO3 (12-50 nm) with x values of 0, 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 system was prepared using the Pechini method. Structural, morphological, surface and optical characterizations were performed for the prepared samples. Cubic phase was the predominant phase for the undoped BaFeO3 and Bi and Cu co-doped BaFeO3 samples. Minor phases of monoclinic Ba2Fe2O5, orthorhombic BaFe2O4 and orthorhombic BaCO3 were identified for all the prepared samples. Ba0.95Bi0.05Fe0.95Cu0.05O3 sample has the lowest band gap (2.43 eV). 98.1% paracetamol removal was achieved with 0.75 g/L of Ba0.95Bi0.05Fe0.95Cu0.05O3 at pH 9 after 120 min. The paracetamol degradation follows the pseudo first-order kinetics. HO• is the main oxidative species responsible for the paracetamol degradation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was performed at the end of the photocatalytic degradation experiment under optimum operating condition using Ba0.95Bi0.05Fe0.95Cu0.05O3 to explain the reaction mechanism and identify the intermediate by-products which is confirmed by ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy study at different reaction times.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen , Bismuto , Bário , Catálise , Cobre , Ferro , Luz
16.
Talanta ; 237: 122975, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736697

RESUMO

The contamination of water sources by anthropogenic activities is a topic of growing interest in the scientific community. Therefore, robust analytical techniques for the determination and quantification of multiple substances are needed, which often require complex and time-consuming procedures. In this context, we describe a univariate calibration method to determine emerging multi-class contaminants in different water sources. The instrumental setup is composed of a lab-made glass electrochemical cell with three electrodes: Pt counter, Ag/AgCl reference, and BDD working electrodes. With this system, we were able to simultaneously quantify tert-butylhydroquinone, acetaminophen, estrone, sulfamethoxazole, enrofloxacin, caffeine, and ibuprofen by differential pulse voltammetry. Only two calibration solutions are required for the Single-shot Dilution Differential Pulse Voltammetric Calibration (SSD-DP-VC) method described here, which can significantly improve sample throughput. Two robust univariate calibration strategies were also applied and compared with SSD-DP-VC. The new method is simple, fast, and comparable with traditional calibration methods, showing similar precision and accuracy for all determinations evaluated.


Assuntos
Boro , Diamante , Acetaminofen , Calibragem , Eletrodos
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2138420, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932106

RESUMO

Importance: Adoption of multimodal pain regimens that incorporate nonopioid analgesic medications to reduce inpatient opioid administration can prevent serious opioid-related adverse effects in children, including tolerance, withdrawal, delirium, and respiratory depression. Intravenous (IV) acetaminophen is in widespread pediatric use; however, its effectiveness as an opioid-sparing agent has not been evaluated in general pediatric inpatients. Objective: To determine if IV acetaminophen administered prior to IV opioids is associated with a reduction in the total duration of IV opioids administered compared with IV opioids administered without IV acetaminophen in general pediatric inpatients. Design, Setting, and Participants: This comparative effectiveness research study included data on pediatric inpatients from 274 US hospitals between January 2011 and June 2016 collected from a national database. Outcomes were compared with a propensity score-matched analysis of pediatric inpatients administered IV opioids without IV acetaminophen (control) and those administered IV acetaminophen prior to IV opioids (intervention). Data were analyzed from January 2020 through October 2021. Exposures: Patients in the intervention group received IV acetaminophen prior to IV opioids. Patients in the control group received IV opioids without IV acetaminophen. Main Outcomes and Measures: Total duration of all IV opioids administered during a patient's hospitalization. Results: Of 893 293 pediatric inpatients, a total of 104 579 were included in analysis (median [IQR] age, 1.3 [0-14.7] years; 59 806 [57.2%] female; 21 485 [21.5%] African American, 56 309 [53.8%] White), of whom 18 197 (2.0%) received IV acetaminophen, and 287 504 (34.0%) received IV opioids. After applying exclusion criteria, among patients who received IV acetaminophen, 1739 (10.8%) received IV acetaminophen prior to IV opioids within a median (IQR) treatment time of 1.5 (0.02-7.3) hours. After propensity score matching produced comparable groups in the control and intervention groups (with 839 patients in each group), the multivariable model estimated a 15.5% shorter duration of IV opioid use in the intervention group, with an absolute IV opioid reduction of 7.5 hours (95% CI, 0.7-15.8 hours). Conclusions and Relevance: In this comparative effectiveness study, IV acetaminophen administered prior to IV opioids was associated with a reduction in IV opioid duration by 15.5%. Multimodal pain regimens that use IV acetaminophen prior to IV opioids could reduce IV opioid duration.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgésicos não Narcóticos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260638, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932553

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The study aimed at exploring the adverse events following immunization (AEFI) and their incidences among health workers in three different districts of central and western Nepal following the first dose of Covishield vaccine,. It also aimed at studying the association of AEFI with demographic and clinical characteristics of vaccinees, pre-vaccination anxiety level and prior history of COVID-19 infection (RT- PCR confirmed) status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study carried out via face-to-face or telephonic interview among 1006 health workers one week after receiving their first dose of the Covishield vaccine. Incidence of adverse events was calculated in percentage while Chi-square Test was used to check the association of AEFI with independent variables. Logistic regression was used to find out the adjusted odd's ratio at 95% CI. RESULTS: Incidence of AEFI was 79.8% with local and systemic AEFI being 68.0% and 59.7% respectively. Injection site tenderness was the commonest manifestation. Local and systemic symptoms resolved in less than one week among 96.8% and 98.7% vaccinees respectively. Females were more likely to develop AEFI than males (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2-2.4). Vaccinees aged 45-59 years were 50% less likely to develop AEFI as compared to those aged less than 30 years (AOR 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3-0.8). Most of the vaccinees had not undergone RT-PCR testing for COVID-19 (59.8%). Those who were not tested for COVID-19 prior were 1.5 odds more likely to develop AEFI compared to those who were negative (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1). CONCLUSION: More than two-third of the vaccinees developed one or more forms of adverse events, but most events were self-limiting. Females and young adults were more prone to develop AEFI.


Assuntos
/efeitos adversos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acetaminofen/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinação/psicologia
20.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E1181-E1186, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-dose codeine products can be purchased without a prescription in most of Canada. We explored trends in the purchasing of these products across the Canadian provinces from 2014 to 2019, evaluating the impact of Health Canada's 2016 announcement of a proposed regulatory change and the 2017 opening of a 60-day public comment period, as well as the impact of Manitoba's 2016 policy change requiring a prescription for the purchase of all codeine products in that province. METHODS: We evaluated population-adjusted monthly purchasing of codeine products from January 2014 to October 2019 using the IQVIA Canadian Drug Store and Hospital Purchases Audit database, stratified by province and over-the-counter (OTC) status. The primary outcomes were change in the monthly volume of low-dose codeine purchased after the 2016 federal regulatory proposal and the 2017 period of public comment across the provinces. Our secondary analysis was the impact of Manitoba's policy change in February 2016 requiring a prescription for low-dose codeine. We conducted a time-series analysis using interventional autoregressive integrated moving average models. RESULTS: Over the study period, 24 120 kg of codeine (3.025 billion units) and 937 867 kg of acetaminophen were sold as OTC, low-dose codeine products across the Canadian provinces. Health Canada's 2016 announcement did not significantly affect OTC codeine purchasing (p = 0.57). The initiation of a 60-day public comment period was associated with a roughly 44% decrease in OTC codeine purchasing (p = 0.03). In Manitoba, purchasing of the same codeine formulations decreased after rescheduling in February 2016 (p < 0.001). We observed no significant change in the rate of purchasing of higher dose codeine formulations in response to scheduling changes in Manitoba (p = 0.22). INTERPRETATION: Although Health Canada's 2016 announcement of a proposed regulatory change did not appear to have an effect on OTC codeine purchasing nationally, the 60-day comment period was associated with a decrease in purchasing. Further, Manitoba's 2016 policy change was associated with a significant and sustained decrease in the overall volume of codeine purchased. Given the potential risks of codeine dependence and acetaminophen toxicity with these products, a national rescheduling strategy should be considered.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Codeína , Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes/métodos , Hospitais , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Farmácias , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Acetaminofen , Analgésicos não Narcóticos , Composição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Manitoba
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