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1.
Complement Ther Med ; 53: 102532, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nardostachys jatamansi (D.Don) DC, commonly known as muskroot and Indian spikenard, is a small, perennial, flowering, rhizomatous species of the Caprifoliaceae family. Nardostachys jatamansi (D.Don) DC (Sumbul-ut-teeb) has been used in Unani Medicine since antiquity. It is one of the important drugs mentioned by Ibn-e-Sina (Avicenna) in his treatise "Kitab al-Adwiya al- Qalbiya" for cardiac diseases. The drug has been shown to exhibit anxiolytic, sedative, antispasmodic, tranquillizing, and anti hypertensive activity. AIM: The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of Nardostachys jatamansi in reducing blood pressure in hypertensive patients. METHODS: The single blind randomized, placebo controlled study was conducted with 40 patients aged between 35-70 years. The participants were randomly allocated to receive either a total of 3 g of N. Jatamansi (1capsule 3 times a day) or placebo for 4 weeks. Patients using ≤ 2 antihypertensive drugs with stage 1 hypertension were included in the study. Systolic and diastolic Blood pressure was recorded at baseline and at every week for four weeks. MINICHAL score (for Quality of Life) was recorded at baseline and at the end of the trial. RESULTS: After the four weeks of treatment, there was a statistically significant reduction in average systolic blood pressure 144.20 ± 11.35 mmHg (CI, 138.89-149.51) to 134.30 ± 10.08 mmHg (CI, 129.58-139.02), p < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (94.9. ± 3.4 mmHg (CI 93.30-96.49) to 83.10 ± 5.29 mmHg (CI 80.62-85.57), p < 0.001) in the N. Jatamansi group whereas there was no significant difference in systolic blood pressure (143.40 ± 8.39 mmHg (CI, 139.47-147.33) to 142. ± 11.68 mmHg (CI, 136.53-147.47) p = 0.148) and diastolic blood pressure 95.10 ± 3.70 mmHg (CI, 93.37-96.83) to 94.80 ± 3.69 mmHg, (CI93.07-96.52) p = 0.186) in placebo group. A comparison between baseline and post treatment, MINICHAL score in N. Jatamansi group showed significant reduction 10.85 ± 1.27 (CI, 10.25-11.44) to 6.20 ± 1.77, (CI, 5.37-7.02) p < 0.001) whereas there was no significant difference in placebo group 11.05 ± 1.50 (CI, 10.34-11.75) to 10.85 ± 1.26, 95 % (CI, 10.25-11.44) p = 0.103). CONCLUSION: The present findings suggest that N. Jatamansi is effective in reducing both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in essential hypertension. Moreover studies on efficacy of different doses and treatment duration of test drug are required to finetune these observations.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão Essencial/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Unani/métodos , Nardostachys , Adoxaceae , Adulto , Idoso , Aralia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Método Simples-Cego , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 89(3 Suppl): 2141-2154, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28876381

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and antigenotoxic activity of Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl. aqueous extracts on the cell cycle of Allium cepa L. as well as determine the phenolic compounds in such extracts. S. australis inflorescences and leaves of two accessions were used for aqueous extract preparation at concentrations: 0.003 g/ml and 0.012 g/ml. A. cepa bulbs were rooted in distilled water and, subsequently, placed in treatments for 24 hours. Rootlets were collected and fixed in modified Carnoy's solution for 24 hours and kept. The squash technique was performed for slide preparation. Root tips were smashed and stained with 2% acetic orcein, and a total of 4000 cells per treatment were analyzed. The phenolic compounds were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and data was analyzed using the Scott-Knott test. The results show that S. australis aqueous extracts have antiproliferative potential. Besides, the extracts prepared from S. australis leaves of both accessions at a concentration of 0.012 g/ml have shown antigenotoxic activity. The phytochemical analysis allowed us to determine the presence of flavonoids and phenolic acids, of which kaempferol and chrologenic acid were the most predominant compounds in the extracts from the inflorescences and leaves, respectively.


Assuntos
Adoxaceae/química , Flavonoides/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Sambucus/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Água/análise
3.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2141-2154, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-886785

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and antigenotoxic activity of Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl. aqueous extracts on the cell cycle of Allium cepa L. as well as determine the phenolic compounds in such extracts. S. australis inflorescences and leaves of two accessions were used for aqueous extract preparation at concentrations: 0.003 g/ml and 0.012 g/ml. A. cepa bulbs were rooted in distilled water and, subsequently, placed in treatments for 24 hours. Rootlets were collected and fixed in modified Carnoy's solution for 24 hours and kept. The squash technique was performed for slide preparation. Root tips were smashed and stained with 2% acetic orcein, and a total of 4000 cells per treatment were analyzed. The phenolic compounds were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and data was analyzed using the Scott-Knott test. The results show that S. australis aqueous extracts have antiproliferative potential. Besides, the extracts prepared from S. australis leaves of both accessions at a concentration of 0.012 g/ml have shown antigenotoxic activity. The phytochemical analysis allowed us to determine the presence of flavonoids and phenolic acids, of which kaempferol and chrologenic acid were the most predominant compounds in the extracts from the inflorescences and leaves, respectively.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Sambucus/química , Adoxaceae/química , Fenóis/análise , Água/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
4.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1,supl.1): 223-229, 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-782973

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The internal part of the stem bark of this species is used to produce a homemade ointment in some regions of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The purpose of this study is to characterize the morphoanatomy and identify the compounds present in the internal part of the stem bark of S. australis through chemical and histochemical methods. In addition, the best extraction conditions for the sample were determined. It was possible to quantify the rutin and total phenolic compounds, as well as define the Soxhlet method with an 80% hydroethanolic solution as the best method for extracting these compounds from the bark of the species. The portion of the stem bark that is popularly used could also be determined. Based on the results, new studies will be performed in order to identify other characteristics of the species and the possible reasons that sustain its traditional use.


RESUMO Sambucus australis Cham. & Schtdl. (Adoxaceae) é uma espécie arbórea nativa do sul do Brazil, conhecida como “sabugueiro”. A parte interna da casca do caule dessa espécie é utilizada na produção de uma pomada caseira em algumas regiões do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo desse estudo é caracterizar a morfoanatomia e identificar compostos presentes na parte interna da casca do caule de S. australis por métodos químicos e histoquímicos. Ademais, realizou-se avaliações para determinar as melhores condições extrativas para a amostra. Foi possível quantificar rutina e compostos fenólicos totais, além de determinar o método Soxhlet com solvente hidroetanólico 80% como o melhor método para extrair esses compostos da casca da espécie. Ainda foi possível determinar a porção da casca do caule utilizada popularmente. Com base nos resultados, novas investigações serão realizadas a fim de determinar mais características da espécie e as possíveis razões que corroboram o uso tradicional.


Assuntos
Adoxaceae/química , Casca de Planta/classificação , Sambucus/química , Cicatrização
5.
Ann Bot ; 107(9): 1521-32, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21478175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The expression of floral symmetry genes is examined in the CYCLOIDEA lineage following duplication, and these are linked to changes in flower morphology. The study focuses on Dipsacales, comparing DipsCYC2 gene expression in Viburnum (radially symmetrical Adoxaceae) to members of early-diverging lineages of the bilaterally symmetrical Caprifoliaceae (Diervilla and Lonicera). METHODS: Floral tissue from six species, which included dorsal, lateral and ventral regions of the corolla, was dissected. RNA was extracted from these tissues and each copy of DipsCYC2 was amplified with reverse transcriptase PCR. KEY RESULTS: Members of DipsCYC2 were expressed across the corolla in the radially symmetrical Viburnum plicatum. A shift to bilaterally symmetrical flowers at the base of the Caprifoliaceae was accompanied by a duplication of the DipsCYC2 gene, resulting in DipsCYC2A and DipsCYC2B, and by loss of expression of both of these copies in the ventral petal. In Lonicera (Caprifolieae), there is a shift from flowers with two dorsally and three ventrally oriented corolla lobes to a clear differentiation of dorsal, lateral and ventral lobes. This shift entailed a decoupling of expression of DipsCYC2A and DipsCYC2B; DipsCYC2B continues to be expressed in the dorsal and lateral lobes, while DipsCYC2A expression is restricted to just the two dorsal lobes. A reversion to more radially symmetrical flowers within Lonicera was accompanied by a re-expansion of expression of both DipsCYC2A and DipsCYC2B. CONCLUSIONS: The transition to bilateral symmetry in Caprifoliaceae involved: (a) duplication of an ancestral DipsCYC2 gene; (b) the loss of expression of both of these copies in the ventral petal; and (c) changes in the zone of expression, with one copy continuing to be expressed across the dorsal and lateral petals, and the other copy becoming restricted in expression to the dorsal corolla lobes.


Assuntos
Adoxaceae/genética , Evolução Biológica , Caprifoliaceae/genética , Flores/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Adoxaceae/anatomia & histologia , Sequência de Bases , Caprifoliaceae/anatomia & histologia , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Duplicação Gênica , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , RNA de Plantas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 106(11): 4307-12, 2009 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19251663

RESUMO

Evolutionary biologists often wish to explore the impact of a particular historical event (e.g., the origin of a novel morphological trait, an episode of biogeographic dispersal, or the onset of an ecological association) on rates of diversification (speciation minus extinction). We describe a Bayesian approach for evaluating the correlation between such events and differential rates of diversification that relies on cross-validation predictive densities. This approach exploits estimates of the marginal posterior probability for the rate of diversification (in the unaffected part of the tree) and the marginal probability for the timing of the event to generate a predictive distribution of species diversity that would be expected had the event not occurred. The realized species diversity can then be compared to this predictive diversity distribution to assess whether rates of diversification associated with the event are significantly higher or lower than expected. Although simple, this Bayesian approach provides a robust inference framework that accommodates various sources of uncertainty, including error associated with estimates of divergence times, diversification-rate parameters, and event history. Furthermore, the proposed approach is relatively flexible, allowing exploration of various types of events (including changes in discrete morphological traits, episodes of biogeographic movement, etc.) under both hypothesis-testing and data-exploration inference scenarios. Importantly, the cross-validation predictive densities approach facilitates evaluation of both replicated and unique historical events. We demonstrate this approach with empirical examples concerning the impact of morphological and biogeographic events on rates of diversification in Adoxaceae and Lupinus, respectively.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Plantas/genética , Adoxaceae/genética , Geografia , Cinética , Lupinus/genética
7.
Mol Biol Evol ; 26(6): 1245-58, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19289599

RESUMO

The genetics underlying flower symmetry shifts between radial and bilateral symmetry has been intensively studied in the model Antirrhinum majus. Understanding the conservation or diversification of this genetic pathway in other plants is of special interest in understanding angiosperm evolution and ecology. Evidence from Antirrhinum indicates that TCP and MYB transcription factors, especially CYCLOIDEA (CYC), DICHOTOMA (DICH), DIVARICATA (DIV), and RADIALIS (RAD) play a role in specifying dorsal identity (CYC, DICH, and RAD) and ventral identity (DIV) in the corolla and androecium of monosymmetric (bilateral) flowers. Previous data indicate that the ECE clade of TCP genes (including CYC and DICH) underwent two duplication events around the diversification of the core eudicots. In this study, we examined the duplication events within Dipsacales, which contains both radially and bilaterally symmetrical flowered species. Additionally, we report here the phylogenetic relationships of the DIV-like genes across core eudicots. Like TCP genes, we found three core eudicot clades of DIV-like genes, with duplications occurring around the diversification of the core eudicots, which we name DIV1, DIV2, and DIV3. The Antirrhinum genes, DIVARICATA and its sister DVL1, fall into the DIV1 clade. We also found additional duplications within these clades in Dipsacales. Specifically, the Caprifoliaceae (bilaterally symmetrical clade) duplicated independently in each of the three core eudicot DIV clades. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR), we showed that most of these copies are expressed across floral tissues in the Dipsacales species Heptacodium miconioides. One copy, DipsDIV1A (orthologous to DIV and DVL1), was expressed in a dorsal-ventral pattern. DipsDIV1A was expressed only in petal tissue, in both dorsal and ventral regions but was lacking from lateral petals. We argue that this suggests that DipsDIV1A may be expressed in a similar pattern to DIV in Antirrhinum, suggesting a broad conservation of this pathway. Finally, DIV contains a large intron near the beginning of the second MYB domain, which shows promise as a highly variable molecular marker for phylogenetic studies.


Assuntos
Adoxaceae/genética , Caprifoliaceae/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Antirrhinum/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Flores/genética , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
8.
Am Nat ; 170 Suppl 2: S28-55, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17874383

RESUMO

We explore patterns of diversification in the plant clades Adoxaceae and Valerianaceae (within Dipsacales), evaluating correlations between biogeographic change (i.e., movements into new areas), morphological change (e.g., the origin of putative key innovations associated with vegetative and reproductive characters), and shifts in rates of diversification. Our findings indicate that rates of diversification in these plants tend to be less tightly correlated with the evolution of morphological innovations but instead exhibit a pronounced correlation with movement into new geographic areas, particularly the dispersal of lineages into new mountainous regions. The interdependence among apparent novelties (arising from their nested phylogenetic distribution) and the correlation between morphological and biogeographic change suggests a complex history of diversification in Dipsacales. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of incorporating biogeographic history in studies of diversification rates and in the study of geographic gradients in species richness. Furthermore, these results argue against a simple deterministic relationship between dispersal and diversification: like other factors that may influence the probability of speciation and/or extinction, the impact of dispersal on diversification rates depends on being in the right place at the right time.


Assuntos
Adoxaceae/classificação , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Geografia , Valerianaceae/classificação , Adaptação Biológica , Adoxaceae/anatomia & histologia , Adoxaceae/genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Filogenia , Fatores de Tempo , Valerianaceae/anatomia & histologia , Valerianaceae/genética
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