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1.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 5087941, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510057

RESUMO

This study focuses on managing the gate assignment in the hub airport with both main terminal and satellite halls. We first formulate the gate assignment problem (GAP) as a binary linear programming model with multi-objective functions, where the practical constraints, e.g., gate time conflict and gate compatibility, are considered. Then, we incorporate the impact of gate assignment on transfer passengers and formulate the transfer demand-oriented gate assignment problem (TGAP) as a nonlinear model. A linearization approach and a heuristic approach are designed to solve the TGAP model. A case study is conducted based on the practical data of the Shanghai Pudong International Airport, where a comparison between the results of GAP and TGAP by the two proposed approaches is demonstrated. It shows that the proposed TGAP model and solution approaches can not only enhance the service for transfer passengers but also improve the gate utilization efficiency in the hub airport.


Assuntos
Aeroportos , Dinâmica não Linear , China
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e057209, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Historically, departures at New York City's LaGuardia airport flew over a large sports complex within a park. During the US Open tennis games, flights were diverted to fly over a heavily populated foreign-born neighbourhood for roughly 2 weeks out of the year so that the tennis match was not disturbed (the 'TNNIS' departure). In 2012, the use of the TNNIS departure became year-round to better optimise flight patterns around the metropolitan area. METHODS: We exploited exogenously induced spatial and temporal variation in flight patterns to examine difference-in-difference effects of this new exposure to aircraft noise on the health of individual residents in the community relative to individuals residing within a demographically similar community that was not impacted. We used individual-level Medicaid records, focusing on conditions associated with noise: sleep disturbance, psychological stress, mental illness, substance use, and cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: We found that increased exposure to aeroplane noise was associated with a significant increase in insomnia across all age groups, but particularly in children ages 5-17 (OR=1.64, 95% CI=1.12 to 2.39). Cardiovascular disease increased significantly both among 18-44-year-old (OR=1.45, 95% CI=1.41 to 1.49) and 45-64-year-old Medicaid recipients (OR=1.15, 95% CI=1.07 to 1.25). Substance use and mental health-related emergency department visits also increased. For ages 5-17,rate ratio (RR) was 4.11 (95% CI=3.28 to 5.16); for ages 18-44, RR was 2.46 (95% CI=2.20 to 2.76); and for ages 45-64, RR was 1.48 (95% CI=1.31 to 1.67). CONCLUSION: We find that increased exposure to aeroplane noise was associated with an increase in diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, substance use/mental health emergencies and insomnia among local residents.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Aeronaves , Aeroportos , Humanos , Ruído/efeitos adversos
3.
Indian J Public Health ; 66(1): 67-70, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35381719

RESUMO

India started Point of entry (PoE) surveillance at Mumbai International Airport, screening passengers returning from coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-affected countries using infrared thermometers. We evaluated in July 2020 for March 1-22 with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention evaluation framework. We conducted key informant interviews, reviewed passenger self-reporting forms (SRFs) (randomly selected) and relevant Airport Health Organization and Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) records. Of screened 165,882 passengers, three suspects were detected and all were reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction negative. Passengers under-quarantine line-listing not available in paper-based PoE system, eight written complaints: 6/8 SRF filling inconvenience, 3/8 no SRF filling inflight announcements, and standing in long queues for their submission. Outside staff deployed 128/150 (85.3%), and staff: passenger ratio was 1:300. IDSP reported 59 COVID-19 confirmed cases against zero detected at PoE. It was simple, timely, flexible, and useful in providing information to IDSP but missed cases at PoE and had poor stability. We recommended dedicated workforce and data integration with IDSP.


Assuntos
Aeroportos , COVID-19 , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento , Quarentena
4.
Euro Surveill ; 27(16)2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35451360

RESUMO

We report an outbreak investigation of two fatal cases of autochthonous Plasmodium falciparum malaria that occurred in Belgium in September 2020. Various hypotheses of the potential source of infection were investigated. The most likely route of transmission was through an infectious exotic Anopheles mosquito that was imported via the international airport of Brussels or the military airport Melsbroek and infected the cases who lived at 5 km from the airports. Based on genomic analysis of the parasites collected from the two cases, the most likely origin of the Plasmodium was Gabon or Cameroon. Further, the parasites collected from the two Belgian patients were identical by descent, which supports the assumption that the two infections originated from the bite of the same mosquito, during interrupted feeding. Although airport malaria remains a rare event, it has significant implications, particularly for the patient, as delayed or missed diagnosis of the cause of illness often results in complications and mortality. Therefore, to prevent such severe or fatal outcomes, we suggest a number of public health actions including increased awareness among health practitioners, especially those working in the vicinity of airports, and increased surveillance of exotic mosquito species at airports.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Malária Falciparum , Malária , Plasmodium , Aeroportos , Animais , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(6)2022 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35336391

RESUMO

At airports, security officers (screeners) inspect X-ray images of passenger baggage in order to prevent threat items (bombs, guns, knives, etc.) from being brought onto an aircraft. Because threat items rarely occur, many airports use a threat-image-projection (TIP) system, which projects pre-recorded X-ray images of threat items onto some of the X-ray baggage images in order to improve the threat detection of screeners. TIP is regulatorily mandated in many countries and is also used to identify officers with insufficient threat-detection performance. However, TIP images sometimes look unrealistic because of artifacts and unrealistic scenarios, which could reduce the efficacy of TIP. Screeners rated a representative sample of TIP images regarding artifacts identified in a pre-study. We also evaluated whether specific image characteristics affect the occurrence rate of artifacts. 24% of the TIP images were rated to display artifacts and 26% to depict unrealistic scenarios, with 34% showing at least one of the two. With two-thirds of the TIP images having been perceived as realistic, we argue that TIP still serves its purpose, but artifacts and unrealistic scenarios should be reduced. Recommendations on how to improve the efficacy of TIP by considering image characteristics are provided.


Assuntos
Aeroportos , Medidas de Segurança , Radiografia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Raios X
6.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(2): 27009, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35167327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Communities with lower socioeconomic status and higher prevalence of racial/ethnic minority populations are often more exposed to environmental pollutants. Although studies have shown associations between aircraft noise and property values and various health outcomes, little is known about how aircraft noise exposures are sociodemographically patterned. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe characteristics of populations exposed to aviation noise by race/ethnicity, education, and income in the United States. METHODS: Aircraft noise contours characterized as day-night average sound level (DNL) were developed for 90 U.S. airports in 2010 for DNL ≥45 dB(A) in 1-dB(A) increments. We compared characteristics of exposed U.S. Census block groups at three thresholds (≥45, ≥55, and ≥65 dB(A)), assigned on the basis of the block group land area being ≥50% within the threshold, vs. unexposed block groups near study airports. Comparisons were made across block group race/ethnicity, education, and income categories within the study areas (n=4,031-74,253). We performed both multinomial and other various multivariable regression approaches, including models controlling for airport and models with random intercepts specifying within-airport effects and adjusting for airport-level means. RESULTS: Aggregated across multiple airports, block groups with a higher Hispanic population had higher odds of being exposed to aircraft noise. For example, the multinomial analysis showed that a 10-percentage point increase in a block group's Hispanic population was associated with an increased odds ratio of 39% (95% CI: 25%, 54%) of being exposed to ≥65 dB(A) compared with block groups exposed to <45 dB(A). Block groups with higher proportions of residents with only a high school education had higher odds of being exposed to aircraft noise. Results were robust across multiple regression approaches; however, there was substantial heterogeneity across airports. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that across U.S. airports, there is indication of sociodemographic disparities in noise exposures. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP9307.


Assuntos
Ruído dos Transportes , Aeronaves , Aeroportos , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos
7.
Water Sci Technol ; 85(3): 756-768, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35166698

RESUMO

Low Impact Development (LID) is an important approach for the construction of sponge airports. There are few researches on the application of LID facilities in airports. This study mainly analyzes the application of LID facilities in airports, and analyzes the reduction rate of LID facilities on the total runoff, peak present time and peaking volume by constructing EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) in the eastern work area of an airport, which is located in a coastal city in northern China. This study selected three kinds of LID facilities: green roof, bio-detention facility and permeable pavement. Then three LID scenarios were formed according to different layout ratios of facilities (30%-90%), and the effects of different scenarios under different design rainstorms are simulated and analyzed. The results show that the control effect of LID scenario is enhanced with the increase of the proportion of LID facilities. The control effect of LID scenario gradually weakened with the increase of rainfall intensity. For high-frequency rainstorm, the maximum reduction rates of total runoff and peaking volume are 30.89% and 25.58% respectively, and the peak present time delay rate is up to 28.57%. For low-frequency rainstorm, the maximum reduction rates of total runoff and peaking volume are 17.96% and 14.95% respectively, and the peak present time delay rate is up to 6.12%. The flood control effect is more obvious when the LID facilities and pipe network are combined under the condition of low-frequency heavy rain. These conclusions present the effects under different combination ratio of LID facilities. It can provide the technical reference for the design and application of LID facilities for sponge airport construction in the future.


Assuntos
Chuva , Movimentos da Água , Aeroportos , China , Inundações
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35162644

RESUMO

The innovative concept of digital tower provides a new solution for reducing the construction and operation costs of airports with adverse natural environments, poor intervisibility conditions, or sparse traffic. However, it leads to changes in the situational awareness of air traffic controllers and to challenges in safety performance. To research the safety performance of apron controllers at a large-scale airport applying a digital tower, a field study was conducted at Baiyun International Airport in Guangzhou, China. In this study, we established a comprehensive index system from the perspective of situational awareness, which provided measurements on the areas of interests, gaze and physiological features, and vigilance of controllers. Three modules were compared: a physical tower module, a digital tower module with a large panoramic screen, and a digital tower module with a small panoramic screen. The differences in the safety performances of apron controllers are discussed in two aspects: adaptability and reliability. The results indicated that the apron controllers at the three modules performed different cognition patterns, but similar cognition effort was paid toward maintaining performance. Furthermore, the significant vigilance decrement of controllers exists between after-duty and before-duty, but with no significant difference among the three modules. In conclusion, apron controllers at a large-scale airport could obtain effective safety performances based on a digital tower that were no less than those from a physical tower.


Assuntos
Aeroportos , Cognição , China , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35055649

RESUMO

The article presents the results of a pilot study, namely a passenger survey on travel choices regarding commuting to the airport in one chosen location (Gdansk, Poland). The study aimed at establishing which factors which influenced their travel time, assessment of travel time, choosing more or less sustainable transport mode, and also single-mode or multimodal travel. Research results show that choice of the means of transport influences travel time, that the highest travel times are generated by bus and car travel and that assessing the travel time as acceptable or not depends on travel time. However, the longer the travel time, the more likely was the passenger to accept it. What is more, it appeared that a few factors influence choosing a more sustainable transport mode: the purpose of the trip, the start of the trip to the airport, place of living, and job situation.


Assuntos
Aeroportos , Viagem , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transportes
10.
Environ Int ; 161: 107092, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074633

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence of potential health impacts from both aircraft noise and aircraft-associated ultrafine particles (UFP). Measurements of noise and UFP are however scarce near airports and so their variability and relationship are not well understood. Particle number size distributions and noise levels were measured at two locations near Gatwick airport (UK) in 2018-19 with the aim to characterize particle number concentrations (PNC) and link PNC sources, especially UFP, with noise. Positive Matrix Factorization was used on particle number size distribution to identify these sources. Mean PNC (7500-12,000 p cm-3) were similar to those measured close to a highly trafficked road in central London. Peak PNC (94,000 p cm-3) were highest at the site closer to the runway. The airport source factor contributed 17% to the PNC at both sites and the concentrations were greatest when the respective sites were downwind of the runway. However, the main source of PNC was associated with traffic emissions. At both sites noise levels were above the recommendations by the WHO (World Health Organisation). Regression models of identified UFP sources and noise suggested that the largest source of noise (LAeq-1hr) above background was associated with sources of fresh traffic and urban UFP depending on the site. Noise and UFP correlations were moderate to low suggesting that UFP are unlikely to be an important confounder in epidemiological studies of aircraft noise and health. Correlations between UFP and noise were affected by meteorological factors, which need to be considered in studies of short-term associations between aircraft noise and health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aeroportos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Londres , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
11.
Environ Int ; 158: 106958, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710732

RESUMO

Aviation emissions from landing and takeoff operations (LTO) can degrade local and regional air quality leading to adverse health outcomes in populations near airports and downwind. In this study we aim to quantify the air quality and health-related impacts from commercial LTO emissions in the continental U.S. for two recent years' inventories, 2011 and 2016. We quantify the LTO-attributable PM2.5, O3, and NO2 concentrations and health outcomes for mortality and multiple morbidity health endpoints. We also quantify the impacts from two scenarios representing a nation-wide implementation of 5% or 50% blends of sustainable alternative jet fuels. We estimate 80 (68-93) and 88 (75-100) PM2.5-attributable and 610 (310-920) and 1,100 (570-1,700) NO2-attributable premature mortalities in 2011 and 2016, respectively. We estimate a net decrease of 28 (14-56) and 54 (27-110) in O3-attributable premature mortalities across the U.S. in 2011 and 2016, respectively due to the large O3 titration effects near the airports. We also find that the asthma exacerbations due to NO2 exposures from LTO emissions increase from 100,000 (2,500-200,000) in 2011 to 170,000 (4,400-340,000) in 2016. Implementing a 5% or 50% blend of sustainable alternative jet fuel in 2016 results in a 1% or 18% reduction, respectively in PM2.5-attributable premature mortalities. Monetizing the value of avoided total premature mortalities, we find that a 50%-blended sustainable alternative jet fuel results in a 19% decrease in PM2.5 damages per ton of fuel burned and a 2% decrease in total damages per ton of fuel burned as compared to damages from traditional jet fuel. We also quantify health impacts by state and find California to be the most impacted by LTO emissions. We find that LTO-attributable PM2.5 and NO2 premature mortalities increase by 10% and 80%, respectively from 2011 to 2016 and that NO2-attributable premature mortalities are responsible for 91% of total LTO-attributable premature mortalities in both 2011 and 2016. And since we find LTO-attributable NO2 to be unaffected by the implementation of sustainable alternative jet fuels, additional approaches focused on NOX reductions in the combustor are needed to mitigate the air quality-related health impacts from LTO emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Aeronaves , Aeroportos , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
12.
Environ Res ; 207: 112195, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aircraft noise can affect populations living near airports. Chronic exposure to aircraft noise has been associated with cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. However, previous studies have been limited in their ability to characterize noise exposures over time and to adequately control for confounders. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the association between aircraft noise and incident hypertension in two cohorts of female nurses, using aircraft noise exposure estimates with high spatial resolution over a 20-year period. METHODS: We obtained contour maps of modeled aircraft noise levels over time for 90 U.S. airports and linked them with geocoded addresses of participants in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II) to assign noise exposure for 1994-2014 and 1995-2013, respectively. We used time-varying Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hypertension risk associated with time-varying noise exposure (dichotomized at 45 and 55 dB(A)), adjusting for fixed and time-varying confounders. Results from both cohorts were pooled via random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: In meta-analyses of parsimonious and fully-adjusted models with aircraft noise dichotomized at 45 dB(A), hazard ratios (HR) for hypertension incidence were 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.07) and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.07), respectively. When dichotomized at 55 dB(A), HRs were 1.10 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.19) and 1.07 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.15), respectively. After conducting fully-adjusted sensitivity analyses limited to years in which particulate matter (PM) was obtained, we observed similar findings. In NHS, the PM-unadjusted HR was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.14) and PM-adjusted HR was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.14); in NHS II, the PM-unadjusted HR was 1.08 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.22) and the PM-adjusted HR was 1.08 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.21). Overall, in these cohorts, we found marginally suggestive evidence of a positive association between aircraft noise exposure and hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Aeronaves , Aeroportos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia
13.
Integr Environ Assess Manag ; 18(1): 245-257, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028174

RESUMO

A comparison of the presence of additives in airport deicers commonly used in the United States and in airport runoff was conducted with data collected before and after changes in deicer formulations. Three isomers of benzotriazoles (BTs)-4-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (4-MeBT), 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (5-MeBT), and 1H-benzotriazole (1H-BT)-are corrosion inhibitors added to some formulations of airport deicers and are reported to be a source of aquatic toxicity in streams receiving airport runoff. Concentrations of BT in aircraft deicers and anti-icing fluids (ADAF) were reduced over time but were not reduced in potassium acetate airfield-pavement deicer material (PDM) that was used throughout the study period. Streams receiving runoff from Milwaukee Mitchell International Airport, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, were monitored from 2004 to 2019 for BTs, with concentrations of 4-MeBT varying from <0.35 to 4600 µg/L, 5-MeBT varying from <0.25 to 6600 µg/L, and 1H-BT varying from <0.25 to 150 µg/L. Median 4-MeBT concentrations at sites downstream from the airport decreased by approximately 74%, 5-MeBT by 69%, and 1H-BT by 82% following reduction in BTs in ADAF formulations, resulting in a reduction in the potential for aquatic toxicity in receiving streams. A change in residuals from regression analysis between freezing point depressants and BTs indicate that the reduction in BT concentrations in airport runoff was a result of BT reduction in ADAF formulations, but PDM may still be a substantial source of BTs in airport runoff. Because BTs are a source of aquatic toxicity in airport deicers, the reductions in BTs in the common deicers observed in this study can be used to demonstrate the potential for a reduction in the effects to aquatic organisms in airport runoff, resulting in greater likelihood of meeting aquatic toxicity requirements in airport stormwater permits, and potentially driving airports, airlines, and permit holders to advocate further reduction or elimination of BTs and other harmful contaminants in airport deicers. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2022;18:245-257. Published 2021. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).


Assuntos
Aeroportos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Organismos Aquáticos , Ecotoxicologia , Triazóis , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Soc Stud Sci ; 52(1): 35-52, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524039

RESUMO

Based on an ethnographic research at Václav Havel Airport Prague, this article explores how contemporary airport security might by studied using an ANT-inspired approach. Security provision can be understood as a set of chains of translation that produces security and threat. Incoming actors, whose statuses are initially indeterminate, are translated into secure or threatening ones. This framing enables the uncovering of division and movement as the logics guide the system performance. The use of this perspective enables us to explicate the system's functioning in practice, including its inherent challenges and social consequences.


Assuntos
Aeroportos , Medidas de Segurança
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(1): 98-108, 2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34931821

RESUMO

Impacts of emissions from the Atlanta Hartsfield-Jackson Airport (ATL) on ozone (O3), ultrafine particulates (UFPs), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are evaluated using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and high-resolution satellite observations of NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) from TROPOMI. Two airport inventories are compared: an inventory using emissions where landing and take-off (LTO) processes are allocated to the surface (default) and a modified (3D) inventory that has LTO and cruise emissions vertically and horizontally distributed, accounting for aircraft climb and descend rates. The 3D scenario showed reduced bias and error between CMAQ and TROPOMI VCDs compared to the default scenario [i.e., normalized mean bias: -43%/-46% and root mean square error: 1.12/1.21 (1015 molecules/cm2)]. Close agreement of TROPOMI-derived observations to modeled NO2 VCDs from two power plants with continuous emissions monitors was found. The net effect of aviation-related emissions was an increase in UFP (j mode in CMAQ), PM2.5 (i + j mode), and O3 concentrations by up to 6.5 × 102 particles/cm3 (∼38%), 0.7 µg/m3 (∼8%), and 2.7 ppb (∼4%), respectively. Overall, the results show (1) that the spatial allocation of airport emissions has notable effects on air quality modeling results and will be of further importance as airports become a larger part of the total urban emissions and (2) the applicability of high-resolution satellite retrievals to better understand emissions from facilities such as airports.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Aeroportos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
16.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 24(1): 74-82, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34904364

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases have become the major cause of death in India, but overall awareness is still low. Therefore, the initiative was undertaken to set up health care screening booths at eight airports and one hospital throughout India to increase awareness and to determine cardiovascular risk factors. Participants were screened for hypertension (systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP≥90 mmHg), diabetes [fasting blood glucose (FBG) level ≥126  or ≥200 mg/dL for random blood glucose (RBG)], and body mass index (BMI). Among 100 107 participants screened (46 ± 13 years; 17% women), prevalence of diabetes was 12 571 (15%), hypertension: 30 345 (33%) and overweight: 61 219 (65%). Diabetes was treated more often than hypertension (44% vs 11%). Hypertension and diabetes prevalence values were relatively high in young obese adults; BMI correlated significantly (p < .001) stronger to both systolic BP and RBG for subjects younger than 40 years than for those who were older (r = 0.27 vs r = 0.06 and r = 0.15 vs r = 0.03, respectively). Among obese women aged 60 years and older the hypertension prevalence was higher than 40%, in obese men this prevalence value was already seen from the group of 30 to 40 years old. For participants older than 50 years with hypertension, diabetes prevalence was 20%. These results show that screening initiatives like these are highly needed to increase the overall awareness of diabetes and particularly of hypertension. Systematic screening programs also help to identify specific patient populations and cope with undertreatment of those at the highest cardiovascular risk. The fact that women were underrepresented in the present screening campaign suggests actions are needed to encourage them to participate in health care programs.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Adulto , Idoso , Aeroportos , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(2): 885-895, 2022 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967613

RESUMO

The occurrence of 93 classes of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was investigated at aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF)-impacted sites of four Canadian airports. Surface/subsurface soil and groundwater samples were characterized using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and an improved total oxidizable precursor (TOP) assay. PFAS profiles, loads, and spatial trends were highly site-specific, influenced by the AFFF use history, variations in sorption, transport, and in situ transformation potential of PFASs. All sites have been impacted by more than one AFFF chemistry, with the active firefighter training area exhibiting a greater PFAS variety and total PFAS burden than decommissioned sites. Zwitterionic and cationic compounds composed a large percentage (34.5-85.5%) of the total PFAS mass in most surface soil samples in the source zone but a relatively low percentage (<20%) in groundwater samples. Background soils surrounding the source zone contained predominantly unidentified precursors attributed to atmospheric deposition, while in AFFF-impacted soils, precursors originating from AFFFs can be largely captured by HRMS using available suspect lists. Horizontal transfer of PFASs in surface soils was limited, but vertical migration down the soil column occurred even in locations of low permeability. This study provides a critical data set to support developing new priority analyte lists and integrating TOP assay for comprehensive PFAS monitoring at AFFF-impacted sites.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Aeroportos , Canadá , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Solo , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260940, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34860845

RESUMO

The resilience and vulnerability of airport networks are significant challenges during the COVID-19 global pandemic. Previous studies considered node failure of networks under natural disasters and extreme weather. Herein, we propose a complex network methodology combined with data-driven to assess the resilience of airport networks toward global-scale disturbance using the Chinese airport network (CAN) and the European airport network (EAN) as a case study. The assessment framework includes vulnerability and resilience analyses from the network- and node-level perspectives. Subsequently, we apply the framework to analyze the airport networks in China and Europe. Specifically, real air traffic data for 232 airports in China and 82 airports in Europe are selected to form the CAN and EAN, respectively. The complex network analysis reveals that the CAN and the EAN are scale-free small-world networks, that are resilient to random attacks. However, the connectivity and vulnerability of the CAN are inferior to those of the EAN. In addition, we select the passenger throughput from the top-50 airports in China and Europe to perform a comparative analysis. By comparing the resilience evaluation of individual airports, we discovered that the factors of resilience assessment of an airport network for global disturbance considers the network metrics and the effect of government policy in actual operations. Additionally, this study also proves that a country's emergency response-ability towards the COVID-19 has a significantly affectes the recovery of its airport network.


Assuntos
Aeroportos , COVID-19 , Pandemias , China , Europa (Continente)
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(23)2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883925

RESUMO

The strict safety requirements of air transport for nonstandard placement of electronic onboard systems require an innovative approach to the experimental verification of the placement of these devices. Particular attention is required to the location of these electronic devices' antenna systems on the fuselage. A prerequisite for determining the location of the antenna and verifying its radiation is a thorough knowledge of the radio communication transmission of onboard electronic systems in cooperation with terrestrial or satellite systems. From this point of view, this article focuses on an innovative method of verifying the spherical radiation characteristics of the antenna of an onboard rescue system emergency locator transmitter (ELT) to assess its communication link with the Cospas-Sarsat satellite system. The measurement is performed on a small sports two-seater aircraft with an antenna placed in an unusual place in the aircraft's cabin, between the seats. It was impossible to use a suitable nonreflective attenuation chamber for the measurement, so we present a method and procedure for this type of measurement in the open space of an airport. The achieved results prove the plausibility and reproducibility of the measurement. Furthermore, combining several polar radiation characteristics makes it possible to obtain an idea, even if only a part, of the spatial (spherical) radiation characteristic. This article presents a simple method of measuring the characteristics of aircraft antennas when it is not possible to use a suitable professional nonreflective attenuation chamber for measurements for various reasons. This method can also be used on other larger means of transport or other objects that experience the same problem.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Aeroportos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Gac Sanit ; 35 Suppl 2: S404-S407, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929862

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the relationship among working period, work shift, and workload with work fatigue in the ATCs at Sultan Hasanuddin Airport, Makassar. METHODS: This research is an analytic observational study with a cross sectional design. A sample of 65 people was obtained by purposive random sampling. The mental workload was assessed by NASA TLX, whereas work fatigue was assessed by the KAUPK2 questionnaires. RESULT: The results showed that out of 65 samples, 28 (43.1%) of them experienced work fatigue. It was found that there was no significant relationship between working period with work fatigue (p=0.055>0.05). Furthermore, there is a significant relationship between work shift with work fatigue (p=0.015<0.05) as well as workload and work fatigue (p=0.021<0.05). CONCLUSION: It is concluded that there is no significant relationship between working period and work fatigue, while work shift, and workload have a significant relationship with work fatigue in ATCs at Sultan Hasanuddin Airport Makassar.


Assuntos
Aeroportos , Carga de Trabalho , Estudos Transversais , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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