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1.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202929

RESUMO

Mexico is the center of origin of the species popularly known as toronjil or lemon balm (Agastache mexicana Linton & Epling). Two subspecies have been identified and are commonly called purple or red (Agastache mexicana Linton & Epling subspecies. mexicana) and white (Agastache mexicana subspecies xolocotziana Bye, E.L. Linares & Ramamoorthy). Plants from these subspecies differ in the size and form of inflorescence and leaves. They also possess differences in their chemical compositions, including volatile compounds. Traditional Mexican medicine employs both subspecies. A. mexicana exhibits a broad range of pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, and antioxidant. A systematic vision of these plant's properties is discussed in this review, exposing its significant potential as a source of valuable bioactive compounds. Furthermore, this review provides an understanding of the elements that make up the species' holistic system to benefit from lemon balm sustainably.


Assuntos
Agastache/química , Agricultura , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Biologia/normas , Inflorescência/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , México , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química
2.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066799

RESUMO

Honey has good antimicrobial properties and can be used for medical treatment. The antimicrobial properties of unifloral honey varieties are different. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of nine kinds of Chinese monofloral honeys. In addition, headspace gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (HS-GC-IMS) technology was used to detect their volatile components. The relevant results are as follows: 1. The agar diffusion test showed that the diameter of inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus of Fennel honey (21.50 ± 0.41 mm), Agastache honey (20.74 ± 0.37 mm), and Pomegranate honey (18.16 ± 0.11 mm) was larger than that of Manuka 12+ honey (14.27 ± 0.10 mm) and Manuka 20+ honey (16.52 ± 0.12 mm). The antimicrobial activity of Chinese honey depends on hydrogen peroxide. 2. The total antioxidant capacity of Fennel honey, Agastache honey, and Pomegranate honey was higher than that of other Chinese honeys. There was a significant positive correlation between the total antioxidant capacity and the total phenol content of Chinese honey (r = 0.958). The correlation coefficient between the chroma value of Chinese honey and the total antioxidant and the diameter of inhibition zone was 0.940 and 0.746, respectively. The analyzed dark honeys had better antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. 3. There were significant differences in volatile components among Fennel honey, Agastache honey, Pomegranate honey, and Manuka honey. Hexanal-D and Heptanol were the characteristic components of Fennel honey and Pomegranate honey, respectively. Ethyl 2-methylbutyrate and 3-methylpentanoic acids were the unique compounds of Agastache honey. The flavor fingerprints of the honey samples from different plants can be successfully built using HS-GC-IMS and principal component analysis (PCA) based on their volatile compounds. Fennel honey, Agastache honey, and Pomegranate honey are Chinese honey varieties with excellent antimicrobial properties, and have the potential to be developed into medical grade honey.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Mel/análise , Mel/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Agastache/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , China , Cromatografia Gasosa , Foeniculum/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica , Leptospermum/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenóis/farmacologia , Romã (Fruta)/química
3.
Phytomedicine ; 84: 153517, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626428

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Osteoporosis is a metabolic skeletal disease characterized by bone loss and an increased risk of fractures. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of Agastache rugosa on postmenopausal osteoporosis and elucidate its mechanisms in modulating the bone status. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the osteoblast differentiation process with MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts, ethanol extract of Agastache rugosa (EEAR) and its compounds increased the expression of the proteins and genes of the osteoblast differentiation-related markers such as Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and ß-catenin along with the elevation of calcium deposits. An ovariectomized mouse model was utilized to determine the impact of EEAR extract on postmenopausal osteoporosis. Twelve weeks of AR treatment suppressed the loss of bone strength, which was observed through micro-computed tomography. AR elevated osteogenic markers in the bone marrow cells, and collagen type 1 alpha 1 in the distal femoral bone. The results of the 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis of cecal gut microbiomes demonstrated that AR reversed the ovariectomy-induced changes in the gut microbiomes. CONCLUSION: Ethanol extract of Agastache rugosa has a therapeutic effect on postmenopausal osteoporosis via bone morphogenic protein, transforming growth factor ß, and Wnt signaling pathway. It also increases the diversity of gut microbiota. Therefore, these data suggest that EEAR could be a potential candidate to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Agastache/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/química , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteoblastos/fisiologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/microbiologia , Ovariectomia , Extratos Vegetais/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Microtomografia por Raio-X
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 1759067, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195687

RESUMO

This work aimed to assess the skin-beneficial properties of Agastache rugosa Kuntze, an herbal medication used to treat different types of disorders in traditional folk medicine. The total phenolic compounds and total antiradical, nitrite scavenging, superoxide scavenging, antielastase, and antihyaluronidase activities of a hot water extract of A. rugosa Kuntze leaves (ARE) were spectrophotometrically determined. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was fluorometrically quantitated using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and filaggrin were evaluated using Western analysis. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure filaggrin mRNA. Caspase-14 activity was determined using a fluorogenic substrate. ARE contained the total phenolic content of 38.9 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract and exhibited 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide radical, and nitrite scavenging activities with the SC50 values of 2.9, 1.4, and 1.7 mg/mL, respectively. ARE exerted suppressive activities on nitric oxide (NO) and ROS levels elevated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in HaCaT keratinocytes. It attenuated the LPS-stimulated expression of iNOS. ARE augmented the UV-B-reduced filaggrin expression on both protein and mRNA levels and was capable of upregulating the UV-B-reduced caspase-14 activity. ARE inhibited in vitro elastase and hyaluronidase activities associated with the wrinkling process. ARE, at the concentrations used, did not interfere with the viability of HaCaT keratinocytes. These findings preliminarily imply that the leaves of A. rugosa possess desirable cosmetic potentials, such as anti-inflammatory, barrier protective, and antiwrinkle activities, which infers their skin healing potentials.


Assuntos
Agastache/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Epiderme/patologia , Queratinócitos/patologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Caspase 14/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Humanos , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Filamentos Intermediários/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Nitritos/metabolismo , Elastase Pancreática/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Picratos/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Raios Ultravioleta , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos da radiação
5.
Biomolecules ; 10(9)2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916904

RESUMO

Agastache rugosa is used as a Korean traditional medicine to treat gastric diseases. However, the active ingredients and pharmacological targets of A. rugosa are unknown. In this study, we aimed to reveal the pharmacological effects of A. rugosa on gastritis by combining a mice model and a network pharmacology method. The macrophage and gastritis-induced models were used to evaluate the pharmacological effects of A. rugosa. The results show that A. rugosa relieved mucosal damage induced by HCl/EtOH in vivo. Network analysis identified 99 components in A. rugosa; six components were selected through systematic screening, and five components were linked to 45 gastritis-related genes. The main components were acacetin and luteolin, and the identified core genes were AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT1), nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor alpha (NFKBIA), and mitogen-activated protein kinase-3 (MAPK3) etc. in this network. The network of components, target genes, protein-protein interactions, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway was closely connected with chemokines and with phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt (PI3K/AKT), tumor-necrosis-factor alpha (TNFα), mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor kappa B, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways. In conclusion, A. rugosa exerts gastro-protective effects through a multi-compound and multi-pathway regulatory network and holds potential for treating inflammatory gastric diseases.


Assuntos
Agastache/química , Gastrite/tratamento farmacológico , Gastrite/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Gastrite/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional Coreana/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Extratos Vegetais/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 16(1): 22, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most reports of domesticated plants that involve a domestication gradient or inter-specific hybridization in Mexico have focused on those used as food. This study provides knowledge about these processes in two aromatic medicinal plants, Agastache mexicana (Lamiaceae) and A. m. subsp. xolocotziana, widely used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments and for their sedative effect. Different populations of A. mexicana along a gradient of domestication are found in the foothills of the Popocatepetl volcano of central Mexico, while in this same area the subsp. xolocotziana grows only in the cultivation, possibly a product of hybridization between A. mexicana and Agastache palmeri. This study links ethnobotanical, morpho-physiological, and phytochemical evidence to document the domestication of both taxa as well as elucidates the possible hybrid origin of the subsp. xolocotziana. METHOD: We analyze three groups of data derived from (1) 80 semi-structured interviews aimed at documenting the selection criteria related to the use and management of A. mexicana; (2) a cultivation experiment under homogeneous conditions, evaluating 21 floral, vegetative, and seed characters (that were important according to ethnobotanical information) in 97 plants corresponding to 13 populations of the taxa under study; and (3) the chemical profiles of the essential oils of these plants by means of a thin-layer chromatography. RESULTS: By linking the three types of evidence, two evolutionary processes are distinguished: (1) A. mexicana occurs in the encouraged-cultivated phases of the domestication gradient and (2) A. m. subsp. xolocotziana may have originated through inbreeding depression or hybridization. These two cultivated plants show a domestication syndrome based upon organoleptic differentiation due to their dissimilar phytochemical composition and gigantism in flowers, seeds, and rhizomes (the last enhancing their asexual reproductive capacity). In addition to this, A. mexicana exhibits more intense floral pigmentation and foliar gigantism while subsp. xolocotziana presents floral albinism and partial seed sterility. CONCLUSION: Two divergent evolutionary processes are reported for the domestication of A. mexicana as a result of the intensification of its use and management. The selection processes of these plants have resulted in alternation of the organoleptic properties based upon the divergence of the phytochemical composition. Also, gigantism has been selected in culturally preferred plant parts and in correlated structures. The preceding characteristics reinforce the joint use of these plants in infusion in Mexican traditionalmedicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases and for their sedative effects.


Assuntos
Agastache/química , Domesticação , Etnobotânica , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Agastache/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Conhecimento , México , Óleos Voláteis/química , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Medicinais/anatomia & histologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/classificação
7.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230838

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is caused by exposure to toxic particles, such as coal fly ash (CFA), diesel-exhaust particle (DEP), and cigarette smoke (CS), leading to chronic bronchitis, mucus production, and a subsequent lung dysfunction. This study, using a mouse model of COPD, aimed to evaluate the effect of herbal combinational medication of Glycyrrhiza glabra (GG), Agastache rugosa (AR) containing glycyrrhizic acid (GA), and tilianin (TN) as active ingredients. GA, a major active component of GG, possesses a range of pharmacological and biological activities including anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-oxidative. TN is a major flavonoid that is present in AR. It has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects of potential utility as an anti-COPD agent. The COPD in the mice model was induced by a challenge with CFA and DEP. BALB/c mice received CFA and DEP alternately three times for 2 weeks to induce COPD. The herbal mixture of GG, AR, and TN significantly decreased the number of neutrophils in the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. It also significantly reduced the production of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CXCL-2), IL-17A, CXCL-1, TNF-α, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in BALF and CXCL-2, IL-17A, CXCL-1, MUC5AC, transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1), IL-6, COX-2, NOS-II, and TNF-α mRNA expression in the lung tissue. Notably, a combination of GG and AR was more effective at regulating such therapeutic targets than GG or AR alone. The histolopathological lung injury was alleviated by treatment with the herbal mixture and their active ingredients (especially TN). In this study, the herbal combinational mixture more effectively inhibited neutrophilic airway inflammation by regulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines and CXCL-2 by blocking the IL-17/STAT3 pathway. Therefore, a herbal mixture of GG and AR may be a potential therapeutic agent to treat COPD.


Assuntos
Agastache , Glycyrrhiza , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Quimiocina CXCL2/análise , Quimiocina CXCL2/genética , Quimiocina CXCL2/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Ácido Glicirrízico/farmacologia , Interleucina-17/análise , Interleucina-17/genética , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pneumonia/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/análise , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo
8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18197, 2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796803

RESUMO

There is an urgent need for new effective antifungal agents suitable for the treatment of superficial skin infections, since acquired resistance of fungi to currently available agents is increasing. The antifungal activity of mono-floral Agastache honey and commercially available honeys were tested against dermatophytes (T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum) and C. albicans (ATCC 10231 and a clinical isolate) by agar well diffusion and micro-dilution (AWD and MD). In AWD and MD assays, Agastache honey was effective at 40% concentration against dermatophytes (zone diameter, 19.5-20 mm) and C. albicans with the same MIC and MFC values indicating fungicidal activity. Tea tree honey was effective at 80% concentration (zone diameter, 14 mm) against dermatophytes and at 40% concentration against T. mentagrophytes and C. albicans. Manuka was effective at 80% concentration only against T. mentagrophytes (zone diameter, 12 mm) and at 40% against T. rubrum and C. albicans with fungistatic activity. Similar to the AWD results, Jelly bush, Super Manuka, and Jarrah showed no activity against dermatophytes but showed some activity against C. albicans. Headspace volatiles of six honeys were isolated by SPME and identified by GC-MS. The characteristic chemical markers for each honey were as follows: Agastache- Phenol, 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) and Estragole; Manuka and Tea-tree- Acetanisole and Methyl 3,5-dimethoxybenzoate; Jelly bush- Linalool and Nonanal; Super Manuka- Methyl 3,5-dimethoxybenzoate and Nonanal; Jarrah- Isophorone and Nonanoic acid. Overall, analysis of the bioactive compound content and antifungal activity of Agastache honey indicated possible use as an antifungal agent for management of superficial fungal infections.


Assuntos
Agastache/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Apiterapia/métodos , Dermatomiosite/terapia , Mel , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Dermatomiosite/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
9.
Molecules ; 24(24)2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817724

RESUMO

Volatilomes emitted from edible flowers of two species of Agastache (A. aurantiaca (A.Gray) Lint & Epling, and A. mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling) and from two hybrids (Agastache 'Arcado Pink' and Agastache 'Blue Boa') were investigated using a solid-phase microextraction technique as well as the extraction of its essential oils. Oxygenated monoterpenes were almost always the predominant class (>85%) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in each sample of A. aurantiaca, A. 'Blue Boa' and A. mexicana, with the exception of A. 'Arcado Pink' (38.6%). Pulegone was the main compound in A. aurantiaca (76.7%) and A. 'Blue Boa' (82.4%), while geranyl acetate (37.5%) followed by geraniol (16%) and geranial (17%) were the principal ones in A. mexicana. The essential oil composition showed the same behavior as the VOCs both for the main class as well as the major constituent (pulegone) with the same exception for A. mexicana. Total soluble sugars, secondary metabolites (polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins) and antioxidant activity were also investigated to emphasize the nutraceutical properties of these edible flowers.


Assuntos
Agastache/química , Flores/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Monoterpenos/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
10.
J Nat Prod ; 82(12): 3379-3385, 2019 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747281

RESUMO

A new flavone glucoside, acacetin-7-O-(3″-O-acetyl-6″-O-malonyl)-ß-d-glucopyranoside (1), two new phenolic glucosides, (3R,7R)-tuberonic acid-12-O-[6'-O-(E)-feruloyl]-ß-d-glucopyranoside (14) and salicylic acid-2-O-[6'-O-(E)-feruloyl]-ß-d-glucopyranoside (15), and two new phenylpropanoid glucosides, chavicol-1-O-(6'-O-methylmalonyl)-ß-d-glucopyranoside (17) and chavicol-1-O-(6'-O-acetyl)-ß-d-glucopyranoside(18), as well as 26 known compounds, 2-13, 16, and 19-31, were isolated from the aerial parts of Agastache rugose. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic/spectrometric methods such as HRESIMS, NMR, and ECD. The anti-inflammatory effect of the isolated compounds was evaluated by measuring their inhibitory activities on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. New compounds 1, 15, 17, and 18 inhibited LPS-induced PGE2 production with IC50 values of 16.8 ± 0.8, 33.9 ± 4.8, 14.3 ± 2.1, and 48.8 ± 4.4 µM, respectively. Compounds 5, 7, 9-11, 13, 19, 20, 22, and 27-30 showed potent inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 1.7-8.4 µM.


Assuntos
Agastache/química , Dinoprostona/biossíntese , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Células RAW 264.7 , Análise Espectral/métodos
11.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(9): 1349-1360, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474086

RESUMO

Chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, regarded as a major cause of extrinsic aging or photoaging characterized by wrinkle formation and skin dehydration, exerts adverse effects on skin by causing the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Agastache rugosa Kuntze, known as Korean mint, possesses a wide spectrum of biological properties including antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and anti-atherosclerosis. Previous studies have reported that A. rugosa protected human keratinocytes against UVB irradiation by restoring the anti-oxidant defense system. However, the anti-photoaging effect of A. rugosa extract (ARE) in animal models has not yet been evaluated. ARE was orally administered to hairless mice at doses of 100 or 250 mg/kg/day along with UVB exposure for 12 weeks. ARE histologically improved UVB-induced wrinkle formation, epidermal thickening, erythema, and hyperpigmentation. In addition, ARE recovered skin moisture by improving skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Along with this, ARE increased hyaluronic acid levels by upregulating HA synthase genes. ARE markedly increased the density of collagen and the amounts of hydroxypoline via two pathways. First, ARE significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases responsible for collagen degradation by inactivating the mitogen-activated protein kinase/activator protein 1 pathway. Second, ARE stimulated the transforming growth factor beta/Smad signaling, consequently raising the mRNA levels of collagen-related genes. In addition, ARE not only increased the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes but also decreased inflammatory cytokines by blocking the protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B. Collectively, our findings suggest that A. rugosa may be a potential preventive and therapeutic agent for photoaging.


Assuntos
Agastache/química , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Colágeno/biossíntese , Colágeno/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos Pelados , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Envelhecimento da Pele/patologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas Smad/genética , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/genética , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
12.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(13): 1969-1974, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29842792

RESUMO

This study utilised response surface methodology to optimise the conditions for the extraction of A. rugosa seeds oil (ARO). Single-factor experiment and response surface methodology (RSM) were performed to identify the extraction time, liquid-solid ratio and extraction temperature that provided the highest yield of ARO. The optimal extraction time, liquid-solid ratio and extraction temperature were 8 h, 4:1 mL/g and 55 °C. The fatty acids (FAs) content and oil yield obtained through the optimised impregnation-extraction process were 19.67 mg/g and 32.1%. These values matched well with the predicted values. Linolenic acid was identified to be the main active ingredient of ARO. The high-performance liquid chromatography-charged aerosol detection method presented here is fast and does not require derivatisation. Therefore, it could be used to quantitatively analyse the FAs present in ARO and applied to detect compounds with low or no ultraviolet response.


Assuntos
Agastache/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Aerossóis/química , Limite de Detecção , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/análise
13.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(1): 1107-1115, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554312

RESUMO

Agastache mexicana has gained importance during the last decade as a natural source of bioactive compounds, mainly due to the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and vasorelaxant effects derived from its flavonoids, particularly tilianin. The goal of this work was to evaluate the production of tilianin during the in-vitro process of morphogenesis leading to plant regeneration and to investigate the vasorelaxant activity of its methanolic extracts. The cultures were established from nodal segments and leaf explants, inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with various concentrations of benzyl aminopurine (BAP) alone or in combination with 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Callus inductions were obtained in all treatments from both types of explants, but the presence of auxin was essential. Maximal shoot multiplication and elongation was achieved with 0.1 mg/l 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/l BAP from nodal- segment explants. Shoots were rooted in 75% MS medium and the plantlets were transferred to a greenhouse with 33% average survival. Analysis of tilianin production in methanolic extracts from calli (0.15-2.01 ± 0.06 mg/g dry weight), shoots (4.45 ± 0.01 mg/g DW), and whole plants (9.77 ± 0.02 mg/g DW) derived from in-vitro cultured nodal segments reveals that tilianin accumulation is associated with high cell differentiation and morphogenetic response to the plant-growth regulators. All of the extracts showed strong vasorelaxant activity, as compared to those of wild plant extracts. These results indicate that plant-tissue cultures of A. mexicana possess vast potential as a source of tilianin and other bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Agastache/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Agastache/fisiologia , Flavonoides/análise , Glicosídeos/análise , Extratos Vegetais , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/química
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(13): 2654-2663, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111013

RESUMO

The study is aimed to explore the effect of combination use of nitrogen(N) and zinc(Zn) fertilizers on the growth, yield and the effective components of Agastache rugosa. A. rugosa was grown under two N application rate (120, 300 kg·hm⁻²) and five Zn levels (0, 20, 50, 100,150 kg·hm⁻²) under field condition. The effect of the treatments on the physiological indicators, distribution of nitrogen and zinc and volatile oil components of A. rugosa were studied. The results showed that the combination use of N and Zn could significantly affect the growth and development, yield and volatile oil components of A. rugosa. Under the test conditions, the highest yield of Agastaches Herba was obtained when 50 kg·hm⁻² of Zn fertilizer was applied with high N application rate of 300 kg·hm⁻². Under the same N application rate, the increase of Zn production was positively correlated with the amount of Zn application in a certain concentration range, but excessive Zn application led to the decrease of yield. With the increase of N application level, the content of Zn also significantly increased. The combination use of N and Zn increased the yield of Agastaches Herba. High level of N application was beneficial to the absorption and accumulation of N and Zn of A. rugosa. Zn fertilizer could also promote the absorption and accumulation of N of A. rugosa. The interaction between N and Zn had significant influence on the main chemical constituents of the volatile oil of A. rugosa. Among the volatile oil chemical constituents of A. rugosa the content of pulegone (34.56%-53.91%) and piperonyl methyl ether (18.86%-42.27%) were much higher. Under the same N application rate, different Zn application rates also had significant effects on the main chemical components of volatile oil.


Assuntos
Agastache , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio , Óleos Voláteis , Zinco
16.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 18(1): 196, 2018 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29940937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Agastache rugosa (Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Kuntze (Korean mint) is used to treat diverse types of human disorders in traditional medicine. In recent years, its non-fermented leaf extract (ARE) has been shown to possess protective properties against ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation-induced photooxidative stress. The present work aimed to examine whether probiotic bacterial fermentation would potentiate the skin anti-photoaging activity of ARE or not, by comparing the protective properties of ARE and corresponding fermented extract (ARE-F) against UV-B radiation-induced photooxidative stress in HaCaT keratinocytes. METHODS: ARE-F was produced from ARE by the fermentation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus HK-9, a type of Gram-positive probiotic bacterial strain. Anti-photoaging activities were evaluated by analyzing reactive oxygen species (ROS), promatrix metalloproteinases (proMMPs), total glutathione (GSH) and total superoxide dismutase (SOD) in UV-B-irradiated HaCaT keratinocytes. Antiradical activity was determined using 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay. RESULTS: ARE-F contained higher attenuating activity on the UV-B-induced ROS generation than ARE. Similarly, ARE-F was able to diminish the UV-B-induced proMMP-9 and -2 more effectively than ARE. ARE-F displayed higher tendencies to augment the UV-B-reduced total GSH content and SOD activity than ARE. However, there were no significant difference between ARE and ARE-F in ABTS radical scavenging activities. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the UV-B radiation-protective activity of ARE is enhanced by probiotic bacterial fermentation, which might improve the therapeutic and cosmetic values of A. rugosa leaves.


Assuntos
Agastache/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fermentação , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Folhas de Planta/química , Probióticos/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Envelhecimento da Pele , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Molecules ; 23(1)2018 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304019

RESUMO

The antioxidant and antimicrobial components of honey vary based on sourced of nectar. Medicinal plants with the therapeutic value have potential to produce honey with greater bioactivity. The aim of the present study was to characterize the physico-chemical and antioxidant capacities of Agastache honey produced from Agastache rugosa and compare them with other popular commercial honeys sold in Australia. The total phenolics, total flavonoids, moisture content, colour, pH, protein content and antioxidant capacity were evaluated for Agastache, Manuka, Jelly bush, Tea tree, Super manuka and Jarrah honeys. The results reveal that the moisture content ranged from 17-21%, pH ranged from 3.8-4.3 and estimated protein content ranged from 900-2200 µg/g. The DPPH•, ABTS•+, ORAC and FRAP methods were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the honey samples. The DPPH• % inhibition, ABTS•+, ORAC and FRAP values for Agastache honey were 9.85 (±1.98 µmol TE/g), 26.88 (±0.32 µmol TE/g), 19.78 (±1.1 µmol TE/g) and 3.61 (±0.02 µmol TE/g) whereas the highest antioxidant capacity values obtained were 18.69 (±0.9 µmol TE/g), 30.72 (±0.27 µmol TE/g), 26.95 (±0.9 µmol TE/g) and 3.68 (±0.04 µmol TE/g), respectively. There was a positive correlation between colour, total phenolic content and DPPH• scavenging activity for most of the honeys except Tea tree honey. However, there was no clear correlation with ABTS•+, ORAC and FRAP values. The measured antioxidant capacity of samples varied with the assays used. The DPPH• assay clearly indicated that the phenolic compounds contribute to the scavenging activity of the honeys. Nevertheless, all assays confirm that Agastache honey has significant antioxidant capacity. Therefore, Agastache honey can be important to human nutrition and health.


Assuntos
Agastache/química , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Mel/análise , Polifenóis/química , Austrália , Benzotiazóis/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Radicais Livres/química , Picratos/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 104(Pt A): 547-553, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28634060

RESUMO

Five compounds were isolated from the leaves of Agastache rugosa and tested for monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitory activity. Acacetin, a flavonoid, potently inhibited recombinant human MAO-A and MAO-B (IC50=0.19 and 0.17µM, respectively), and reversibly and competitively inhibited MAO-A and MAO-B (Ki=0.045 and 0.037µM, respectively). Acacetin 7-O-(6-O-malonylglucoside) (AMG) was also found to effectively inhibit MAO-A and MAO-B (IC50=2.34 and 1.87µM, respectively), and to reversibly and competitively inhibit MAO-A and MAO-B (Ki=1.06 and 0.38µM, respectively). Tilianin (a glucoside derivative of acacetin) had little inhibitory activity, but the introduction of a malonyl group at sugar moiety significantly increased inhibitory activity. Molecular docking simulation revealed the binding energy of acacetin for MAO-B (-44.2kcal/mol) was greater than its energy for MAO-A (-27.0kcal/mol), and that the Cys172 residue of MAO-B was important for hydrogen bonding with acacetin. AMG was predicted to bind to MAO-B with an energy of -23.1kcal/mol by possible hydrogen-bond formation between an oxygen atom of Ile477 residue and a hydrogen atom (H17) of AMG. However, the interaction between AMG and MAO-A was not verified by the docking simulation. This study suggests acacetin and AMG be viewed as new reversible MAO inhibitors, and useful lead compounds for the inhibitor development.


Assuntos
Agastache/química , Flavonas/química , Flavonas/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/química , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/química , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Flavonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Monoaminoxidase/química , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 17(1): 95, 2017 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28173792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Agastache rugosa is well-known as a common traditional Chinese medicine, which have relieving summer-heat, analgesic and antipyretic effects, have long been used as folkloristic remedy in the treatment of several infectious diseases, anti-inflammatory, and for its antibacterial properties. Considering the lack of available data on the morphology, anatomy and in vitro activity of A. rugosa, the goal of the present study was to carry out the microscopic identification of its aerial parts and in vitro activity research as a contribution to the quality control and reasonable utilization involving A. rugosa. METHODS: The present study was (a) to describe the microscopic identification with usual light and scanning electron microtechniques of A. rugosa, collected from Xinjiang Region; (b) based on previous research on the essential oil constituents among different parts of A. rugosa from Xinjiang by GC-MS method, to evaluate its antibacterial effect and cell viabilitity assay. RESULTS: The microscopic identification of botanical material showed some typical structure. The essential oils from the dried flower (EOF) and leaves (EOL) of A. rugosa were 0.29% and 0.57% (w/w), respectively. The in vitro antibacterial activities showed strong inhibition against S.aureus, E. coli of EOF; strong inhibition against E. coli of EOL. Based GC-MS analysis, the MTT assay showed a dose and time-dependent increase in damage for gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this work, based on an extensive analytical characterization of the EOF and EOL chemical composition, compared with other origins, showed A. rugosa possessed antibacterial and cytotoxicity properties activities, which need much additional work to open up new biomedical application of these components.


Assuntos
Agastache , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/anatomia & histologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico
20.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 17(1): 93, 2017 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28166786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Chinese traditional medicine, plant of Agastache rugosa (Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Kuntze (A. rugosa) has been used to treat nausea, vomiting and dispel damp. However, currently, few reports about the chemical constituents, especially the non-volatile components of A. rugosa are available. METHODS: Through separation with various column chromatographies to elucidate the chemical constituents of A. rugosa, the biological activities of the major constituents were investigated. The extracts and main constituents of A. rugosa were evaluated for their anticoagulant effects by assaying the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) and fibrinogen (FIB) in vitro. RESULTS: Seven known compounds (namely compounds 1-7) were isolated from the aerial parts of A. rugosa. They were identified as methyl hexadecanoate (1), ß-sitosterol (2), acacetin (3), ursolic acid (4), apigenin (5), protocatechuic acid (6) and tilianin (7), respectively. Compounds 1 and 6 were isolated from the genus Agastache for the first time, and compound 4 was obtained from the plants for the first time. The results showed that the extract of A. rugosa had a significant procoagulant activity by shortening the time of PT (P < 0.001) and increasing FIB content (P < 0.001), as compared with Vitamin K1. While its major constituents acacetin and tilianin exhibited significant anticoagulant activities by prolonging the times of PT, APTT, TT and reducing FIB content (P < 0.001), as compared with blank control group. CONCLUSIONS: The total extract of A. rugosa possessed significant procoagulant activity, while its main components, acacetin and tilianin possessed significant anticoagulant activities. Further investigation should be pursued to find out the bioactivity components responsible for the procoagulant action of the plant.


Assuntos
Agastache , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anticoagulantes/química , Cromatografia , Fibrinogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Extratos Vegetais/química , Coelhos
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