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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 889671, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35923951

RESUMO

The aim of this cross-sectional study is to increase our understanding of job satisfaction in Swedish police officers by taking into account work-related stress, and sexual and gender-based harassment. Data were collected from 152 police officers working in vulnerable areas in Stockholm using sociodemographic questions, the Police Stress Identification Questionnaire (PSIQ), Sexual and gender-based harassment questions, and Job Descriptive Index (JDI). The obtained results indicated that male and female police officers reported the highest satisfaction in "people on your present job." The lowest score of job satisfaction in both male and female police officers was related to "opportunity for promotion" and then "pay." There were no significant differences in the subscales of job satisfaction between male and female police officers. The older and more experienced officers, the less satisfaction was reported in "job in general" and more satisfaction reported in "pay." Comparing job satisfaction between patrol officers and those officers who worked in internal services showed police patrol officers had higher job satisfaction in "job in general," "work in the present job," "opportunity for promotion" and "supervision" compared to their counterparts in internal services. There were not any significant differences between the subscales of job satisfaction between male and female police officers. There was not any significant association between job satisfaction subscales and having experience of sexual or gender-based harassment. Among various subscales of police stressors, organizational stress was in negative relation with three domains of job satisfaction; "job in general," "pay" and "supervision." Also, hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed organizational stress was most often of predictive impact related to various job satisfaction domains in police officers.


Assuntos
Estresse Ocupacional , Assédio Sexual , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Polícia , Suécia
2.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 25(8): 479-480, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947099
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805868

RESUMO

Cyber sexual harassment has been increasing and has become a major public health problem among youths. Therefore, this study primarily aimed to evaluate the effects of a blended learning program on knowledge, attitudes, intention to cope with cyber sexual harassment, behavioral coping strategies, and cyber sexual harassment among female high-school students in Bangkok, Thailand. A quasi-experimental study with a two-group design was conducted from May 2021 to October 2021. A total of 112 students were recruited into either an intervention (n = 56) or a control (n = 56) group. The intervention group participated in a blended learning program for 12 weeks. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by both groups at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and follow-up. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for data analysis. The mean score of the intervention group in knowledge, attitude, intention to cope with cyber sexual harassment, behavioral coping strategies, and cyber sexual harassment after completing the program and follow-up were significantly different from baseline and the control group (p < 0.05). A positive effect of the blended learning program was observed among female students. Therefore, this program can be useful for victims, supporting their self-confidence with decreased frequency of cyber sexual harassment experiences.


Assuntos
Assédio Sexual , Adolescente , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Assédio Sexual/prevenção & controle , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia
5.
Arch Sex Behav ; 51(6): 3105-3120, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857250

RESUMO

Sexual harassment continues to pervade workplaces due, at least in part, to gender differences in the perception of sociosexual behaviors. Some scholars have argued that such differences are minimal and inconsistent. This study examined and demonstrated several reasons why this conclusion is fallacious. Approximately equal numbers of gay men (n = 191), heterosexual men (n = 193), lesbians (n = 190), and heterosexual women (n = 196) reported their perceptions of scenarios describing an interaction between a target and their manager. The target was either a fictional female, a fictional male, or the participant. As predicted, only heterosexual men's perceptions of sociosexual behaviors varied by the target of the behaviors. Heterosexual men viewed the behaviors as harassment only when the target was female. Further, women and gay men, but not heterosexual men, viewed the sociosexual behaviors as discrimination. The results also supported a moderated mediation model where, following exposure to sociosexual behaviors, the effect of participant group on perceived sexual harassment was mediated by fear and perceived discrimination and moderated by target. This study contributes to research on workplace sexual harassment by explaining alleged inconsistent results of studies of gender differences in perceptions of sexual harassment and by proposing and testing a novel process following exposure to sociosexual behaviors in the workplace.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Feminina , Assédio Sexual , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Local de Trabalho
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study analyzes the frequency and sociodemographic characteristics associated with sexual violence by a partner/ex-partner (PSV), someone other than a partner or ex-partner (NPSV), or sexual harassment (SH). METHODS: The study is based on the 2019 Macro-survey of Violence against Women conducted by the Spanish Ministry of Equality among a sample of 9568 women age 16 or more years. Odds Ratios were calculated and multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Forty-four women had suffered some kind of sexual violence over their lifetime, 9.2% had experienced PSV, 6.5% NPSV and 40.4% SH. More than 7% of women had been raped by a partner and 2.2% by another man. In the three groups, violence was associated with lower age and having a certified disability. NPSV and SH were significantly associated with a higher education and internet use. In NPSV, 9.2% of cases were reported to the police and 3.9% were reported to the courts. In SH, 91.7% of women told a family member or a close friend and 4.2% reported it to the police or the courts. CONCLUSIONS: A greater emphasis needs to be placed on reporting sexual violence in its various forms. Rape within intimate partnerships ought to be investigated and studied in greater depth.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Assédio Sexual , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886368

RESUMO

Scientific literature has presented relevant evidence about the existence of gender violence in science and has evaluated some programs and actions against this problem. Although many researchers have identified the importance of those intervention programs to overcome this harassment, it is still a predominant reality in institutions, surrounded by the law of silence. Emerging lines of research are studying which of those programs are successful in this endeavor, and their transferability to other contexts. This research has analyzed one program: Programme of Women's Dialogic Action (ProWomenDialogue). To gather evidence for expressing whether or not ProWomenDialogue has an impact, and whether it constitutes a successful action against harassment, the SIOR (Social Impact Open Repository) criteria, emerging from the FP7 IMPACT-Project, have been used for the evaluation of this research's social impact. Drawing on SIOR, ProWomenDialogue shows unprecedented transformations in academia through six lines of action. The political impact led to legislation that made compulsory the creation of equality committees and protocols against sexual harassment. Social impact, aligned with SDG 5, inspires the reduction of GBV, while encouraging the career promotion of female researchers. ProWomenDialogue embodies a Successful Action platform against violence, presenting their features as recommendations to be implemented in other settings.


Assuntos
Violência de Gênero , Assédio Sexual , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Organizações , Violência
8.
Reprod Health ; 19(1): 162, 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35854381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Housemaids often experience different types of sexual violence by different perpetrators. Sexual violence against housemaids remains usually concealed as victims cannot report such offenses. Except for fragmented studies with varying reports, there is no national prevalence studies conducted on sexual violence among housemaids in Ethiopia. Thus, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the pooled prevalence and associated factors of sexual violence amongst housemaids in Ethiopia. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Science Direct, HINARI, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar was conducted using relevant search terms. Data were extracted using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) tool. The quality of all selected articles was evaluated using JBI critical appraisal checklist. Data analysis was performed using STATA Version 14 statistical software. Egger's test and funnel plot were used to evaluate publication bias. Heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran's chi-squared test and quantified by I2 values. A random-effects model was applied during meta-analysis if heterogeneity was exhibited; otherwise, a fixed-effects model was used. RESULTS: After reviewing 37,849 articles, 8 studies involving 3,324 housemaids were included for this systematic review and meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of life time sexual violence among housemaids in Ethiopia was 46.26% (95% CI: 24.69, 67.84). The pooled prevalence was 55.43% (95% CI: 26.38, 84.47) for sexual harassment, 39.03% (95% CI: 14.55, 63.52) for attempted rape, and 18.85% (95% CI: 7.51, 30.19) for rape. Sexual violence is more likely among housemaid who previously lived rural residence (AOR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.41, 3.60), drinks alcohol (AOR = 2.79 95% CI: 1.02, 4.56), and employer alcohol consumption (AOR = 6.01; 95% CI: 1.10, 32.96). CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the prevalence of sexual violence against housemaids in Ethiopia is high. Of the forms of sexual violence against housemaids, sexual harassment is high. Male employers are the vast majority of perpetrators of their housemaids. Thus, concerned stakeholders should develop and implement interventions that could empower housemaids in their struggle toward the elimination of sexual violence, create awareness for men, control and monitor the implementation of legislation and policies, and prompt punishment of the perpetrators. Systematic review and meta-analysis registration PROSPERO CRD42021160511.


Sexual violence is the most common form of gender-based violence and has been a persistent problem in public health. Housemaids are the most vulnerable groups for any of the forms of sexual violence, as they face the greatest obstacles to gaining protection and necessary services. The sexual activity of domestic workers differs from that of the general population. Housemaids are more likely to be coerced into having sex and to have had sex before age 15 as compared to other young women. Housemaids often experience sexual violence by a person unknown to the victim, employers and male members of the household, brokers, or other intermediary persons. Sexual violence against housemaids remains usually concealed as victims cannot report such offenses. The most common reason for not reporting such violence was a lack of awareness of where to and for whom to report, a low level of education, and a fear of losing their work as they have few or no options for other work.In Ethiopia, the national prevalence of sexual violence among housemaids is not investigated. Also, forms and determinants of sexual violence and identification of perpetrators have not been well described. Thus, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the pooled prevalence of sexual violence amongst housemaids in Ethiopia. This systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that nearly half of housemaids experienced at least one form of sexual violence by different perpetrators. Of the forms of sexual violence against housemaids, sexual harassment is high. Male employers are the vast majority of perpetrators of their housemaids. Thus, concerned stakeholders should develop and implement interventions that could empower housemaids in their struggle toward the elimination of sexual violence, create awareness for men, and prompt punishment of the perpetrators.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Assédio Sexual , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
9.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 31(7): 932-940, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35730998

RESUMO

Background: Burnout affects >50% of physicians, especially women. This study aimed to examine how negative workplace interactions can predict burnout, and whether positive social interactions can mitigate risk. Materials and Methods: In a study of 1627 physician mothers who responded to a survey by the Physician Moms Group, an online Facebook group, we first examined the association between workplace sexual harassment and burnout. In an embedded experiment, we then measured the causal impact of priming perceived social support and connectedness on the three dimensions of employee burnout. Results: Two-thirds of respondents reported having experienced sexual harassment in the past year. Sexual harassment by patients was associated with 0.27 points higher emotional exhaustion, one dimension of burnout (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12-0.41), equivalent to the predicted impact of an additional 22 weekly work hours on emotional exhaustion. Sexual harassment by patients was also associated with 0.40 points higher patient depersonalization, another dimension of burnout (95% CI 0.27-0.53). Sexual harassment by colleagues was associated with 0.16 points higher emotional exhaustion (95% CI 0.02-0.30), but not other dimensions of burnout. We found no significant relationship between experiences of sexual harassment and levels of personal accomplishment (the third dimension of burnout) among this sample. Priming physician mothers to reflect on their connectedness with other physician mothers significantly increased their sense of personal accomplishment. The priming intervention did not yield a significant effect on emotional exhaustion or depersonalization. Conclusions: Negative and positive social interactions each affect different dimensions of burnout. Sexual harassment-a pervasive type of negative social interaction-strongly predicts emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Reflecting on social connectedness-a type of positive social interaction-can improve one's sense of personal accomplishment with an effect similar in magnitude to more intensive in-person interventions, suggesting that social connectedness through online groups merits further consideration as a tool to mitigate burnout.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Médicos , Assédio Sexual , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Médicos/psicologia , Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study aims to evaluate the prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with workplace bullying, sexual harassment and racial harassment among Italian health workers. METHODS: We recruited 3129 participants using an online Italian translation of the 'Workplace Violence in the Health Sector Country Case Studies Research Instruments Survey' (WVHS) questionnaire. Data were analyzed with univariate (chi-square) and multivariate (multiple logistic regression) analysis. RESULTS: Univariate analysis shows that females are significantly more affected by bullying (16.4% vs. 12.3%) and sexual harassment (2.4% vs. 1.3%). On the other hand, males are significantly more affected by racial harassment (3.1% vs. 2.0%). Multivariate analysis shows higher odds of being affected by bullying (OR = 1.30; 95% CI (1.03, 1.64)) and sexual harassment (OR = 2.08; 95% CI (1.04, 4.00)) for females, and higher odds of undergoing racial harassment (OR = 1.55; 95% CI (0.95, 2.53)) for males. CONCLUSION: This analysis of work situations looks to identify those risk factors, existing or potential, that increase the probability of episodes of violence. A group of work or other subjects identified by direction will have to evaluate the vulnerability of workplaces and establish more effective preventive actions to be adopted.


Assuntos
Bullying , Assédio Sexual , Violência no Trabalho , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho
12.
BMC Res Notes ; 15(1): 192, 2022 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Among the measures taken to combat sexism and sexual harassment, prevention courses for medical students are one possibility. We aimed to describe the process of implementing a training course on the prevention of sexism and sexual harassment for medical students in two Swiss medical schools by using the Theater of the Oppressed as an interactive and reflexive tool within the course. The purpose of this theater was to give the students the opportunity to express themselves and to collectively look for and discuss ways to combat and escape from oppressive situations. RESULTS: This collaborative, innovative, and interactive implementation showed that different forms of a training course can be implemented with similar objectives in an adaptable and transferable manner. The interactive and reflexive Theater of the Oppressed was an appropriate option to reach the objectives. Courses were based on identifying and acting on concrete problematic situations by focusing on individual, collective, and institutional resources. Students reported a high level of satisfaction.


Assuntos
Assédio Sexual , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina , Sexismo , Assédio Sexual/prevenção & controle
14.
Violence Vict ; 37(4): 515-531, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613885

RESUMO

Little is known about victims' experiences with the perpetrator after they report a sexual assault. This study examined harassment of sexual assault victims during the prosecution process utilizing case notes from a large, southern District Attorney's office. Specifically, harassment cases were compared to cases where no harassment was reported by the victim. We found that approximately 15% of victims vocalized harassment by the defendant, his family, or friends. The results detail characteristics and factors related to how harassment was carried out in these cases. These findings unveil the importance of communicating with victims during the prosecution process and suggest control balance theory to be an appropriate lens through which to view harassing behavior.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Assédio Sexual , Adulto , Humanos
15.
Science ; 376(6595): 787, 2022 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35587966

RESUMO

Institutions now legally required to inform agency if grantees are "disciplined" for workplace misbehavior.


Assuntos
Assédio Sexual , Revelação , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Assédio Sexual/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos , Local de Trabalho
16.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268562, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584104

RESUMO

Rampant gender-based harassment and discrimination are recognized problems that negatively impact efforts to diversify science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. We explored the particularities of this phenomenon in the geosciences, via focus groups conducted at STEM professional society meetings, with the goal of informing interventions specific to the discipline. Using grounded theory analysis, two primary drivers for the persistence and perpetuation of gender-based harassment in the geosciences were identified: a particular history of power dynamics and maintenance of dominant stereotypes, and a pattern of ineffective responses to incidents of harassment and discrimination. Informed by intersectional feminist scholarship by women of color that illustrates how efforts to address the underrepresentation of women in STEM without attending to the overlapping impacts of racism, colonialism, ableism, and classism will not succeed, we view harassment and discrimination as structural problems that require collective solutions. Continuing to recruit individuals into a discipline without changing its fundamental nature can tokenize and isolate them or encourage assimilation and acceptance of deep-seated traditions no matter how damaging. It is the responsibility of those in power, and especially those who hold more privileged status due to their social identities, to contribute to the dismantling of current structures that reinforce inequity. By providing explanatory illustrative examples drawn from first-person accounts we aim to humanize the numbers reported in workplace climate surveys, address gaps in knowledge specific to the geosciences, and identify interventions aligned with an intersectional framework that aim to disrupt discriminatory practices endemic to the geosciences and larger STEM community.


Assuntos
Racismo , Assédio Sexual , Ciências da Terra , Engenharia , Feminino , Humanos , Discriminação Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457589

RESUMO

This study aims to examine social support at work amongst the employees of Icelandic municipalities and its relationship to job satisfaction, bullying and harassment. The study is based on an online survey conducted in 2021. A total of 4973 employees answered the questionnaire in part or in full after three reminders (57% response rate). The majority of the participants in the study were women (82%), but this gender ratio was representative of the population. The results show that social support gave an average score of 4.2 on a scale of 1-5; 87% of the participants were rather often or always satisfied with their job, 8% had experienced bullying at work, 2% had experienced sexual harassment and 3% had experienced gender-based harassment. Social support has a positive, moderately strong correlation with employee job satisfaction and a weak negative correlation with bullying at work. Based on the results, social support is an important factor related to the job satisfaction of employees and is a protective factor against bullying and sexual harassment at work. This finding demonstrates that managers and those responsible for employee well-being in the workplace should focus on social support at work, especially now that the psychosocial work environment is fragile because of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Bullying , COVID-19 , Assédio Sexual , Bullying/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
20.
Acad Med ; 97(7): 1029-1037, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442907

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the incidence of, barriers to, and institutional responses to formal reporting of experiences of identity-based harassment at an academic medical center. METHOD: The authors invited 4,545 faculty and medical trainees at the University of Michigan Medical School to participate in a 2018 survey about civility and respect. This analysis focused on respondents who indicated experiencing at least 1 form of identity-based harassment (sexual harassment, gender policing harassment, heterosexist harassment, racialized sexual harassment) within the past year, perpetrated by staff, students, and faculty or by patients and patients' families. The authors assessed the incidence of formally reporting harassment to someone in authority, barriers to reporting, and institutional responses following reporting. RESULTS: Among the 1,288 (28.3%) respondents with usable data, 83.9% (n = 1,080) indicated experiencing harassment. Of the harassed individuals, 10.7% (114/1,067), including 13.1% (79/603) of cisgender women and 7.5% (35/464) of cisgender men, indicated they formally reported their harassment experiences. Among these reporters, 84.6% (66/78) of cisgender women and 71.9% (23/32) of cisgender men indicated experiencing positive institutional remedies. Many reporters indicated experiencing institutional minimization (42.9% [33/77] of cisgender women; 53.1% [17/32] of cisgender men) or retaliation (21.8% [17/78] of cisgender women; 43.8% [14/32] of cisgender men). Cisgender men were significantly more likely to indicate experiencing specific negative institutional responses, such as being considered a troublemaker (OR 3.56, 95% CI: 1.33-9.55). Among respondents who did not formally report harassment experiences, cisgender women were significantly more likely to cite concerns about institutional retaliation, such as being given an unfair performance evaluation or grade (OR 1.90, 95% CI: 1.33-2.70). CONCLUSIONS: Most respondents who experienced harassment did not formally report it to anyone in authority. Many reporters faced institutional minimization and retaliation. These findings suggest a need to reshape institutional harassment prevention and response systems in academic medicine.


Assuntos
Médicas , Assédio Sexual , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Faculdades de Medicina , Inquéritos e Questionários
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