Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 776
Filtrar
1.
J Bacteriol ; 204(7): e0004122, 2022 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35695500

RESUMO

Acetobacter species are a major component of the gut microbiome of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, a widely used model organism. While a range of studies have illuminated impacts of Acetobacter on their hosts, less is known about how association with the host impacts bacteria. A previous study identified that a purine salvage locus was commonly found in Acetobacter associated with Drosophila. In this study, we sought to verify the functions of predicted purine salvage genes in Acetobacter fabarum DsW_054 and to test the hypothesis that these bacteria can utilize host metabolites as a sole source of nitrogen. Targeted gene deletion and complementation experiments confirmed that genes encoding xanthine dehydrogenase (xdhB), urate hydroxylase (urhA), and allantoinase (puuE) were required for growth on their respective substrates as the sole source of nitrogen. Utilization of urate by Acetobacter is significant because this substrate is the major nitrogenous waste product of Drosophila, and its accumulation in the excretory system is detrimental to both flies and humans. The potential significance of our findings for host purine homeostasis and health are discussed, as are the implications for interactions among microbiota members, which differ in their capacity to utilize host metabolites for nitrogen. IMPORTANCE Acetobacter are commonly found in the gut microbiota of fruit flies, including Drosophila melanogaster. We evaluated the function of purine salvage genes in Acetobacter fabarum to test the hypothesis that this bacterium can utilize host metabolites as a source of nitrogen. Our results identify functions for three genes required for growth on urate, a major host waste product. The utilization of this and other Drosophila metabolites by gut bacteria may play a role in their survival in the host environment. Future research into how microbial metabolism impacts host purine homeostasis may lead to therapies because urate accumulation in the excretory system is detrimental to flies and humans.


Assuntos
Acetobacter , Acetobacter/genética , Animais , Bactérias , Drosophila melanogaster/microbiologia , Humanos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Resíduos
2.
J Biotechnol ; 350: 24-30, 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390361

RESUMO

Acetobacter pasteurianus is an excellent cell factory for production of highly-strength acetic acid, and attracts an increasing attention in metabolic engineering. However, the available well-characterized constitutive and inducible promoters are rather limited to adjust metabolic fluxes in A. pasteurianus. In this study, we screened a panel of constitutive and acid stress-driven promoters based on time-series of RNA-seq data and characterized in A. pasteurianus and Escherichia coli. Nine constitutive promoters ranged in strength from 1.7-fold to 100-fold that of the well-known strong promoter Padh under non-acetic acid environment. Subsequently, an acetic acid-stable red fluorescent visual reporting system was established and applied to evaluate acid stress-driven promoter in A. pasteurianus during highly-acidic fermentation environment. PgroES was identified as acid stress-driven strong promoters, with expression outputs varied from 100% to 200% when acetic acid treatment. To assess their application potential, ultra-strong constitutive promoter Ptuf and acid stress-driven strong promoter PgroES were selected to overexpress acetyl-CoA synthase and greatly improved acetic acid tolerance. Notably, the acid stress-driven promoter displayed more favorable for regulating strain robustness against acid stress by overexpressing tolerance gene. In summary, this is the first well-characterized constitutive and acid stress-driven promoter library from A. pasteurianus, which could be used as a promising toolbox for metabolic engineering in acetic acid bacteria and other gram-negative bacteria.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético , Acetobacter , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Acetobacter/genética , Acetobacter/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Fermentação , Engenharia Metabólica
3.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 133(4): 375-381, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35125299

RESUMO

The constituents of fermentation foods vary seasonally and the microbiota plays a crucial role in metabolites formation. Here, the diversity and succession of microbiota of Shanxi mature vinegar produced with solid-solid fermentation craft have been investigated by Illumina Hiseq sequencing in both summer and winter. Obvious differences were observed in the structure of microbiota between summer and winter, and the bacterial community showed a significant difference (P < 0.05). Alpha diversity analysis showed that the diversity and richness of bacterial community were basically higher than that of fungal community in both summer and winter. For bacterial community, Lactobacillus and Limosilactobacillus were the two major group bacteria in the fermentation process of Shanxi mature vinegar in summer, and they dominated in acetic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation stages, respectively. Lactobacillus and Acetobacter were the two major group bacteria during the fermentation of Shanxi mature vinegar in winter. Saccharomyces, Saccharomycopsis, and Issatchenkia were the main yeasts in both seasons, while the dominant mould was Rhizopus in summer and Monascus in winter, respectively. The diversity of yeasts and moulds in winter was far greater than that in summer, especially in alcoholic fermentation stage. Collectively, our work revealed critical insights into effect of seasonal variation on the structure of microbiota of Shanxi mature vinegar, and was relevant in understanding the relationships between environmental change and microbiota.


Assuntos
Acetobacter , Microbiota , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Acetobacter/genética , Acetobacter/metabolismo , Fermentação , Microbiota/genética , Estações do Ano
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(7)2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35145031

RESUMO

Bacteria are efficient colonizers of a wide range of secluded microhabitats, such as soil pores, skin follicles, or intestinal crypts. How the structural diversity of these habitats modulates microbial self-organization remains poorly understood, in part because of the difficulty to precisely manipulate the physical structure of microbial environments. Using a microfluidic device to grow bacteria in crypt-like incubation chambers of systematically varied lengths, we show that small variations in the physical structure of the microhabitat can drastically alter bacterial colonization success and resistance against invaders. Small crypts are uncolonizable; intermediately sized crypts can stably support dilute populations, while beyond a second critical length scale, populations phase separate into a dilute region and a jammed region. The jammed state is characterized by extreme colonization resistance, even if the resident strain is suppressed by an antibiotic. Combined with a flexible biophysical model, we demonstrate that colonization resistance and associated priority effects can be explained by a crowding-induced phase transition, which results from a competition between proliferation and density-dependent cell leakage. The emerging sensitivity to scale underscores the need to control for scale in microbial ecology experiments. Systematic flow-adjustable length-scale variations may serve as a promising strategy to elucidate further scale-sensitive tipping points and to rationally modulate the stability and resilience of microbial colonizers.


Assuntos
Acetobacter/fisiologia , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Acetobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Tetraciclina/farmacologia
5.
Food Res Int ; 152: 110900, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35181076

RESUMO

Microbial ecosystems of fermented foods are largely interfered by human activities in myriad ways. The aim of this study was to illuminate the impacts of various starters and environmental variables on the fermentation process of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar (ZAV), one of the four representative cereal vinegars in China. The effects of environmental variables (e.g., ethanol, total acidity, temperature) and starters (e.g., jiuqu, maiqu, seed pei) on the profiles of microbiome and metabolome (e.g., organic acids, amino acids and volatiles) during fermentation process of ZAV were analyzed. Amongst the four fermentation stages, acetic acid fermentation was the main stage for the accumulation of flavor substances, and subsequently, the contents of acids (mainly acetic, lactic and citric acids) and volatile metabolites (e.g., 2,3-butanedione, acetoin, etc.) continued to enrich in sealed fermentation stage. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) showed that the fungal and bacterial community structures of four fermentation stages were significantly different. As for bacterial community, the dominant OTUs with average relative abundance over 10% in at least one fermentation stage were assigned to the genera Acetilactobacillus, Acetobacter, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Lactobacillus, and Pseudomonas. The dominant fungal populations in each fermentation stage were obviously divergent, including Wickerhamomyces, Saccharomyces, Alternaria, Fusarium, etc. SourceTracker analysis demonstrated that jiuqu and seed pei provided microorganisms to initiate starch saccharification and acetic acid fermentation stages, respectively, and maiqu was mainly the donor of enzymes in alcohol fermentation. Spearman correlation coefficients revealed positive relationships between fungal community and various flavor metabolites, indicating the essential role of fungi in the flavor formation of ZAV. This study systematically reveals the effects of fermentation starters and environmental variables on vinegar production and deepens the understanding of the traditional production craft.


Assuntos
Acetobacter , Microbiota , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Acetobacter/metabolismo , Bactérias , Fermentação , Humanos
6.
J Appl Microbiol ; 132(6): 4130-4149, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35182093

RESUMO

It has been more than a decade since Acetobacter senegalensis was isolated, identified and described as a thermotolerant strain of acetic acid bacteria. It was isolated from mango fruits in Senegal and used for industrial vinegar production in developing countries, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. The strain was tested during several spirit vinegar fermentation processes at relatively high temperatures in accordance with African acclimation. The upstream fermentation process had significant stress factors, which are highlighted in this review so that the fermentation process can be better controlled. Due to its high industrial potential, this strain was extensively investigated by diverse industrial microbiologists worldwide; they concentrated on its microbiological, physiological and genomic features. A research group based in Belgium proposed an important project for the investigation of the whole-genome sequence of A. senegalensis. It would use a 454-pyrosequencing technique to determine and corroborate features that could give this strain significant diverse bio-industrial applications. For instance, its application in cocoa bean fermentation has made it a more suitable acetic acid bacterium for the making of chocolate than Acetobacter pasteurianus. Therefore, in this paper, we present a review that summarizes the current research on A. senegalensis at its microbial and genomic levels and also its specific bio-industrial applications, which can provide economic opportunities for African agribusiness. This review summarizes the physiological and genomic characteristics of Acetobacter senegalensis, a thermotolerant strain isolated from mango fruits and intended to be used in industrial vinegar fermentation processes. It also explores other bio-industrial applications such as cocoa fermentation. Vinegar fermentation is usually performed with mesophilic strains in temperate regions of the world. Developing countries, such as Senegal, import vinegar or make 'fake' vinegar by diluting acetic acid obtained from petrochemicals. The use of a thermotolerant Acetobacter senegalensis strain as a solid functional starter culture, as well as the design of a new adapted bioreactor, has significantly contributed to food security and the creation of small- to medium-sized enterprises that produce mango vinegar in West Africa.


Assuntos
Acetobacter , Cacau , Mangifera , Aclimatação , Ácido Acético , Acetobacter/genética , Cacau/microbiologia , Fermentação , Frutas/microbiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35010733

RESUMO

Consumers' preference towards healthy and novel foods dictates the production of organic unfiltered bottled vinegar that still contains acetic acid bacteria. After ingesting vinegar, the bacteria come into close contact with the human microbiota, creating the possibility of horizontal gene transfer, including genetic determinants for antibiotic resistance. Due to the global spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), we analyzed the AMR of Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter species originating mainly from vinegars. Six antibiotics from different structural groups and mechanisms of action were selected for testing. The AMR was assessed with the disk diffusion method using various growth media. Although the number of resistant strains differed among the growth media, 97.4%, 74.4%, 56.4%, and 33.3% of strains were resistant to trimethoprim, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol, respectively, on all three media. Moreover, 17.9% and 53.8% of all strains were resistant to four and three antibiotics of different antimicrobial classes, respectively. We then looked for antimicrobial resistance genes in the genome sequences of the reference strains. The most common genetic determinant potentially involved in AMR encodes an efflux pump. Since these genes pass through the gastrointestinal tract and may be transferred to human microbiota, further experiments are needed to analyze the probability of this scenario in more detail.


Assuntos
Acetobacter , Ácido Acético , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
8.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 115(1): 111-123, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817761

RESUMO

Acetobacter senegalensis belongs to the group of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) that present potential biotechnological applications, for production of D-gluconate, cellulose and acetic acid. AAB can overcome heat and acid stresses by using strategies involving the overexpression of heat-shock proteins and enzymes from the complex pyrroquinoline-ADH, besides alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH). Nonetheless, the isolation of A. senegalensis and other AAB from food may be challenging due to presence of viable but non-culturable (VBNC) cells and due to uncertainties about nutritional requirements. To contribute for a better understanding of the ecology of AAB, this paper reports on the pangenome analysis of five strains of A. senegalensis recently isolated from a Brazilian spontaneous cocoa fermentation. The results showed biosynthetic clusters exclusively found in some cocoa-related AAB, such as those related to terpene pathways, which are important for flavour development. Genes related to oxidative stress were conserved in all the genomes, with multiple clusters. Moreover, there were genes coding for ADH and putative ABC transporters distributed in core, shell and cloud genomes, while chaperonin-encoding genes were present only in the core and soft-core genomes. Regarding quorum sensing, a response regulator gene was in the shell genome, and the gene encoding for acyl-homoserine lactone efflux protein was in the soft-core genome. There were quorum quenching-related genes, mainly encoding for lactonases, but also for acylases. Moreover, A. senegalensis did not have determinants of virulence or antibiotic resistance, which are good traits for strains intended to be applied in food fermentation.


Assuntos
Acetobacter , Cacau , Ácido Acético , Acetobacter/genética , Biotecnologia
9.
J Appl Microbiol ; 132(4): 3155-3167, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640111

RESUMO

AIMS: To utilize transgenic GMR-Aß42 Drosophila melanogaster as a model to evaluate potential Alzheimer's disease (AD)-reversal effects via the administration of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, and associations of LAB with changes in gut microbiota profiles. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wild-type flies (Oregon-R) were crossed with glass multimer reporter-GAL4 (GMR-GAL4) to produce GMR-OreR (Control), while UAS-Aß42 (#33769) were crossed with GMR-GAL4 to produce transgenic Drosophila line that expressed Aß42 (GMR-Aß42). Feed containing seven different LAB strains (Lactobacillus paracasei 0291, Lactobacillus helveticus 1515, Lactobacillus reuteri 30242, L. reuteri 8513d, Lactobacillus fermentum 8312, Lactobacillus casei Y, Lactobacillus sakei Probio65) were given to GMR-Aß42 respectively, while feed without LAB strains were given to control and transgenic GMR-Aß42.nf Drosophila lines. The morphology of the eyes was viewed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The changes in gut microbiota profiles associated with LAB were analysed using 16s high throughput sequencing. Malformation of eye structures in transgenic GMR-Aß42 Drosophila were reversed upon the administration of LAB strains, with more prevalent effects from L. sakei Probio65 and L. paracasei 0291. The GMR-Aß42.nf group showed dominance of Wolbachia in the gut, a genus that was almost absent in the normal control group (P < 0·05). The administration of L. sakei Probio65 and L. paracasei 0291 reduced the abundance of Wolbachia accompanied by increased abundance of Stenotrophomonas and Acetobacter (P < 0·05), resembling the microbial profile of the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Lactobacillus sakei Probio65 and Lactobacillus paracasei 0291 have more prominent effects in reversing malformed eye of transgenic GMR-Aß42 Drosophila, and reducing the abundance of Wolbachia accompanied by an increased abundance of Stenotrophomonas and Acetobacter. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Potentials of LAB to prevent and/or alleviate the onset and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD, supporting brain health strategies along the gut-brain axis.


Assuntos
Acetobacter , Doença de Alzheimer , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillales , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/microbiologia
10.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 52(1): 38-47, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904376

RESUMO

Vinegar is a common food additive produced by acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation process. Low yield and long incubation time in conventional vinegar fermentation processes has inspired research in developing efficient fermentation techniques by the activation of AAB for acetic acid production. The present study intends to enhance vinegar production using acetic acid bacteria and light emitting diode (LED). A total of eight acetic acid bacteria were isolated from Korean traditional vinegar and assessed for vinegar production. Isolate AP01 exhibited maximum vinegar production and was identified as Acetobacter pasteurianus based on the 16S rRNA sequences. The optimum fermentation conditions for the isolate AP01 was incubation under static condition at 30 °C for 10 days with 6% initial ethanol concentration. Fermentation under red LED light exhibited maximum vinegar production (3.6%) compared to green (3.5%), blue (3.2%), white (2.2%), and non-LED lights (3.0%). Vinegar produced using red LED showed less toxicity to mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and high inhibitory effects on nitric oxide and IL-6 production. The results confirmed that red LED light could be used to increase the yield and decrease incubation time in vinegar fermentation process.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Acetobacter/metabolismo , Acetobacter/genética , Acetobacter/efeitos da radiação , Fermentação , Microbiologia Industrial , Luz , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
11.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960001

RESUMO

Kombucha is a fermented tea made from a Symbiotic Culture of Bacteria and Yeast (SCOBY) with a long history of use as a health tonic. It is likely that most health benefits come from the tea and fermentation metabolites from specific microbial communities. Despite its growing importance as a functional health drink, the microbial ecosystem present in kombucha has not been fully documented. To characterize the microbial composition and biochemical properties of 'The Good Brew' original base kombucha, we used metagenomics amplicon (16S rRNA and ITS) sequencing to identify the microbial communities at the taxonomic level. We identified 34 genera with 200 microbial species yet described in kombucha. The dominance of organic acid producing microorganisms Acetobacter, Komagataeibacter and Starmerella are healthy for the human gut and their glucose metabolising activities have a putative role in preventing conditions such as diabetes and obesity. Kombucha contains high protein (3.31 µg/mL), high phenolic content (290.4 mg/100 mL) and low sugars (glucose: 1.87 g/L; sucrose 1.11 g/L; fructose: 0.05 g/L) as compared to green tea. The broad microbial diversity with proven health benefits for the human gut suggests kombucha is a powerful probiotic. These findings are important to improve the commercial value of kombucha and uncover the immense prospects for health benefits.


Assuntos
Chá de Kombucha/análise , Chá de Kombucha/microbiologia , Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota , Acetobacter/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Fenômenos Químicos , Fermentação , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Probióticos/análise , Proteínas/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Chá/química , Leveduras/classificação
12.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1324, 2021 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819611

RESUMO

The gut microbiome produces vitamins, nutrients, and neurotransmitters, and helps to modulate the host immune system-and also plays a major role in the metabolism of many exogenous compounds, including drugs and chemical toxicants. However, the extent to which specific microbial species or communities modulate hazard upon exposure to chemicals remains largely opaque. Focusing on the effects of collateral dietary exposure to the widely used herbicide atrazine, we applied integrated omics and phenotypic screening to assess the role of the gut microbiome in modulating host resilience in Drosophila melanogaster. Transcriptional and metabolic responses to these compounds are sex-specific and depend strongly on the presence of the commensal microbiome. Sequencing the genomes of all abundant microbes in the fly gut revealed an enzymatic pathway responsible for atrazine detoxification unique to Acetobacter tropicalis. We find that Acetobacter tropicalis alone, in gnotobiotic animals, is sufficient to rescue increased atrazine toxicity to wild-type, conventionally reared levels. This work points toward the derivation of biotic strategies to improve host resilience to environmental chemical exposures, and illustrates the power of integrative omics to identify pathways responsible for adverse health outcomes.


Assuntos
Atrazina/toxicidade , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Acetobacter/genética , Acetobacter/metabolismo , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/microbiologia , Feminino , Inativação Metabólica , Masculino
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21567, 2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732777

RESUMO

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are industrial microorganisms used for vinegar fermentation. Herein, we investigated the distribution and genome structures of mitomycin C-inducible temperate phages in AAB. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed phage-like particles in 15 out of a total 177 acetic acid bacterial strains, all of which showed morphology similar to myoviridae-type phage. The complete genome sequences of the six phages derived from three strains each of Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter strains were determined, harboring a genome size ranging from 34,100 to 53,798 bp. A phage AP1 from A. pasteurianus NBRC 109446 was predicted as an active phage based on the genomic information, and actually had the ability to infect its phiAP1-cured strain. The attachment sites for phiAP1 were located in the 3'-end region of the tRNAser gene. We also developed a chromosome-integrative vector, p2096int, based on the integrase function of phiAP1, and it was successfully integrated into the attachment site of the phiAP1-cured strain, which may be used as a valuable tool for the genetic engineering. Overall, this study showed the distribution of mitomycin C-inducible temperate phages in AAB, and identified the active temperate phage o f A. pasteurianus.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/química , Bactérias/genética , Mitomicina/química , Acetobacter , Acetobacteraceae , Ampicilina , Bacteriófagos , Análise por Conglomerados , Biologia Computacional , Fermentação , Engenharia Genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Genômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Myoviridae , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Saccharomycetales , Temperatura
14.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(24): 9285-9295, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778911

RESUMO

Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) tends to cause serious health concerns. Thus, radioprotective agents are vital for the population exposed to radiation. As microorganisms have the advantages of fast reproduction and no geographical restrictions, direct microbe-based and environmental induction compounds are thriving radioprotectants resources. Oxidative system and oxidase in Acetobacter pasteurianus are unique and intriguing, the radioprotective effect of the cell-free extract from A. pasteurianus (APE) and 60Coγ-treated extract (IRE) were comparatively investigated in the present study. The survival rate of A. pasteurianus with IRE addition was 149.1% in H2O2 damage test, while that with APE was only 10.4%. The viability of 60Coγ-treated AML-12 cells was increased by 18.8% with IRE addition, yet APE showed no significant radioprotective effect. Moreover, in 60Coγ-treated mice, IRE could significantly protect the white blood cell, improve the liver index, and attenuate the injuries of immune organs in mice. Administration of IRE significantly raised the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced the products of lipid peroxidation. These results clarified that gavage with APE and IRE presented notable antioxidant and radioprotective efficacy. A. pasteurianus showed appealing potential to be novel radioprotective bioagents and 60Coγ treatment on microbe could be a new method for the development of better radioprotectant. KEY POINTS: • 60Coγ induction could improve the radioprotective effect of APE. • IRE protected white blood cell in mice under IR. • IRE products have broad application prospects in radioprotection based on microbes.


Assuntos
Acetobacter , Protetores contra Radiação , Animais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Camundongos , Radiação Ionizante , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia
15.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 71(10)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662265

RESUMO

Two isolates, MS16-SU-2T and MS18-SU-3, obtained from fermented mangosteen peel in vinegar were suggested to constitute a new species assignable to the genus Acetobacter based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The two isolates showed the highest sequence similarity (98.58%) to Acetobacter tropicalis NBRC 16470T and Acetobacter senegalensis LMG 23690T. However, the calculated similarity values were lower than the threshold for species demarcation. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the branches of the two isolates were separated from other Acetobacter species, and the two isolates constituted a new species in the genus Acetobacter. The genomic DNA of isolate MS16-SU-2T was sequenced. The assembled genome of the isolate was analysed, and the results showed that the highest average nucleotide identity value of 75.9 % was with Acetobacter papayae JCM 25143T and the highest digital DNA-DNA hybridization value of 25.1 % was with Acetobacter fallax LMG 1636T, which were lower than the cutoff values for species delineation. The phylogenetic tree based on the genome sequences showed that the lineage of isolate MS16-SU-2T was most closely related to A. papayae JCM 25143T and Acetobacter suratthaniensis TBRC 1719T, but separated from the branches of these two species. In addition, the two isolates could be distinguished from the type strains of closely related species by their phenotypic characteristics and MALDI-TOF profiles. Therefore, the two isolates, MS16-SU-2T (=TBRC 12339T=LMG 32243T) and MS18-SU-3 (=TBRC 12305), can be assigned to an independent species within the genus Acetobacter, and the name of Acetobacter garciniae sp. nov. is proposed for the two isolates.


Assuntos
Acetobacter , Garcinia mangostana , Filogenia , Ácido Acético , Acetobacter/classificação , Acetobacter/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Frutas/microbiologia , Garcinia mangostana/microbiologia , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tailândia
16.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 351, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: As in most organisms, the surface of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is associated with bacteria. To examine whether this association depends on cuticle quality, we isolated and quantified surface bacteria in normal and melanized flies applying a new and simple protocol. RESULTS: On wild flies maintained in the laboratory, we identified two persistently culturable species as Lactobacillus plantarum and Acetobacter pomorum by 16S rDNA sequencing. For quantification, we showered single flies for DNA extraction avoiding the rectum to prevent contamination from the gut. In quantitative PCR analyses, we determined the relative abundance of these two species in surface wash samples. On average, we found 17-times more A. pomorum than L. plantarum. To tentatively study the importance of the cuticle for the interaction of the surface with these bacteria, applying Crispr/Cas9 gene editing in the initial wild flies, we generated flies mutant for the ebony gene needed for cuticle melanisation and determined the L. plantarum to A. pomorum ratio on these flies. We found that the ratio between the two bacterial species reversed on ebony flies. We hypothesize that the cuticle chemistry is crucial for surface bacteria composition. This finding may inspire future studies on cuticle-microbiome interactions.


Assuntos
Acetobacter , Lactobacillus plantarum , Microbiota , Acetobacter/genética , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster , Lactobacillus plantarum/genética
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18792, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552134

RESUMO

Kombucha is a beverage made by fermenting sugared tea using a symbiotic culture of bacteria belonging to the genus Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, and the yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces along with glucuronic acid, which has health-promoting properties. The paper presents the evaluation of ferments as a potential cosmetic raw material obtained from Yerba Mate after different fermentation times with the addition of Kombucha. Fermented and unfermented extracts were compared in terms of chemical composition and biological activity. The antioxidant potential of obtained ferments was analyzed by evaluating the scavenging of external and intracellular free radicals. Cytotoxicity was determined on keratinocyte and fibroblast cell lines, resulting in significant increase in cell viability for the ferments. The ferments, especially after 14 and 21 days of fermentation showed strong ability to inhibit (about 40% for F21) the activity of lipoxygenase, collagenase and elastase enzymes and long-lasting hydration after their application on the skin. Moreover, active chemical compounds, including phenolic acids, xanthines and flavonoids were identified by HPLC/ESI-MS. The results showed that both the analyzed Yerba Mate extract and the ferments obtained with Kombucha may be valuable ingredients in cosmetic products.


Assuntos
Cosméticos/metabolismo , Ilex paraguariensis , Chá de Kombucha , Acetobacter/metabolismo , Cosméticos/farmacologia , Fármacos Dermatológicos/metabolismo , Fármacos Dermatológicos/farmacologia , Fermentação , Gluconobacter/metabolismo , Células HaCaT/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ilex paraguariensis/metabolismo , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Saccharomyces/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(18): 6749-6758, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453563

RESUMO

In contrast to D-glyceric acid (D-GA) production with 99% enantiomeric excess (ee) by Acetobacter tropicalis NBRC 16470, Gluconobacter sp. CHM43 produced 19.6 g L-1 of D-GA with 73.7% ee over 4 days of incubation in flask culture. To investigate the reason for this enantiomeric composition of GA, the genes encoding membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase (mADH) of A. tropicalis NBRC 16470, composed of three subunits (adhA, adhB, and adhS), were cloned using the broad-host-range vector pBBR1MCS-2 and heterologously expressed in Gluconobacter sp. CHM43 and its ΔadhAB ΔsldBA derivative TORI4. Reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that adhABS genes from A. tropicalis were expressed in TORI4 transformants, and their membrane fraction exhibited mADH activities of 0.13 and 0.31 U/mg with or without AdhS, respectively. Compared with the GA production of TORI4-harboring pBBR1MCS-2 (1.23 g L-1), TORI4 transformants expressing adhABS and adhAB showed elevated GA production of 2.46 and 3.67 g L-1, respectively, suggesting a negative effect of adhS gene expression on GA production as well as mADH activity in TORI4. Although TORI4 was found to produce primarily L-GA with 42.5% ee, TORI4 transformants expressing adhABS and adhAB produced D-GA with 27.6% and 49.0% ee, respectively, demonstrating that mADH of A. tropicalis causes a sharp increase in the enantiomeric composition of D-GA. These results suggest that one reason for D-GA production with 73.7% ee in Gluconobacter spp. might be a property of the host, which possibly produces L-GA intracellularly. KEY POINTS: • Membrane-bound ADH from Acetobacter tropicalis showed activity in Gluconobacter sp. • D-GA production from glycerol was performed using recombinant Gluconobacter sp. • Enantiomeric excess of D-GA was affected by both membrane and intracellular ADHs.


Assuntos
Gluconobacter , Acetobacter , Álcool Desidrogenase , Gluconobacter/genética , Ácidos Glicéricos
19.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110549, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399526

RESUMO

Kombucha is a very distinct naturally fermented sweetened tea that has been produced for thousands of years. Fermentation relies on metabolic activities of the complex autochthonous symbiotic microbiota embedded in a floating biofilm and used as a backslop for successive fermentations. Here, we designed a tailor-made microbial consortium representative of the core Kombucha microbiota to drive this fermentation. Microbial (counts, metagenetics), physico-chemical (pH, density) and biochemical (organic acids, volatile compounds) parameters were monitored as well as biofilm formation by confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. While nine species were co-inoculated, four (Dekkera bruxellensis, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Acetobacter okinawensis and Liquorilactobacillus nagelii) largely dominated. Microbial activities led to acetic, lactic, succinic and oxalic acids being produced right from the start of fermentation while gluconic and glucuronic acids progressively increased. A distinct shift in volatile profile was also observed with mainly aldehydes identified early on, then high abundances of fatty acids, ketones and esters at the end. Correlation analyses, combining metabolomic and microbial data also showed a shift in species abundances during fermentation. We also determined distinct bacteria-yeast co-occurence patterns in biofilms by microscopy. Our study provides clear evidence that a tailor-made consortium can be successfully used to drive Kombucha fermentations.


Assuntos
Consórcios Microbianos , Microbiota , Acetobacter , Biofilmes , Brettanomyces , Fermentação , Hanseniaspora
20.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 31(9): 1262-1271, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261852

RESUMO

L-Malic acid (L-MA) is widely used in food and non-food products. However, few microorganisms have been able to efficiently produce L-MA from xylose derived from lignocellulosic biomass (LB). The objective of this work is to convert LB into L-MA with the concept of a bioeconomy and environmentally friendly process. The unique trifunctional xylanolytic enzyme, PcAxy43A from Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6, effectively hydrolyzed xylan in untreated LB, especially corn hull to xylose, in one step. Furthermore, the newly isolated, Acetobacter tropicalis strain H1 was able to convert high concentrations of xylose derived from corn hull into L-MA as the main product, which can be easily purified. The strain H1 successfully produced a high L-MA titer of 77.09 g/l, with a yield of 0.77 g/g and a productivity of 0.64 g/l/h from the xylose derived from corn hull. The process presented in this research is an efficient, low-cost and environmentally friendly biological process for the green production of L-MA from LB.


Assuntos
Acetobacter/metabolismo , Malatos/metabolismo , Paenibacillus/enzimologia , Xilosidases/metabolismo , Zea mays/química , Biomassa , Biotransformação , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Lignina/metabolismo , Xilanos/metabolismo , Xilose/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...