Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 9.156
Filtrar
1.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677689

RESUMO

The gut microbiota has been confirmed as an important part in human health, and is even take as an 'organ'. The interaction between the gut microbiota and host intestinal environment plays a key role in digestion, metabolism, immunity, inflammation, and diseases. The dietary component is a major factor that affects the composition and function of gut microbiota. Food additives have been widely used to improve the color, taste, aroma, texture, and nutritional quality of processed food. The increasing variety and quantity of processed food in diets lead to increased frequency and dose of food additives exposure, especially artificial food additives, which has become a concern of consumers. There are studies focusing on the impact of food additives on the gut microbiota, as long-term exposure to food additives could induce changes in the microbes, and the gut microbiota is related to human health and disease. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize the interaction between the gut microbiota and food additives.


Assuntos
Aditivos Alimentares , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Dieta , Intestinos , Inflamação
2.
PLoS Med ; 20(1): e1004149, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nitrites and nitrates occur naturally in water and soil and are commonly ingested from drinking water and dietary sources. They are also used as food additives, mainly in processed meats, to increase shelf life and to avoid bacterial growth. Experimental studies suggested both benefits and harmful effects of nitrites and nitrates exposure on type 2 diabetes (T2D) onset, but epidemiological and clinical data are lacking. We aimed to study these associations in a large population-based prospective cohort study, distinguishing foods and water-originated nitrites/nitrates from those from food additives. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Overall, 104,168 adults from the French NutriNet-Santé cohort study (2009 to 2021, 79.1% female, mean age [SD] = 42.7 [14.5]) were included. Associations between self-reported exposure to nitrites and nitrates (evaluated using repeated 24-h dietary records, linked to a comprehensive food composition database and accounting for commercial names/brands details of industrial products) and risk of T2D were assessed using cause-specific multivariable Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for known risk factors (sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, medical history, and nutritional factors). During a median follow-up duration of 7.3 years (interquartile range: [3.2; 10.1] years), 969 incident T2D cases were ascertained. Total nitrites and foods and water-originated nitrites were both positively associated with a higher T2D risk (HRtertile 3 vs.1 = 1.27 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.54), Ptrend = 0.009 and 1.26 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.54), Ptrend = 0.02, respectively). Participants with higher exposure to additives-originated nitrites (i.e., above the sex-specific median) and specifically those having higher exposure to sodium nitrite (e250) had a higher T2D risk compared with those who were not exposed to additives-originated nitrites (HR higher consumers vs. non-consumers = 1.53 (95% CI 1.24 to 1.88), Ptrend < 0.001 and 1.54 (95% CI 1.26 to 1.90), Ptrend < 0.001, respectively). There was no evidence for an association between total, foods and water-originated, or additives-originated nitrates and T2D risk (all Ptrend = 0.7). No causal link can be established from this observational study. Main limitations include possible exposure measurement errors and the lack of validation versus specific nitrites/nitrates biomarkers; potential selection bias linked to the healthier behaviors of the cohort's participants compared to the general population; potential residual confounding linked to the observational design, as well as a self-reported, yet cross-checked, case ascertainment. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this large prospective cohort did not support any potential benefits for dietary nitrites and nitrates. They suggested that a higher exposure to both foods and water-originated and additives-originated nitrites was associated with higher T2D risk in the NutriNet-Santé cohort. This study provides a new piece of evidence in the context of current debates about updating regulations to limit the use of nitrites as food additives. The results need to be replicated in other populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03335644 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03335644).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Água Potável , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Nitritos/efeitos adversos , Nitritos/análise , Nitratos/efeitos adversos , Nitratos/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Exposição Dietética , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Aditivos Alimentares
3.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 22(1): 615-642, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36524621

RESUMO

For health and safety concerns, traditional high-calorie sweeteners and artificial sweeteners are gradually replaced in food industries by natural and low-calorie sweeteners. As a natural and high-quality sugar substitute, steviol glycosides (SvGls) are continually scrutinized regarding their safety and application. Recently, the cultivation of organic stevia has been increasing in many parts of Europe and Asia, and it is obvious that there is a vast market for sugar substitutes in the future. Rebaudioside A, the main component of SvGls, is gradually accepted by consumers due to its safe, zero calories, clear, and sweet taste with no significant undesirable characteristics. Hence, it can be used in various foods or dietary supplements as a sweetener. In addition, rebaudioside A has been demonstrated to have many physiological functions, such as antihypertension, anti-diabetes, and anticaries. But so far, there are few comprehensive reviews of rebaudioside A. In this review article, we discuss the physicochemical properties, metabolic process, safety, regulatory, health benefits, and biosynthetic pathway of rebaudioside A and summarize the modification methods and state-of-the-art production and purification techniques of rebaudioside A. Furthermore, the current problems hindering the future production and application of rebaudioside A are analyzed, and suggestions are provided.


Assuntos
Açúcares da Dieta , Stevia , Açúcares da Dieta/metabolismo , Edulcorantes/química , Edulcorantes/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares , Stevia/química , Stevia/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem ; 408: 135202, 2023 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36525728

RESUMO

Frozen storage technology has been widely used for the preservation of Aquatic products. However, ice crystals formation, lipid oxidation and protein denaturation still easily causes aquatic products deterioration. Cryoprotectants are a series of food additives that could efficiently prolong the shelf life and guarantee the acceptability of frozen aquatic products. This review comprehensively illustrated the mechanism of protein denaturation caused by the ice crystal formation and lipid oxidation. The cryoprotective mechanism of various kinds of antifreeze agents (saccharides, phosphates, antifreeze proteins and peptides) and these cryoprotective structure-activity relationship, application efficiency on the quality of aquatic products were also discussed. Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages of each cryoprotectant are also prospected. Compared with others, antifreeze peptides show higher commercial and application values. While, lots of scientific research works are still required to develop novel antifreeze agent as a versatile ingredient with commercial value, applicable in the aquatic products preservation industry.


Assuntos
Crioprotetores , Gelo , Crioprotetores/química , Congelamento , Aditivos Alimentares , Lipídeos , Proteínas Anticongelantes/química
5.
Food Chem ; 408: 135248, 2023 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36571882

RESUMO

Sweeteners play an irreplaceable role in daily life and have been found in multitudinous food products. However, excessive or unreasonable intake of sweeteners as food additives brings about untoward problems due to the accumulation in the human body. Therefore, a comprehensive review of different sweeteners' pretreatment and determination methods is urgently needed. In this review, we comprehensively reviewed the progress of different pretreatment and detection methods for sweeteners in various food, focusing on the latest development since 2015. Current state-of-the-art technologies, such as headspace single-drop microextraction, ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction, solid-phase microextraction, two-dimensional liquid chromatography, and high-resolution mass spectrometry, are thoroughly discussed. The advantages, disadvantages, critical comments, and future perspectives are also proposed. This review is expected to provide rewarding insights into the future development and broad application of pretreatment and detection methods for sweeteners in different food samples.


Assuntos
Aditivos Alimentares , Edulcorantes , Humanos , Edulcorantes/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Análise de Alimentos/métodos
6.
Food Chem ; 409: 135324, 2023 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36586249

RESUMO

Contemporary food marketing is ruined by flavor enhancers rather than emphasizing the nutritional value of food. Vanillin is an overexploited flavor enhancer added to food items, thereby necessitating its detection. In this study, an electrochemical sensor was designed using a modified electrode made up of La2NiO4 functionalized carbon nanofiber (f-CNF) to effectively detect vanillin in food samples. To confirm the successful formation of La2NiO4/f-CNF, structural and morphological studies were performed using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Further electrochemical analysis was performed using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry techniques, which resulted in high sensitivity (0.2899 µA·µM-1·cm-2) and low limit of detection (LOD) (6 nM). This modified electrode material was tested in food samples, which showed an excellent response with recovery percentage and is a promising electrocatalyst for vanillin detection.


Assuntos
Carbono , Nanofibras , Carbono/química , Lantânio , Aditivos Alimentares , Nanofibras/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos
7.
Mar Drugs ; 20(12)2022 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36547932

RESUMO

With respect to the potential natural resources in the marine environment, marine macroalgae or seaweeds are recognized to have health impacts. Two marine algae that are found in the Red Sea, Codium tomentosum (Green algae) and Actinotrichia fragilis (Red algae), were collected. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts of these algae were evaluated in vitro. Polyphenols from the extracts were determined using HPLC. Fillet fish was fortified with these algal extracts in an attempt to improve its nutritional value, and sensory evaluation was performed. The antibacterial effect of C. tomentosum extract was found to be superior to that of A. fragilis extract. Total phenolic contents of C. tomentosum and A. fragilis aqueous extract were 32.28 ± 1.63 mg/g and 19.96 ± 1.28 mg/g, respectively, while total flavonoid contents were 4.54 ± 1.48 mg/g and 3.86 ± 1.02 mg/g, respectively. Extract of C. tomentosum demonstrates the highest antioxidant activity, with an IC50 value of 75.32 ± 0.07 µg/mL. The IC50 of L-ascorbic acid as a positive control was 22.71 ± 0.03 µg/mL. The IC50 values for inhibiting proliferation on normal PBMC cells were 33.7 ± 1.02 µg/mL and 51.0 ± 1.14 µg/mL for C. tomentosum and A. fragilis, respectively. The results indicated that both algal aqueous extracts were safe, with low toxicity to normal cells. Interestingly, fillet fish fortified with C. tomentosum extract demonstrated the greatest overall acceptance score. These findings highlight the potential of these seaweed species for cultivation as a sustainable and safe source of therapeutic compounds for treating human and fish diseases, as well as effective food supplements and preservatives instead of chemical ones after performing in vivo assays.


Assuntos
Clorófitas , Rodófitas , Alga Marinha , Animais , Humanos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Clorófitas/química , Alga Marinha/química , Rodófitas/química , Aditivos Alimentares , Suplementos Nutricionais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(24): e027627, 2022 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36533633

RESUMO

Background Nitrates and nitrites are used as food additives in processed meats. They are also commonly ingested from water and several foods. Several short-term clinical studies suggested beneficial effects of dietary nitrates on blood pressure, while deleterious effects on oxidative damage have been suggested in some experimental studies. However, there is a lack of evidence from longitudinal epidemiological studies linking foods and water-originated and additives-originated nitrites and nitrates, separately, to hypertension and cardiovascular diseases risk. We aimed to study these associations in a large population-based cohort. Methods and Results Overall, 106 288 adults from the French NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009-2022) were included. Associations between nitrites and nitrates intakes and hypertension and cardiovascular disease risks were assessed using multi-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. During follow-up, 3810 incident cases of hypertension and 2075 cases of cardiovascular diseases were ascertained. Participants with higher intakes of additives-originated nitrites (sodium nitrite in particular [European code e250]) had a higher hypertension risk compared with nonconsumers (hazard ratio, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.08-1.32], P=0.001, and 1.19 [95% CI, 1.08-1.32], P=0.002), respectively. No association was detected between foods and water-originated nitrites, or nitrates with hypertension risk (all P values >0.3). We found no association between nitrites or nitrates and risks of cardiovascular diseases (all P values >0.2). Conclusions These results do not support a protective role of nitrites or nitrates in cardiovascular health. Instead, they suggest a positive association between nitrites from food additives and hypertension risk, which needs confirmation in other large-scale studies. These findings provide new evidence in the context of current discussions about updating regulations on the use of nitrites as food additives.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Adulto , Humanos , Nitritos/efeitos adversos , Nitratos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dieta , Aditivos Alimentares , Carne , Hipertensão/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 23(1): 95, 2022 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36564854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among the food additives used in the food industry, food dyes are considered the most toxic. For instance, tartrazine (TRZ) is a food colorant commercially available with conflicting data regarding its cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic and mutagenic potential of TRZ using different eukaryotic cells (in vitro). METHODS: This study employed 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), brine shrimp lethality, Allium cepa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae tests. Different concentrations of TRZ and different exposure times were used in this study. RESULTS: The results demonstrate that TRZ induced a concentration-dependent toxic effect on the test systems. It also exerted cytotoxicity in fibroblasts and human gastric cells. In addition, TRZ showed mutagenic effects on the A. cepa test system. However, its toxicogenic effects may not relate to the oxidizing activity, which was confirmed by the S. cerevisiae test model. CONCLUSION: Taken together, TRZ exerted toxicogenic effects on the test systems. Therefore, it may be harmful to health, especially its prolonged use may trigger carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Mutagênicos , Tartrazina , Humanos , Tartrazina/toxicidade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Aditivos Alimentares/toxicidade , Células Eucarióticas , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
10.
Molecules ; 27(24)2022 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36557824

RESUMO

Hydrocolloids are naturally occurring polysaccharides or proteins, which are used to gelatinize, modify texture, and thicken food products, and are also utilized in edible films and drug capsule production. Moreover, several hydrocolloids are known to have a positive impact on human health, including prebiotics rich in bioactive compounds. In this paper, plant-derived hydrocolloids from arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), kuzu (Pueraria montana var lobata), Sassafras tree (Sassafras albidum) leaves, sugarcane, acorn, and animal-derived gelatin have been reviewed. Hydrocolloid processing, utilization, physicochemical activities, composition, and health benefits have been described. The food industry generates waste such as plant parts, fibers, residue, scales, bones, fins, feathers, or skin, which are often discarded back into the environment, polluting it or into landfills, where they provide no use and generate transport and storage costs. Food industry waste frequently contains useful compounds, which can yield additional income if acquired, thus decreasing the environmental pollution. Despite conventional manufacturing, the aforementioned hydrocolloids can be recycled as byproducts, which not only minimizes waste, lowers transportation and storage expenses, and boosts revenue, but also enables the production of novel, functional, and healthy food additives for the food industry worldwide.


Assuntos
Aditivos Alimentares , Indústria Alimentícia , Animais , Humanos , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Coloides/química , Extratos Vegetais/química
11.
Biomolecules ; 12(11)2022 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358972

RESUMO

The antioxidant activity of protein-derived peptides was one of the first to be revealed among the more than 50 known peptide bioactivities to date. The exploitation value associated with food-derived antioxidant peptides is mainly attributed to their natural properties and effectiveness as food preservatives and in disease prevention, management, and treatment. An increasing number of antioxidant active peptides have been identified from a variety of renewable sources, including terrestrial and aquatic organisms and their processing by-products. This has important implications for alleviating population pressure, avoiding environmental problems, and promoting a sustainable shift in consumption. To identify such opportunities, we conducted a systematic literature review of recent research advances in food-derived antioxidant peptides, with particular reference to their biological effects, mechanisms, digestive stability, and bioaccessibility. In this review, 515 potentially relevant papers were identified from a preliminary search of the academic databases PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus. After removing non-thematic articles, articles without full text, and other quality-related factors, 52 review articles and 122 full research papers remained for analysis and reference. The findings highlighted chemical and biological evidence for a wide range of edible species as a source of precursor proteins for antioxidant-active peptides. Food-derived antioxidant peptides reduce the production of reactive oxygen species, besides activating endogenous antioxidant defense systems in cellular and animal models. The intestinal absorption and metabolism of such peptides were elucidated by using cellular models. Protein hydrolysates (peptides) are promising ingredients with enhanced nutritional, functional, and organoleptic properties of foods, not only as a natural alternative to synthetic antioxidants.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Peptídeos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Peptídeos/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Manipulação de Alimentos , Aditivos Alimentares
12.
J Med Invest ; 69(3.4): 173-179, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244766

RESUMO

Phosphate (Pi)-containing food additives are used in several forms. Polyphosphate (PPi) salt has more harmful effects than monophosphate (MPi) salt on bone physiology and renal function. This study aimed to analyze the levels of parathyroid hormone PTH and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and the expression of renal / intestinal Pi transport-related molecules in mice fed with an MPi or PPi diet. There were no significant differences in plasma Pi concentration and fecal Pi excretion levels between mice fed with the high-MPi and PPi diet. However, more severe tubular dilatation, interstitial fibrosis, and calcification were observed in the kidneys of mice fed with the high PPi diet versus the MPi diet. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in serum FGF23 levels and a decrease in renal phosphate transporter protein expression in mice fed with the PPi diet versus the MPi diet. Furthermore, the high MPi diet was associated with significantly suppressed expression and activity of intestinal alkaline phosphatase protein. In summary, PPi has a more severe effect on renal damage than MPi, as well as induces more FGF23 secretion. Excess FGF23 may be more involved in inflammation, fibrosis, and calcification in the kidney. J. Med. Invest. 69 : 173-179, August, 2022.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina , Polifosfatos , Animais , Camundongos , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Dieta , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Fibrose , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Hormônio Paratireóideo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Fosfato/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Fosfatos/farmacologia , Polifosfatos/metabolismo
13.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 17: 4807-4827, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36246933

RESUMO

Purpose: The bidirectional communication between the gut and the central nervous system mediated by gut microbiota is closely related to the occurrence and development of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selenium (Se) has been identified as playing a role against AD. Probiotics have beneficial effects on host brain function and behavior by modulating the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Herein, we evaluated the protective effects of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 (L. casei ATCC 393) and selenium nanoparticles-enriched L. casei ATCC 393 (L. casei ATCC 393-SeNPs) against D-galactose/aluminum chloride-induced AD model mice. Methods: The Morris Water Maze (MWM) test was used to assess cognitive function of mice. The morphology and histopathological changes, antioxidant capacity and immune responses in the brain and ileum were evaluated. The alterations in intestinal permeability of the mice were determined using FITC-dextran. Gut microbiota composition was assessed using 16s rRNA sequencing. Results: Thirteen weeks intervention with L. casei ATCC 393 or L. casei ATCC 393-SeNPs significantly improved cognitive dysfunction, and minimized amyloid beta (Aß) aggregation, hyperphosphorylation of TAU protein, and prevented neuronal death by modulating Akt/cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB)/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway. Moreover, compared with L. casei ATCC 393, L. casei ATCC 393-SeNPs further effectively mitigated intestinal barrier dysfunction by improving antioxidant capacity, regulating immune response, restoring gut microbiota balance, and increasing the level of short-chain fatty acids and neurotransmitters, thereby inhibiting the activation of microglia and protecting brain neurons from neurotoxicity such as oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Conclusion: These findings indicated that targeting the microbiota-gut-brain axis with L. casei ATCC 393-SeNPs may have therapeutic potential for the deficits of cognitive function in the AD model mice. Thus, we anticipate that L. casei ATCC 393-SeNPs may be a promising and safe Se nutritional supplement for use as a food additive to prevent the neurodegenerative disease.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Nanopartículas , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Selênio , Cloreto de Alumínio/farmacologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Eixo Encéfalo-Intestino , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Aditivos Alimentares , Galactose , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Selênio/metabolismo , Selênio/farmacologia , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
14.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(11): 674, 2022 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36255521

RESUMO

Spices are widely used in daily life such as diet and have certain activity. Especially in China, spices have been mainly used as condiments for thousands of years in order to improve the sensory quality of food; in addition, they and their derivatives can also be used as preservatives. In this study, three spices with unique Chinese characteristics widely used were selected: cassia bark (bark of Cinnamomum camphora Presl), bay fruits (Laurus nobilis), and cloves (Syzygiumaromaticum). The main components and antibacterial ability of these three spices were analyzed by simulated extraction method. Through headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, it was determined that the main active compounds in the essential oils of cassia bark, bay fruits and cloves were cinnamaldehyde (78.11%), cinnamaldehyde (61.78%) and eugenol (75.23%), respectively. The agar plate diffusion test and the simulated food culture medium experiment confirmed that the essential oils extracted from the three flavors have antibacterial effects on Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Listeria welshimeri, Listeria ivanovii, Listeria grayi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The antibacterial activity of different strains has different optimal extraction conditions. Generally speaking, cinnamon essential oil has the strongest antibacterial activity, while laurel fruit has the lowest antibacterial activity. The study proved the antibacterial activity of these three Chinese-specific spices and provided some new ideas and methods for the subsequent research and preparation of natural food additives and food antibacterial agents.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos Vegetais , Especiarias , Ágar , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cassia/química , Cinnamomum aromaticum/química , Eugenol/análise , Aditivos Alimentares , Frutas/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Casca de Planta/química , Especiarias/análise , Syzygium/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
15.
Ter Arkh ; 94(2): 153-159, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36286737

RESUMO

The article presents an analysis of the literature on food intolerance (FS) associated with the presence in the diet of fermentable oligodimosaccharides and polyols FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols), histamine and food additives. The relationship between FS and insufficient activity of enzymes of the small intestine mucosa, in particular, in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, is discussed. FS often noted in them forces them to strictly adhere to the elimination diet and significantly impair the quality of life due to dissatisfaction with the results of treatment. Analysis of the literature has confirmed in many patients with irritable bowel syndrome an etiotropic relationship with poor food tolerance and dictates the need for randomized studies to further study the pathogenetic mechanisms of increasing food tolerance under the influence of cytoprotective therapy.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Humanos , Intolerância Alimentar , Qualidade de Vida , Histamina , Fermentação , Monossacarídeos , Dissacarídeos , Oligossacarídeos , Aditivos Alimentares , Duodeno
16.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36234944

RESUMO

Cross-linking net aggregates of thermolabile thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) and chitinases (CHIs) are the primary source of haze in white wines. Although bentonite fining is still routinely used in winemaking, alternative methods to selectively remove haze proteins without affecting wine organoleptic properties are needed. The availability of pure TLPs and CHIs would facilitate the research for the identification of such technological advances. Therefore, we proposed the usage of recombinant TLP (rTLP) and CHI (rCHI), expressed by Komagataella phaffii, as haze-protein models, since they showed similar characteristics (aggregation potential, melting point, functionality, glycosylation levels and bentonite adsorption) to the native-haze proteins from Vitis vinifera. Hence, rTLP and rCHI can be applied to study haze formation mechanisms on a molecular level and to explore alternative fining methods by screening proteolytic enzymes and ideal adsorptive resins.


Assuntos
Quitinases , Vitis , Vinho , Bentonita/metabolismo , Quitinases/genética , Quitinases/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Vinho/análise
17.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235025

RESUMO

This study investigated the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of six Thai edible plant leaf extracts, including Cashew (CN), Chamuang (CM), Monpu (MP), Thurianthet (TT), Kradon (KD) and Pakliang (PL), extracted using ethanol extraction (EE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE). The leaf extracts were characterized for percentage yield, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and-ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activity, and antimicrobial activity against spoilage. MAE produced the highest percentage yields, among which MAE-extracted MP exhibited the highest yield. Furthermore, the highest TPC and TFC were obtained for MAE, with MAE-extracted KD and CN showing the highest TPC and TFC, respectively, among the samples. The highest DPPH and FRAP values were seen in MAE-processed CN, KD, and MP extracts. The inhibition zone of pathogenic bacteria, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bacterial concentration were determined in all samples except TT. These findings indicate that, compared to EE and UAE, MAE improved the antioxidant and antimicrobial efficacy of the leaf extracts. The aforementioned extracts could be employed as natural food additives to prevent chemical and microbial spoilage of foods.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Plantas Comestíveis , Antioxidantes/química , Compostos de Bifenilo , Etanol/química , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Aditivos Alimentares , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tailândia
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(41): 13404-13412, 2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215731

RESUMO

Oxidized α-tocopherol can be regenerated by phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), but current commercial sources of PE are too expensive for use as a food additive. The present study aims to determine the optimal reaction conditions for generating high PE lecithin (MHPEL) enzymatically and to validate the MHPEL's synergism with tocopherol in delaying lipid oxidation in an oil-in-water emulsion system at pH 7 and 4 and in bulk oil. Under optimal conditions of pH 9.0, 37 °C and 4 h, a MHPEL with ∼71.6% PE was obtained from 96% phosphatidylcholine lecithin using phospholipase D from Streptomyces chromofuscus. Mixed tocopherols (300 µmol/kg oil) and MHPEL (1500 µmol/kg oil) synergistically increased both the hydroperoxide and hexanal lag phase of lipid oxidation in stripped soybean oil-in-water emulsions at pH 7 by 3 days. At pH 4, this combination increased the hydroperoxide and hexanal lag phases by 3 and 2 days, respectively. The combination of 50 µmol/kg oil α-tocopherol and 1000 µmol/kg oil MHPEL also synergistically increased the hydroperoxide (5 days) and hexanal (4 days) lag phases in stripped bulk soybean oil. This approach represents a potential clean-label antioxidant system that could have commercial applications to decrease food waste.


Assuntos
Fosfolipase D , Eliminação de Resíduos , Antioxidantes/análise , Tocoferóis , Lecitinas , Emulsões , Óleo de Soja , Fosfatidiletanolaminas , alfa-Tocoferol , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Alimentos , Aditivos Alimentares , Oxirredução , Água
19.
Acta Chim Slov ; 69(3): 571-583, 2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36196811

RESUMO

Chemical modifications of natural monoterpenoids to various derivatives have been reported to result in enhancement of biological activities when compared to parent compounds. In this context a well-known biocide and food additive, carvacrol, served as a basic scaffold onto which a phenolic functionality transformation by introducing acyl groups was performed. By using this simple methodology, we obtained a small series of 25 esters. For each of the obtained compounds we have performed structural characterization, in vitro antimicrobial testing and in silico calculation of physico-chemical, pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties. Despite numerous data on the synthesis and bioactivity of carvacryl ester lower homologues, there are scarce data on esters with acid components higher than C9, so that among 25 compounds, 10 were reported for the first time (spectral characterization for 12 are herein the first reported). Our research is also the first comprehensive study of carvacryl esters antifungal and of medium/long chain fatty acid esters antibacterial activities. Interesting result is that all the synthesized esters, regardless the nature of the R residue, have shown activity on fungal strain Aspergilus niger and on yeast Candida albicans comparable to carvacrol. Besides presented experimental data, implementation of in silico calculation of physico-chemical, pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties on the prepared compounds, may be valuable information in further research.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Desinfetantes , Antibacterianos , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos , Candida albicans , Cimenos , Ésteres/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos , Aditivos Alimentares , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Fenóis , Timol
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(38): e30600, 2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197259

RESUMO

The study aimed to investigate the status of thickener use in dysphagia patients with brain lesions and incidence of adverse events based on fluid viscosity. Twenty dysphagia patients with brain lesions who were recommended to use thickeners following a videofluoroscopic swallowing study were enrolled in this observational pilot study. Patients were educated to use thickener as level 2 or 3 based on the International Dysphagia Diet Standardization Initiative flow test. We evaluated the viscosity of the fluid that patients drank once a week for 2 weeks, and reviewed medical records regarding adverse events. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the average value obtained from the viscosity evaluations as thin (Levels 0-2) and thick fluid groups (Levels 3-4). Adverse events were compared between the groups. The number of patients who did not follow the recommendations increased from 35.0 to 45.0% during the 1-week follow-up period. No patient developed pneumonia or urinary tract infection. Constipation (P = 0.338) and dehydration status (P = 0.202) were not significantly different between the 2 groups. In 2 evaluations for 20 patients, 40.0% of the cases did not follow the educated viscosity, and the number gradually increased in the follow-up evaluation. Considering that there were no significant differences in the incidence of adverse effects including pneumonia according to the fluid viscosity, a further study is necessary to establish detailed criteria for thickener use in dysphagia patients with brain lesions.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Encéfalo , Deglutição , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Aditivos Alimentares , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Projetos Piloto , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos , Viscosidade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...