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1.
J Econ Entomol ; 114(3): 1234-1241, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885768

RESUMO

Kiwifruit is a new emerging crop for the southeastern United States that requires cross-pollination to set fruit. However, the pollination requirements for varieties grown in the southeastern United States are unknown. Through insect surveys and a bagging experiment, we assessed the pollination requirements of two female kiwifruit cultivars (Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis 'AU Golden Sunshine' and A. chinensis var. chinensis 'AU Gulf Coast Gold'). For each, fruit quantity (fruit set) and fruit quality (weight, size, seed count, firmness, soluble solid content, and dry matter) were compared among three pollination treatments (wind, insect, and artificial pollination). Low abundances of insects were observed visiting female flowers of both kiwifruit cultivars, and therefore likely minimally influenced kiwifruit pollination. Artificial pollination resulted in the greatest percentages of fruit set and marketable fruits, followed by insect and wind pollination. Artificial pollination resulted in fruits that were greater in weight, size, and contained more seeds, than insect- and wind-pollinated fruits. Firmness and soluble solid content did not vary greatly between pollination treatments, yet were greater in 'AU Golden Sunshine'. Dry matter content did not vary greatly between pollination treatments or between each cultivar. To maximize yields and optimize fruit quality, these results suggest that kiwifruit producers should place more effort into artificial pollination compared to wind and insect pollination. Future research should explore the use of managed bees (e.g., honey bees and bumble bees) within kiwifruit orchards to determine ways to utilize them as a secondary source for pollination needs.


Assuntos
Actinidia , Actinidiaceae , Ericales , Animais , Abelhas , Frutas , Ouro , Polinização , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
2.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 20(19): 2036-2051, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646358

RESUMO

Saurauia roxburghii Wall. is an interesting plant, found growing chiefly along the eastern and south-eastern countries of Asia. The various ethnic groups of these regions use the plant as a medication for relieving a wide spectrum of diseases and conditions, including indigestion, boils, fever, gout, piles, eczema, asthma, ulcers, bronchitis, epilepsy, and hepatitis B. This review aims to appraise the vernacular information, botanical characterization, geographical distribution, traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of S. roxburghii as well as to conduct a critical analysis on the findings. To understand the therapeutic potential and provide an overall idea about the ethnomedicinal practices, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of S. roxburghii, relevant information was collected via a library and electronic search of online journals, books, and reputed databases. Phytochemical examination revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, O-glycosides, flavonoids, carbohydrates, saponins, steroids, reducing sugars, tannins, phlobatannins, and triterpenoids. The sterols were identified as Stigmasterol and beta-Sitosterol. The triterpenes were found to be Ursolic acid, Corosolic acid, Maslinic acid, 24-Hydroxy corosolic acid, 3b,7b,24-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid, Oleanolic acid, beta-Amyrin, cis-3-O-p-Hydroxycinnamoyl ursolic acid, trans-3-O-p- Hydroxycinnamoyl ursolic acid, and 7,24-dihydroxyursolic acid. Several in-vivo and in-vitro tests revealed anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, and anti-viral activities of the plant leaves. Detailed analysis of the information collected on S. roxburghii suggested some promising leads for future drug development. However, many scientific gaps were found in the study of this and further extensive investigation is needed to fully understand the mechanism of action of the active constituents and exploit its therapeutic promises.


Assuntos
Actinidiaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Actinidiaceae/classificação , Actinidiaceae/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Esteroides/química , Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Esteroides/farmacologia , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/farmacologia
3.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0197393, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795601

RESUMO

Actinidia arguta is the most basal species in a phylogenetically and economically important genus in the family Actinidiaceae. To better understand the molecular basis of the Actinidia arguta chloroplast (cp), we sequenced the complete cp genome from A. arguta using Illumina and PacBio RS II sequencing technologies. The cp genome from A. arguta was 157,611 bp in length and composed of a pair of 24,232 bp inverted repeats (IRs) separated by a 20,463 bp small single copy region (SSC) and an 88,684 bp large single copy region (LSC). Overall, the cp genome contained 113 unique genes. The cp genomes from A. arguta and three other Actinidia species from GenBank were subjected to a comparative analysis. Indel mutation events and high frequencies of base substitution were identified, and the accD and ycf2 genes showed a high degree of variation within Actinidia. Forty-seven simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 155 repetitive structures were identified, further demonstrating the rapid evolution in Actinidia. The cp genome analysis and the identification of variable loci provide vital information for understanding the evolution and function of the chloroplast and for characterizing Actinidia population genetics.


Assuntos
Actinidia/genética , Actinidiaceae/genética , Cloroplastos/genética , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Mapeamento de Sequências Contíguas , Evolução Molecular , Biblioteca Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Mutação INDEL , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Software
4.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0162324, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27589600

RESUMO

Actinidiaceae is a well-known economically important plant family in asterids. To elucidate the chloroplast (cp) genome evolution within this family, here we present complete genomes of three species from two sister genera (Clematoclethra and Actinidia) in the Actinidiaceae via genome skimming technique. Comparative analyses revealed that the genome structure and content were rather conservative in three cp genomes in spite of different inheritance pattern, i.e.paternal in Actinidia and maternal in Clematoclethra. The clpP gene was lacked in all the three sequenced cp genomes examined here indicating that the clpP gene loss is likely a conspicuous synapomorphic characteristic during the cp genome evolution of Actinidiaceae. Comprehensive sequence comparisons in Actinidiaceae cp genomes uncovered that there were apparently heterogenous divergence patterns among the cpDNA regions, suggesting a preferred data-partitioned analysis for cp phylogenomics. Twenty non-coding cpDNA loci with fast evolutionary rates are further identified as potential molecular markers for systematics studies of Actinidiaceae. Moreover, the cp phylogenomic analyses including 31 angiosperm plastomes strongly supported the monophyly of Actinidia, being sister to Clematoclethra in Actinidiaceae which locates in the basal asterids, Ericales.


Assuntos
Actinidiaceae/genética , Cloroplastos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Actinidiaceae/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , Ordem dos Genes , Genes de Plantas , Loci Gênicos , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
5.
PLoS One ; 10(6): e0129347, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26046631

RESUMO

Actinidia chinensis is an important economic plant belonging to the basal lineage of the asterids. Availability of a complete Actinidia chloroplast genome sequence is crucial to understanding phylogenetic relationships among major lineages of angiosperms and facilitates kiwifruit genetic improvement. We report here the complete nucleotide sequences of the chloroplast genomes for Actinidia chinensis and A. chinensis var deliciosa obtained through de novo assembly of Illumina paired-end reads produced by total DNA sequencing. The total genome size ranges from 155,446 to 157,557 bp, with an inverted repeat (IR) of 24,013 to 24,391 bp, a large single copy region (LSC) of 87,984 to 88,337 bp and a small single copy region (SSC) of 20,332 to 20,336 bp. The genome encodes 113 different genes, including 79 unique protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and 4 ribosomal RNA genes, with 16 duplicated in the inverted repeats, and a tRNA gene (trnfM-CAU) duplicated once in the LSC region. Comparisons of IR boundaries among four asterid species showed that IR/LSC borders were extended into the 5' portion of the psbA gene and IR contraction occurred in Actinidia. The clap gene has been lost from the chloroplast genome in Actinidia, and may have been transferred to the nucleus during chloroplast evolution. Twenty-seven polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were identified in the Actinidia chloroplast genome. Maximum parsimony analyses of a 72-gene, 16 taxa angiosperm dataset strongly support the placement of Actinidiaceae in Ericales within the basal asterids.


Assuntos
Actinidia/genética , Actinidiaceae/genética , Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Actinidiaceae/classificação , Proteínas de Cloroplastos/classificação , Proteínas de Cloroplastos/genética , DNA de Cloroplastos/química , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , Genes de Cloroplastos/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
Chin J Nat Med ; 13(1): 65-8, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25660290

RESUMO

A new ursane-type triterpenoid saponin, 2α,3α,24-trihydroxyurs-12,20(30)-dien-28-oic acid ß-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1), together with six known triterpenoid saponins, was isolated and characterized from the aerial parts of Clematoclethra scandens subsp. actinidioides.


Assuntos
Actinidiaceae/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular
7.
J Nat Prod ; 76(10): 1860-5, 2013 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24079882

RESUMO

Three new alkaloids, phomapyrrolidones A-C (1-3), bearing a cyclopenta[b]fluorene ring system were isolated from the mycelium extract of the endophytic fungal strain Phoma sp. NRRL 46751, inhabiting Saurauia scaberrinae. Methylation of 1 afforded its N-methyl derivative 4. The planar structures and relative configurations of 1-4 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Phomapyrrolidones B (2) and C (3) exhibited weak antitubercular activity at subcytotoxic concentrations.


Assuntos
Actinidiaceae/microbiologia , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/isolamento & purificação , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/química , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Succinimidas/isolamento & purificação , Succinimidas/farmacologia , Alcaloides/química , Animais , Antituberculosos/química , Chlorocebus aethiops , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Micélio/química , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Succinimidas/química , Células Vero
8.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 23(7): 905-12, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23711514

RESUMO

A novel species, Metschnikowia cibodasensis, is proposed to accommodate eight strains (ID03- 0093(T), ID03-0094, ID03-0095, ID03-0096, ID03-0097, ID03-0098, ID03-0099, and ID03-0109) isolated from flowers of Saurauia pendula, Berberis nepalensis, and Brunfelsia americana in Cibodas Botanical Garden, West Java, Indonesia. The type strain of M. cibodasensis is ID03- 0093(T) (= NBRC 101693(T) =UICC Y-335(T) = BTCC-Y25(T)). The common features of M. cibodasensis are a spherical to ellipsoidopedunculate shaped ascus, which contains one or two needleshaped ascospores, and lyse at maturity. Asci generally develop directly from vegetative cells but sometimes from chlamydospores. The neighbor-joining tree based on the D1/D2 domain of nuclear large subunit (nLSU) ribosomal DNA sequences strongly supports that M. cibodasensis (eight strains) and its closest teleomorphic species, M. reukaufii, are different species by a 100% bootstrap value. The type strain of M. cibodasensis, ID03-0093(T), differed from M. reukaufii NBRC 1679(T) by six nt (five substitutions and one deletion) in their D1/D2 region of nLSU rDNA, and by 18 nt (five deletions, four insertions, and nine substitutions) in their internal transcribed spacer regions of rDNA, respectively. Four strains representative of M. cibodasensis (ID03-0093(T), ID03-0095, ID03-0096, and ID03-0099) showed a mol% G+C content of 44.05 ± 0.25%, whereas that of M. reukaufii NBRC 1679(T) was 41.3%. The low value of DNADNA homology (5-16%) in four strains of M. cibodasensis and M. reukaufii NBRC 1679(T) strongly supported that these strains represent a distinct species.


Assuntos
Flores/microbiologia , Metschnikowia/classificação , Metschnikowia/isolamento & purificação , Actinidiaceae/microbiologia , Composição de Bases , Berberis/microbiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Fúngico/química , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Genes de RNAr , Indonésia , Metschnikowia/citologia , Metschnikowia/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , RNA Fúngico/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Solanaceae/microbiologia
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 38(3): 358-61, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23668009

RESUMO

To study the chemical constituents of Clematoclethra scandens subsp. actinidioides, chromatographic methods such as silica gel and MCI column chromatographic technology, and preparative HPLC were used and sixteen compounds were isolated from the aerial parts of this plant. By using spectroscopic techniques including 1H, 13C-NMR, HMBC and ESI-MS, these compounds were identified as betulinic acid (1), ursolic acid (2), oleanic acid (3), corosolic acid (4), 3beta-(trans-p-coumaroyloxy)-2alpha, 23-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (5), 3beta-(trans-p-coumaroyloxy)-2alpha, 23-dihydroxyurs-12, 20 (30)-dien-28-oic acid (6), 2alpha, 3alpha, 23-trihydroxyurs-12, 20 (30)-dien-28-oic acid (7), 2alpha, 3alpha, 23-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (8), asiatic acid (9), 2alpha, 3alpha, 24-tri-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (10), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyurs-12, 20 (30)-dien-28-oic acid (11), 2alpha, 3beta, 19alpha, 24-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (12), 2alpha, 3alpha, 19alpha, 24-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (13), 2alpha, 3beta, 23, 24-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (14), 2alpha, 3alpha, 19alpha, 23, 24-pentahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (15) and daucosterol (16). Among them, compounds 3-6, 11-12, 14 and 15 were isolated from this endemic plant for the first time.


Assuntos
Actinidiaceae/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Triterpenos/química , Cromatografia em Gel , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
10.
Am J Bot ; 99(6): e258-61, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22615306

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Microsatellite makers were developed for Clematoclethra scandens to investigate its population genetics and speciation. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 36 microsatellite markers were isolated using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequences COntaining repeats (FIASCO) method. Their polymorphisms were assessed in two natural populations. The results showed that 30 markers displayed prominent polymorphisms and six markers were monomorphic. CONCLUSIONS: These microsatellite loci will facilitate further studies on population genetics and speciation of C. scandens.


Assuntos
Actinidiaceae/genética , Variação Genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Alelos , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Primers do DNA/genética , DNA de Plantas/química , DNA de Plantas/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo Genético , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Ann Bot ; 109(5): 921-36, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22442339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ericales are a major group of extant asterid angiosperms that are well represented in the Late Cretaceous fossil record, mainly by flowers, fruits and seeds. Exceptionally well preserved fossil flowers, here described as Glandulocalyx upatoiensis gen. & sp. nov., from the Santonian of Georgia, USA, yield new detailed evidence of floral structure in one of these early members of Ericales and provide a secure basis for comparison with extant taxa. METHODS: The floral structure of several fossil specimens was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy of microtome thin sections and synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM). For direct comparisons with flowers of extant Ericales, selected floral features of Actinidiaceae and Clethraceae were studied with SEM. KEY RESULTS: Flowers of G. upatoiensis have five sepals with quincuncial aestivation, five free petals with quincuncial aestivation, 20-28 stamens arranged in a single series, extrorse anther orientation in the bud, ventral anther attachment and a tricarpellate, syncarpous ovary with three free styles and numerous small ovules on axile, protruding-diffuse and pendant placentae. The calyx is characterized by a conspicuous indumentum of large, densely arranged, multicellular and possibly glandular trichomes. CONCLUSIONS: Comparison with extant taxa provides clear evidence for a relationship with core Ericales comprised of the extant families Actinidiaceae, Roridulaceae, Sarraceniaceae, Clethraceae, Cyrillaceae and Ericaceae. Within this group, the most marked similarities are with extant Actinidiaceae and, to a lesser degree, with Clethraceae. More detailed analyses of the relationships of Glandulocalyx and other Ericales from the Late Cretaceous will require an improved understanding of the morphological features that diagnose particular extant groups defined on the basis of molecular data.


Assuntos
Actinidiaceae/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica , Clethraceae/anatomia & histologia , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Magnoliopsida/anatomia & histologia , Actinidiaceae/genética , Clethraceae/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/ultraestrutura , Fósseis , Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Frutas/genética , Georgia , Magnoliopsida/genética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Filogenia , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/genética
12.
Zhong Yao Cai ; 31(8): 1131-4, 2008 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19112887

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To provide the scientific basis for gruffs identification and utilization of Radix Actinidiae chinensis. METHODS: Radix Actinidiae chinensis was studied through the morphological, microscopical and UV spectrum identifications. RESULTS: There were 1-3 stone cell girdle bands in cork layer of root cross section. Sclerotic nests and mucilage cavities which contained calcium oxalate raphides existed in phloem. Endodermis cells separated by radial paries, were fusiform. In powder, port-hole was deep, striation was manifest, and starch grain calcium oxalate acicular crystal was plenty. CONCLUSION: These characteristics can provide the scientific basis for gruffs identification of Radix Actinidiae chinensis.


Assuntos
Actinidiaceae/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Plantas Medicinais/anatomia & histologia , Actinidiaceae/química , Actinidiaceae/citologia , Farmacognosia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/citologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/citologia , Pós , Controle de Qualidade , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
13.
Phytochemistry ; 69(4): 1049-56, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18070629

RESUMO

Phomodione, [(4aS(*),9bR(*))-2,6-diacetyl-7-hydroxy-4a,9-dimethoxy-8,9b-dimethyl-4a.9b-dihydrodibenzo[b,d]furan-1,3(2H,4H)-dione], an usnic acid derivative, was isolated from culture broth of a Phoma species, discovered as an endophyte on a Guinea plant (Saurauia scaberrinae). It was identified using NMR, X-ray crystallography, high resolution mass spectrometry, as well as infrared and Raman spectroscopy. In addition to phomodione, usnic acid and cercosporamide, known compounds with antibiotic activity, were also found in the culture medium. Phomodione exhibited a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.6 microg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus using the disk diffusion assay, and was active against a representative oomycete, ascomycete and basidiomycete at between three and eight micro-grams per mL.


Assuntos
Actinidiaceae/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/química , Benzofuranos/isolamento & purificação , Ascomicetos/ultraestrutura , Basidiomycota/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzofuranos/química , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Estrutura Molecular , Oomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Planta Med ; 72(2): 180-3, 2006 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16491456

RESUMO

Three new compounds, actinidione ( 1), 3 beta,29-dihydroxylup-20(30)-en-28-al ( 2) and 3 beta- O- trans-caffeoyl-29-hydroxybetulin ( 3), along with twenty known compounds ( 4 - 23), were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Clematoclethra actinidioides Maxim. Their structures were determined by analysis of spectral data or comparison with authentic samples. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 exhibited cytotoxicity against Lu-06, N-04 and Bre-04 cell lines with GI (50) values of 15.02 - 41.64 microg/mL.


Assuntos
Actinidiaceae/química , Citotoxinas/química , Diarileptanoides/química , Triterpenos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Diarileptanoides/isolamento & purificação , Diarileptanoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/farmacologia
15.
Theor Appl Genet ; 112(1): 149-57, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16211378

RESUMO

Microsatellite marker transfer across species in the dioecious genus Actinidia (kiwifruit) could offer an efficient and time-effective technique for use during trait transfer for vine and fruit improvement in breeding programmes. We evaluated the cross-species amplification of 20 EST-derived microsatellite markers that were fully informative in an Actinidia chinensis mapping family. We tested all 20 markers on 120 genotypes belonging to 21 species, 5 with varieties and/or chromosome races. These 26 taxa included 16 diploids, 7 tetraploids, 2 hexaploids and 1 octaploid, and represented all four taxonomic sections in the genus. All 20 markers showed some level of cross-species amplification. The most successful marker amplified in all genotypes from all species from all sections of the genus, the least successful amplified fragments only in A. chinensis and A. deliciosa. One species, A. glaucophylla, failed to amplify with all but 2 markers. PIC (Polymorphism information content) values were high, with 14 of 17 markers recording values of 0.90 and above. Sequence data demonstrated the presence of the microsatellite in all the amplified products. Sequence homology was less 5' of the microsatellite and increased toward the start codon of the translated region of the EST from which the marker was derived. The data confirm that EST-derived microsatellite markers from Actinidia species show cross-species amplification with high levels of polymorphism which could make them useful markers in breeding programmes.


Assuntos
Actinidiaceae/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Sequência de Bases , Cruzamento , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Genótipo , Matemática , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo Genético , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 50(19): 5386-90, 2002 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12207479

RESUMO

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and multidimensional gas chromatography olfactometry (GC/GC-O) were utilized to study the aroma profile and the aroma active components of commercial kiwi essence and the initial fresh fruit puree. Totals of 29 and 33 components were identified and quantified in the essence and the puree, respectively. Ten components were quantified for the first time as constituents of the kiwi fruit including 3-penten-2-ol, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 3-methyl-2-butenal, 2-hexanol, nonanal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-2-butanone, 3-methyl 3-buten-2-one, and octane. Analysis of these samples by multidimensional gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) allowed for the identification of >80% of the aroma active components present at level traces in this fruit. A total of 35 components appear to contribute to the aroma of kiwi fresh puree and its aqueous essence. Components described for the first time as constituents of the aroma profile in this fruit were 2-ethylfuran, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-cyclohexen-1-one, (E,E)-2,6-nonadienal, diethyl succinate, and hexyl hexanoate.


Assuntos
Actinidiaceae/química , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Olfato , Álcoois/análise , Aldeídos/análise , Ésteres/análise , Humanos , Cetonas/análise , Modelos Lineares , Compostos de Enxofre/análise , Volatilização
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