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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 908, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advertising alcoholic drinks and food high in fat, sugar, and salt (HFSS) is a driver of alcohol use and HFSS consumption, among children and young people. Whilst advertising legislation and broadcasting regulation protect children from alcohol and HFSS imagery, the 2018 FIFA World Cup, which attracted a global audience, was sponsored and partnered by alcohol and HFSS brands. This study investigated the exposure of viewers to HFSS and alcohol imagery in a selection of group matches, and the final match, of the FIFA 2018 World Cup. METHODS: The frequency and duration of appearances (to the nearest second) of branding from two sponsors (McDonald's and Budweiser), one official partner (Coca-Cola) and the official sports drink (Powerade) were recorded during all active play in live coverage of a sample of 13 matches (Six in Group A, which included the host nation, Russia, which has stringent alcohol promotion regulations in place; six in Group G, which featured England; and the final) broadcast in the UK. We used census and viewing data to calculate gross and per capita impressions generated by this imagery in the UK population. RESULTS: The 13 matches included 1262 min of active play and a total of 1806 appearances of alcohol and HFSS food advertisements, delivering approximately 7.5 billion branded HFSS impressions, including 759 million to children (age < 16 years), and 3.3 billion alcohol impressions, including 385 million to children, in the UK. Appearances of HFSS and alcohol brands were not statistically different between the games in either group. CONCLUSION: UK advertising legislation and broadcasting regulations intended to prevent exposure to alcohol and HFSS imagery and advertising in UK television was circumvented completely by sponsorship arrangements in the 2018 FIFA World Cup. Preventing this exposure therefore requires revision of existing advertising and broadcasting controls to include sponsorship.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Saúde Pública , Adolescente , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Criança , Etanol , Humanos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Açúcares , Televisão
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 915, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of alcohol use and marketing in many settings across sub-Saharan Africa, few studies have systematically sought to assess alcohol marketing exposure, particularly in vulnerable areas such as urban slums where alcohol is often highly prevalent but where educational programs and alcohol prevention messages are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To pilot test the development and implementation of environmental scans of alcohol advertisements in five urban slums across different areas of Kampala, Uganda: Bwaise, Kamwokya, Makindye, Nakulabye, and Nateete. METHODS: Each of the five scans was conducted in geographical circles, within a 500-m radius of a Uganda Youth Development Link (UYDEL) drop-in Center using a container-based approach. Using a Garmin GPS with photo capabilities and a tablet for data entry, teams of at least two trained researchers walked the main roads within the target area and gathered information about each alcohol advertisement including its location, type, size, and placement and other characteristics. Data with the GPS coordinates, photos and descriptive details of the adverts were merged for analyses. RESULTS: A total of 235 alcohol adverts were found across all five data collection sites reflecting 32 different brands. The majority of the adverts (85.8%) were smaller and medium sizes placed by restaurants and bars, stores and kiosks, and liquor stores. The most frequently noted types of alcohol in the adverts were spirits (50.6%) and beer (30.6%). RECOMMENDATIONS: The pilot test of the methodology we developed indicated that implementation was feasible, although challenges were noted. Since monitoring alcohol marketing is key for addressing underage alcohol use and harm, the advantages and disadvantages of the approach we developed are discussed. Future research needs to strengthen and simplify strategies for monitoring alcohol marketing in low-resource settings such as urban slums which have unique features that need to be considered. Meanwhile, the findings may yield valuable information for stakeholders and to guide intervention developments and alcohol marketing policy to protect youth.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Áreas de Pobreza , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Uganda/epidemiologia
4.
Inquiry ; 59: 469580221100165, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity rates in Western developed countries are rapidly increasing. While research shows that eating more fruits and vegetables (FV) is a preventive measure, children do not eat adequate amounts of FV. Marketing of high salt, fat, and sugar foods influences children's eating behaviors, decreases FV consumption, and is prevalent in children's surroundings. Garnering the power of ads on children, a potential solution for increasing FV consumption is FV marketing/advertising. Schools can serve as a viable option for testing this advertising because a significant amount of children's time is spent in school settings. However, research surrounding the use of FV advertising in schools is lacking in a consensus on the most effective methodologies. OBJECTIVE: This paper reviewed existing research on FV advertising in schools and proposed directions for future research surrounding methodology and experimental design. STUDY DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched with variations of the terms "vegetable," "marketing," "advertisements," "consumption," and "schools" (eg, "vegetable consumption AND advertisements AND schools". Study inclusion criteria were: conducted in school settings, used FV marketing as primary intervention, and measured change in FV consumption or preference. MEASURABLE OUTCOME/ANALYSIS: This review qualitatively compared the studies' participant demographics, methodologies, and measures of success, and evaluated the studies' strengths and weaknesses. RESULTS: Of the 38 articles reviewed, 8 met the inclusion criteria. Five studies examined elementary school populations; 4 were conducted in cafeterias. Major forms of advertising/interventions were print media, video media, and classroom education interventions, of which print media was the most widely used. Three articles utilized change in consumption of FV as a measure of success, while others measured change in preference. All studies reported increased consumption/preference in at least 1 intervention during or immediately after the intervention. However, only 4 studies conducted follow-up testing. CONCLUSION: FV advertisements in schools appear to be effective in increasing FV consumption among children. To develop implementable advertising, future studies should maintain cohesive methodologies by controlling for novelty effects, conducting follow-up testing, and measuring actual FV consumption rather than preference.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Verduras , Publicidade , Criança , Comportamento Alimentar , Frutas , Humanos
5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 867, 2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gambling is an inherently risky activity. New technologies have led to the development of new, online forms of gambling such as sports betting, with round the clock availability and accessibility. While young men have been identified as a group that may be particularly vulnerable to the harms associated with these new online products, few studies have qualitatively explored young men's perceptions of the risks associated with these products. Using concepts associated with the sociology of risk, this paper sought to explore the range of factors that may influence how 18-24 year old young Australian men conceptualise the risks associated with sports betting. METHODS: Using a critical qualitative inquiry approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with sixteen participants in Victoria, Australia, who engaged in sports betting at least monthly. The data interpreted for this study included questions relating to awareness of gambling, the contexts associated with early gambling experiences; the factors that influenced current gambling behaviours, and why they engaged in gambling. A reflexive approach to thematic analysis was used to interpreted themes from the data. RESULTS: Four key themes were constructed from the data relating to the factors that influenced risk perceptions. These included: 1) 'The role of early experiences', including exposure to gambling advertising in sport, and the gambling behaviours of social networks; 2) 'The influence of peer rivalry and competition', in which sports betting was used to form connections within and across peer groups; 3) 'The normalisation of gambling', including the embedding of gambling in everyday activities; and 4) 'The influence of perceptions of knowledge, skill, and control', including the belief that they could engage in responsible behaviours and stop gambling if they needed to. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that a range of factors may influence how young men conceptualise the risks and benefits associated with sports betting. Current public health strategies for gambling that focus on individual determinants and responsibility paradigms must be broadened to target the social and commercial factors that influence young men's attitudes towards, and engagement in sports betting.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar , Esportes , Adolescente , Adulto , Publicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Vitória/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 19: E16, 2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389831

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Our study assesses the relationship between the exposure of youth to the US Food and Drug Administration's national tobacco public education campaign, The Real Cost, and changes in campaign-focused risk perceptions and beliefs. METHODS: A nationally representative cohort study of youth was conducted from June 2018 to July 2019, consisting of a baseline and one follow-up survey. We performed logistic regressions to examine the association between campaign exposure and beliefs. Exposure was measured by self-report as the frequency of exposure to individual campaign advertisements about the health consequences of e-cigarette use and of smoking cigarettes. RESULTS: We found that increased levels of exposure to campaign advertising was associated with a significant increase in the odds of reporting agreement with campaign-specific beliefs. Positive patterns of findings were found across multiple items selected by specific advertisements, whereas unrelated beliefs were not associated with advertisement exposure. CONCLUSION: A sustained national tobacco public education campaign can change beliefs about the harms of e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking among youth. Combined with other findings from The Real Cost evaluation, results indicate that prevention mass media campaigns continue to be an effective and cost-efficient approach to reduce the health and financial cost of tobacco use in the US.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Vaping , Adolescente , Publicidade , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Tabaco , Estados Unidos
7.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(5): 4933-4945, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430848

RESUMO

In the current era of multimedia, television (TV) plays an important role in transmitting advertising messages. In addition, advertising is the primary source of revenue for the TV industry. Thus, a critical issue for TV stations is the scheduling of commercials in suitable advertising breaks on different TV channels to maximize revenue and minimize penalties. This type of TV commercial scheduling problem is similar to the machine scheduling problem, and both have availability constraints. However, the literature on TV commercial scheduling has not considered this perspective. Motivated by this, we consider the problem of scheduling commercials with specific service-level requirements on TV channels while minimizing the maximum lateness. The lateness of a commercial is defined to be its completion time minus its due date, and the maximum lateness is the maximum value of lateness among all commercials. We propose an exact branch and bound algorithm based on the LFJ (least flexible job first)/EDD (earliest due date first) rules and network flow methods, which were developed to solve the machine scheduling problem with availability constraints. Computational analysis shows that the bounding scheme proposed is highly effective, and a very low percentage of nodes is generated by the branch and bound algorithm. The algorithm can obtain an optimal solution for the problem.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Televisão , Publicidade/métodos , Algoritmos , Indústrias
9.
Subst Use Misuse ; 57(7): 1156-1159, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35422191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to alcohol marketing is positively associated with alcohol consumption. However, few research studies have tested alcohol marketing's effect on other alcohol-related outcomes. Consequently, the current study sought to identify associations between exposure to alcohol marketing and alcohol-related consequences in young adults. Methods: A secondary analysis of the 2020 Rhode Island Young Adult Survey was conducted. Participants were lifetime drinkers (n = 390) who were 18 to 25 years old and lived in Rhode Island for at least part of 2020. Past 30 day exposure to 6 forms of alcohol marketing was assessed. Alcohol consequences were measured using 8 items from the Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire. Logistic regression models were adjusted for AUDIT score, age, race/ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, employment status, and enrollment in school. Results: 92.3% of participants reported past 30 days exposure to any form of alcohol marketing. 43.6% of participants reported experiencing any alcohol-related consequence. Exposure to any form of alcohol marketing was positively associated with experiencing alcohol-related consequences (OR[95% CI] = 3.35 [1.19, 9.44]). After disaggregation by marketing type, only television exposure remained significantly associated with alcohol-related consequences (OR[95% CI] = 1.85 [1.06, 3.24]). Conclusions: Exposure to alcohol advertising on television may be positively associated with experiencing negative alcohol consequences in young adults. If confirmed, the findings may renew interest in strengthening alcohol marketing guidelines and regulations.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Marketing , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Etanol , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Televisão , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the relationship between exposure to online tobacco advertising and current smokeless tobacco use in the context of tobacco control policies. METHODS: Three waves of a national probability-based sample of (n = 15,985) youth and young adults were used. Analysis consisted of GEE logistic models controlling for social media use, demographics, tobacco use, average price of smokeless tobacco inclusive of taxes, smoke-free indoor air laws (SFIA) and state tobacco control expenditures. RESULTS: Frequent exposure to tobacco advertising on social media is associated with greater odds of current smokeless use (aOR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.62, 2.60). Higher prices and SFIA coverage were associated with reduced current smokeless use when examined separately from other tobacco policy variables (aOR: 0.79, CI: 0.73, 0.85; aOR: 0.44, CI: 0.28, 0.70). CONCLUSIONS: Greater exposure to tobacco advertising online is associated with greater odds of smokeless use among surveyed youth and young adults. This effect of social media marketing exposure on smokeless use outweighs the mitigating impact of existing tobacco control policies. The findings underscore the need for strong advertising regulation of evolving tobacco products, including smokeless products, on social media and surveillance of digital marketing tactics to young people.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Adolescente , Publicidade , Humanos , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(4): 1257-1262, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35485683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: E-cigarette use is a growing public health concern globally, including in Indonesia. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to assess whether exposure to advertising and promotion in social media is associated with e-cigarette use in Indonesia, an upper-middle-income country. METHODS: We conducted mixed-method research including quantitative and qualitative methods. For the quantitative methods, we did an online survey in the five largest cities in the country with 1,239 participants during September-October 2020. For the qualitative method, we conducted an in-person focused group discussion during November 2020 (while complying to the COVID-19 protocols). RESULTS: We found high rates of e-cigarette ever use (29%) and current use (13%) among study participants. There was high exposure to e-cigarette advertising and promotion in social media, with a majority of participants (84%) reported ever seeing e-cigarette adverts or promotions on Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, and others. Both high rates of e-cigarette use and exposure to social media advertising are associated. Participants reported ever seeing adverts and promotions were 2.91 times and 2.82 times more likely ever to use and currently use e-cigarettes, respectively, after controlling for socioeconomic factors, region, and cigarette smoking status. CONCLUSION: Exposure to social media advertising and promotion is associated with e-cigarette use in Indonesia.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Mídias Sociais , Vaping , Publicidade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Vaping/epidemiologia
12.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 5787491, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35432522

RESUMO

Federated learning has demonstrated strong capabilities in terms of addressing concerns related to data islands and privacy protection. However, in real application scenarios, participants in federated learning have difficulty matching. For example, two companies distributed in different regions do not know that the other party also needs federated learning in the case of information asymmetry. Therefore, it is difficult to build alliances. To enable suppliers and consumers to find one or more federated learning objects that are relatively satisfactory in a short time, this paper considers the idea of establishing a federated learning advertising platform, where data transactions need to consider privacy protection. A sponsored search auction mechanism design method is introduced to solve the problem of ranking the presentation order of participant advertisements. Due to the potential malicious bidding problem, which occurs when using the classic sponsored search auction mechanism under the federated learning scenario, this paper proposes a novel federated sponsored search auction mechanism based on the Myerson theorem, improving upon the ranking index used in the classic sponsored search auction mechanism. A large number of experimental results on a simulation data set show that our proposed method can fairly select and rank the data providers participating in the bidding. Compared with other benchmark mechanisms, the malicious bidding rate is significantly decreased. In the long run, the proposed mechanism can encourage more data providers to participate in the federated learning platform, thus continuously promoting the establishment of a federated learning ecosystem.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Ecossistema , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Privacidade , Projetos de Pesquisa
13.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 8040913, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35371227

RESUMO

Graphics innovation must adapt to the changing trends of the times in order to stay ahead of the curve. This article investigates the use of graphic vision in print advertising design, using image segmentation as a starting point and examines the current state of visual innovation in print advertising graphic design and its various expressions and applications. A series of homogeneous regions are generated and outlined using an image segmentation algorithm based on adaptive local threshold. The user then paints different colors on the area sets that make up the various targets. Finally, the image segmentation is completed by merging the color mark region sets. Automatic extraction of the initial curve of an active contour model, construction of an active contour model based on saliency and level set solution, automatic selection of training samples when a classifier is used for image segmentation, and so on are all problems that this method effectively solves. Experiments show that this algorithm not only satisfies users' demands for more intuitive input and more accurate interactive image segmentation results but also enables multiregion and multitarget image segmentation with ease.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Algoritmos
14.
Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg ; 28(5): 293-299, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421015

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Outreach based on user characteristics through social media advertising is significantly more effective than outreach based on user interests with search engine advertising for female stress urinary incontinence. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of 2 online outreach platforms to engage women at risk of stress urinary incontinence with a high-quality patient education website. STUDY DESIGN: A geographic randomized trial was performed comparing online advertising on Facebook, a social media site, versus Google Ads, a search engine, to direct viewers to VoicesForPFD.org. Advertisements were developed using health communication theory and pretested before the randomized trial. Counties in the Pacific Northwest were grouped into approximately equal populations, called "supercounties," and randomized to advertisement platforms. Educational website views resulting from each campaign, called sessions, were measured using Google Analytics; the primary outcome was the number of sessions per supercounty. County characteristics were obtained from national survey data. Effectiveness of the advertising platforms was compared between randomization arms using Welch's unequal variances t test, and crude and adjusted linear regression models. RESULTS: Mean user sessions were significantly higher in areas randomized to Facebook advertising (470 sessions) compared with areas randomized to Google Ads advertising [44 sessions; mean, 426 session difference (95% confidence interval, 199-653 sessions); P = 0.001]. After accounting for adult female population and rurality, randomization to Facebook instead of Google Ads still resulted in 409 additional sessions (95% confidence interval, 317-501 sessions; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Social media was 10 times more effective (470 versus 44 mean sessions per supercounty) than search engine outreach advertising and should be prioritized in outreach efforts. Future work is needed on engagement and behavior change with online outreach.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse , Adulto , Publicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ferramenta de Busca , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/terapia
15.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264748, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239738

RESUMO

Most studies of abortion access have recruited participants from abortion clinics, thereby missing people for whom barriers to care were insurmountable. Consequently, research may underestimate the nature and scope of barriers that exist. We aimed to recruit participants who had considered, but failed to obtain, an abortion using three online platforms, and to evaluate the feasibility of collecting data on their abortion-seeking experiences in a multi-modal online study. In 2018, we recruited participants for this feasibility study from Facebook, Google Ads, and Reddit for an online survey about experiences seeking abortion care in the United States; we additionally conducted in-depth interviews among a subset of survey participants. We completed descriptive analyses of survey data, and thematic analyses of interview data. Recruitment results have been previously published. For the primary outcomes of this analysis, over one month, we succeeded in capturing data on abortion-seeking experiences from 66 individuals who were not currently pregnant and reported not having obtained an abortion, nor visited an abortion facility, despite feeling that abortion could have been the best option for a recent pregnancy. A subset of survey respondents (n = 14) completed in-depth interviews. Results highlighted multiple, reinforcing barriers to abortion care, including legal restrictions such as gestational limits and waiting periods that exacerbated financial and other burdens, logistical and informational barriers, as well as barriers to abortion care less frequently reported in the literature, such as a preference for medication abortion. These findings support the use of online recruitment to identify and survey an understudied population about their abortion-seeking experiences. Further, findings contribute to a more complete understanding of the full range of barriers to abortion care that people experience in the United States, and how these barriers intersect to not just delay, but to prevent people from obtaining abortion.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Mídias Sociais , Publicidade , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Ferramenta de Busca , Estados Unidos
16.
17.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 83(2): 276-286, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35254251

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: France's Évin law limits the content of alcohol advertising to purely factual product information. Little research to date has examined the effectiveness of this measure. To address this gap, we investigated the effect on young people of (a) content restrictions in general, (b) more or less strict content regulations, and (c) whether different youth profiles are more or less susceptible to content regulations. METHOD: An online experimental survey on 18- to 25-year-olds in France was conducted (n = 2,163). Participants were exposed to three advertising conditions for four alcohol brands: (a) neutral ads with only bottles and logos (in line with Évin law restrictions); (b) contextual ads (partying and sport iconography) without characters; and (c) contextual ads featuring characters. Participants self-reported their reactions on attention, appeal, product, alcohol consumption perception, image benefits, and perceived behavioral impact. Demographics and alcohol use measures were also collected. RESULTS: For almost all reactions, ads that featured sport or party contexts (with/without characters) generated more positive reactions and more perceived behavioral impact compared with neutral ads. Ads that featured characters had more positive reactions than ads without characters. Women and the youngest segment (18-21 years old) emerged as the most sensitive to contextual ads. CONCLUSIONS: Regulating alcohol advertising content via strongly prohibitive measures, as per France's Évin law in 1991 or similar measures in other countries, is an effective policy direction for protecting vulnerable young people. This approach should be considered by countries that currently have only partial bans on alcohol advertising placement.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Esportes , Adolescente , Adulto , Publicidade/métodos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Obes Rev ; 23(6): e13441, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35301815

RESUMO

Children are increasingly exposed to food and beverage marketing, but little is known about the specific effects of marketing through media most used by children. This study aims to systematically review the influence of unhealthy food and beverage marketing through social media and advergaming on diet-related outcomes in children. Seven databases were systematically searched for English peer-reviewed quantitative and qualitative scientific studies on the effects of marketing of unhealthy products through social media or advergaming on a range of diet-related outcomes in children. Risk of bias was assessed with tools specific for the different study designs. Twenty-six studies were included, of which 20 examined the effect of food and beverage marketing through advergaming and six through social media. Most studies had a high risk of bias. The results suggested that unhealthy food and beverage marketing through social media and advergaming has a significant effect on pester behaviors, food choice, and food intake of children. The studies demonstrate that unhealthy food and beverage marketing through media popular with children significantly impacts different diet-related outcomes. Combined with existing evidence on this effect in other settings, this review provides clear evidence of the need for policies targeting screen-based marketing.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Publicidade , Bebidas , Criança , Dieta , Alimentos , Indústria Alimentícia , Humanos , Marketing/métodos
19.
Am J Emerg Med ; 55: 6-10, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35231866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Gender disparities continue to exist in emergency medicine (EM) despite increasing percentages of women in medical school and residencies. Prior studies in other male dominated industries have shown using masculine or feminine-coded language in job advertisements affects the proportion of male versus female applicants who choose to apply for those jobs. The goal of this study was to determine if gender-coding exists in EM job advertisements, and to see if there were differences between academic vs. non-academic jobs or administrative vs. non-administrative jobs. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study of EM jobs advertised in the United States on 13 academic and non-academic medical job databases from September 2020-February 2021. Using a gender decoder program based on prior research by Gaucher et al. on gendered wording in job advertisements, we analyzed each job to determine if the job advertisement was overall highly masculine, masculine, highly feminine, feminine, or neutral. Each job was categorized as academic, non-academic, administrative, or non-administrative. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis. RESULTS: Seventy-four EM job advertisements were posted during the study period. Forty-four (59.4%) of these coded out as masculine or strongly masculine, 18 (24.3%) coded out as feminine or strongly feminine, and 12 (16.2%) were neutral. Only one job advertisement contained no gender-coded words. There were no differences in the gender-coding of academic, non-academic, or administrative jobs. CONCLUSION: Job advertisements for EM physicians tend to contain more masculine-coded language. Almost all job advertisements for emergency medicine physicians in this study contained at least one gender-coded word. Further studies could explore whether changing the language of job advertisements in EM has an impact on the proportion of women who choose to apply to EM jobs.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Medicina de Emergência , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Motivação , Estados Unidos
20.
Appetite ; 174: 106010, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35346764

RESUMO

This study identifies constructs from key persuasion theories that are present in popular sports and energy drink advertising. A theory-driven content analysis was conducted on 315 popular television and social media sports and energy drink advertisements from top selling brands. The advertisements were analyzed for the presence of persuasive cues as per the Elaboration Likelihood Model (e.g, onscreen consumption, presence of celebrities) as well as Reasoned Action behavioral expectancies and normative beliefs Approach related to consumption. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Differences between sports and energy drinks were assessed and reliability statistics for all codes were calculated. Advertisements relied on peripheral cues like sports and celebrities that were not related to the drinks themselves. Theory-relevant beliefs about improved athletic performance and consumption of the drinks onscreen were common. Sports drinks were more likely to focus on mainstream sports; energy drinks featured extreme sports, and energy drink advertisements promoted the drinks for use beyond sports (e.g., work settings). The cues and beliefs identified in these ads help to clarify the role of advertising in beliefs about sports drinks being healthy and energy drinks being helpful to achieve goals. Future research is needed that links exposure to coded advertisement features to adolescents' beliefs about sports and energy drinks.


Assuntos
Bebidas Energéticas , Esportes , Adolescente , Publicidade , Bebidas , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Televisão
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