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Vet Rec ; 194(6): 235, 2024 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488576
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e054839, 2022 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35728899


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of the psychosocial and sociodemographic factors that affected adherence to COVID-19 public health and social measures (PHSMs), and to identify the factors that most strongly related to whether citizens followed public health guidance. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Nationally representative telephone surveys were conducted from 4-17 August 2020 in 18 African Union Member States. A total of 21 600 adults (mean age=32.7 years, SD=11.4) were interviewed (1200 in each country). OUTCOME MEASURES: Information including sociodemographics, adherence to PHSMs and psychosocial variables was collected. Logistic regression models examined the association between PHSM adherence (eg, physical distancing, gathering restrictions) and sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics (eg, risk perception, trust). Factors affecting adherence were ranked using the Shapley regression decomposition method. RESULTS: Adherence to PHSMs was high, with better adherence to personal than community PHSMs (65.5% vs 30.2%, p<0.05). Psychosocial measures were significantly associated with personal and community PHSMs (p<0.05). Women and older adults demonstrated better adherence to personal PHSMs (adjusted OR (aOR): women=1.43, age=1.01, p<0.05) and community PHSMs (aOR: women=1.57, age=1.01, p<0.05). Secondary education was associated with better adherence only to personal PHSMs (aOR=1.22, p<0.05). Rural residence and access to running water were associated with better adherence to community PHSMs (aOR=1.12 and 1.18, respectively, p<0.05). The factors that most affected adherence to personal PHSMs were: self-efficacy; trust in hospitals/health centres; knowledge about face masks; trust in the president; and gender. For community PHSMs they were: gender; trust in the president; access to running water; trust in hospitals/health centres; and risk perception. CONCLUSIONS: Psychosocial factors, particularly trust in authorities and institutions, played a critical role in PHSM adherence. Adherence to community PHSMs was lower than personal PHSMs since they can impose significant burdens, particularly on the socially vulnerable.

COVID-19 , Adulto , União Africana , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários , Água
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(1): 50-59, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017757


OBJECTIVE: To identify and compare antimicrobial treatment guidelines from African Union (AU) Member States. METHODS: We reviewed national government agency and public health institutes' websites and communicated with country or regional focal points to identify existing treatment guidelines from AU Member States. We included guidelines if they contained disease-, syndrome- or pathogen-specific treatment recommendations and if those recommendations included antimicrobial name or class, dosage and therapy duration. The scope of the review was limited to infections and clinical syndromes that often have a bacterial cause. We assessed treatment guidelines for alignment with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. We compared treatment recommendations for various common bacterial infections or clinical syndromes described across national guidelines and those described in three World Health Organization guidelines. FINDINGS: We identified 31 treatment guidelines from 20 of the 55 (36%) AU Member States; several countries had more than one treatment guideline that met our inclusion criteria. Fifteen (48%) guidelines from 10 countries have been published or updated since 2015. Methods used to develop the guidelines were not well described. No guidelines were developed according to the GRADE approach. Antimicrobial selection, dosage and duration of recommended therapies varied widely across guidelines for all infections and syndromes. CONCLUSION: AU Member States lack antimicrobial treatment guidelines that meet internationally accepted methods and that draw from local evidence about disease burden and antimicrobial susceptibility.

União Africana , Antibacterianos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Humanos
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(7): e957-e966, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984296


BACKGROUND: Despite declines in deaths from rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in Africa over the past 30 years, it remains a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality on the continent. We present an investment case for interventions to prevent and manage RHD in the African Union (AU). METHODS: We created a cohort state-transition model to estimate key outcomes in the disease process, including cases of pharyngitis from group A streptococcus, episodes of acute rheumatic fever (ARF), cases of RHD, heart failure, and deaths. With this model, we estimated the impact of scaling up interventions using estimates of effect sizes from published studies. We estimated the cost to scale up coverage of interventions and summarised the benefits by monetising health gains estimated in the model using a full income approach. Costs and benefits were compared using the benefit-cost ratio and the net benefits with discounted costs and benefits. FINDINGS: Operationally achievable levels of scale-up of interventions along the disease spectrum, including primary prevention, secondary prevention, platforms for management of heart failure, and heart valve surgery could avert 74 000 (UI 50 000-104 000) deaths from RHD and ARF from 2021 to 2030 in the AU, reaching a 30·7% (21·6-39·0) reduction in the age-standardised death rate from RHD in 2030, compared with no increase in coverage of interventions. The estimated benefit-cost ratio for plausible scale-up of secondary prevention and secondary and tertiary care interventions was 4·7 (2·9-6·3) with a net benefit of $2·8 billion (1·6-3·9; 2019 US$) through 2030. The estimated benefit-cost ratio for primary prevention scale-up was low to 2030 (0·2, <0·1-0·4), increasing with delayed benefits accrued to 2090. The benefit-cost dynamics of primary prevention were sensitive to the costs of different delivery approaches, uncertain epidemiological parameters regarding group A streptococcal pharyngitis and ARF, assumptions about long-term demographic and economic trends, and discounting. INTERPRETATION: Increased coverage of interventions to control and manage RHD could accelerate progress towards eradication in AU member states. Gaps in local epidemiological data and particular components of the disease process create uncertainty around the level of benefits. In the short term, costs of secondary prevention and secondary and tertiary care for RHD are lower than for primary prevention, and benefits accrue earlier. FUNDING: World Heart Federation, Leona M and Harry B Helmsley Charitable Trust, and American Heart Association.

União Africana/economia , Investimentos em Saúde , Cardiopatia Reumática/prevenção & controle , África/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Prevenção Primária , Cardiopatia Reumática/mortalidade , Prevenção Secundária
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-7960


O continente africano apresenta as menores taxas de contaminação e mortes por COVID-19 no mundo, apesar de possuir diversos fatores que dificultam o combate ao novo coronavírus no continente. Neste vídeo, a equipe COVID19 DivulgAÇÃO Científica conversa com a pesquisadora Renata Albuquerque Ribeiro, do Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada, que fala sobre os impactos da COVID-19 na saúde e na economia dos países africanos.

África , União Africana , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Economia e Organizações de Saúde , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal , e-Acessibilidade