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2.
Indian J Public Health ; 68(2): 175-179, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38953802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dog bites pose a significant public health concern in India, necessitating an understanding of their epidemiological profile and spatial distribution. Adopting the One Health approach, which considers the interconnection of human, animal, and environmental health, is vital for developing effective interventions. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to assess the epidemiological profile and geospatial trends of dog bite cases in an urban area, focusing on the age and gender distribution of victims, severity of bites, and spatial distribution of cases to inform prevention strategies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective secondary data analysis was conducted on dog bite cases reported in 2022 at a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai. The epidemiological profile, including age, gender, and severity of bites, was examined. Quantum Geographic Information System (QGIS) was utilized for spatial distribution analysis, identifying hotspots within the urban area. RESULTS: Of the 3350 cases, 70.7% were below 40 years old, 81.6% were male, and 78.18% had Category III bites indicating severe injuries. Most cases (74%) were caused by stray dogs. QGIS analysis revealed five hotspots within the urban area. CONCLUSION: The study highlights the predominance of dog bites among younger males and the severity of injuries. Spatial analysis identified specific hotspots, underscoring the need for targeted interventions. Implementing a comprehensive surveillance system incorporating GIS technology and adopting a One Health approach can enhance the control and prevention of dog bite cases and reduce the risk of rabies outbreaks.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Análise Espacial , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Cães , Animais , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Índia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Escolar , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Vacina Antirrábica/administração & dosagem , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Lactente , Idoso , Distribuição por Idade , Distribuição por Sexo
3.
Acta Oncol ; 63: 526-531, 2024 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38946288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer, once rare, has evolved into the global leading cause of cancer-related mortality, primarily driven by widespread cigarette smoking in the 20th century. This study explores the historical trends of lung cancer incidence in Denmark over four decades, emphasizing the impact of smoking prevalence, age, and gender on the observed patterns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Drawing upon data from the Danish National Patient Register and information on smoking habits provided by the Danish Health Authority, this study investigates lung cancer incidence rates, demographic shifts, and smoking prevalence from 1980 to 2022. RESULTS: Smoking prevalence exhibited a consistent decline in males from 1950 to 2022, whereas female smoking prevalence maintained a stable level from 1950 to 1987, followed by a subsequent decline from 1987 to 2022. A peak in lung cancer crude incidence rates was identified during 2014-2017, with no significant difference observed before and after this period. Over the period, the gender distribution transitioned from a male majority to an equal male-female ratio, and age-specific disparities indicated declines in patients aged 50-59 and increases in those above 80 years. INTERPRETATION: The certainty of a decline in lung cancer incidence in the coming years remains unclear. Based on smoking prevalence, it might still be a decade away. To ensure a sustained decline in lung cancer incidence, targeted interventions are imperative, including customized smoking cessation programs that could be designed favorably for females. Given the modest decline in smoking prevalence over the last decade, legislation aimed at discouraging young individuals from smoking is pivotal. As of now, these efforts have not been implemented in Denmark.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Fumar , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto , Prevalência , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/tendências , Distribuição por Sexo , Distribuição por Idade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Etários , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(6): 1160-1162, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38948990

RESUMO

Bladder cancer is the ninth leading cause of death worldwide and 14th leading cause of death in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of urothelial carcinoma in various age groups, its gender distribution, and grades. A total of 131 cases of urothelial carcinoma, received at Department of Pathology, Peshawar Medical College, Peshawar, between January 2017 to December 2022, were included in the study; of them 107 (81.6%) were males while 24 (18.3%) were females with a mean age of 62±13 years. The most common histological subtype was papillary urothelial carcinoma in 117(89.3%) cases, followed by Squamous and Glandular in 5(3.8%) cases. Majority of the urothelial carcinoma with high grade showed a statistically significant relation with muscle invasion 38 (50.66%). Males were four times more likely to have urothelial carcinoma while older age groups were more likely to have high grade urothelial carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Adulto , Gradação de Tumores , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Invasividade Neoplásica , Carcinoma Papilar/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Papilar/patologia , Distribuição por Sexo , Distribuição por Idade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia
5.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 19: 1531-1545, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38974816

RESUMO

Purpose: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a significant disease impacting health and quality of life. Yunnan Province, a major tobacco producer, lacks comprehensive COPD studies. The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemic situation of COPD in Yunnan province and explore its influencing factors. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional research conducted in a representative sample of adults aged 20 and older from 13 prefectures and cities in Yunnan Province, China. COPD was diagnosed using post-bronchodilator pulmonary function tests. Demographics were analyzed with descriptive statistics. The influencing factors of COPD were examined by using the multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Our study found that high-risk individuals for COPD accounted for 20.30% of the screened population aged 20 and above, with a COPD prevalence of 27.18% among this high-risk group. Male had a higher prevalence (33.01%) than did female (16.35%; p<0.001 for sex difference). Additionally, the proportion of severe and extremely severe COPD cases in Yunnan Province was higher than the national average and other provinces. After considering the potential confounding variables, male (OR=2.291, 95% CI: 1.584-3.313), age (OR=1.501, 95% CI: 1.338-1.685), underweight (OR=1.747, 95% CI: 1.225-2.491), previous smoking (OR=1.712, 95% CI: 1.182-2.478), passive smoking (OR=1.444, 95% CI: 1.159-1.800), and a history of respiratory system diseases in childhood (OR=2.010, 95% CI: 1.346-3.001) were significantly associated with an increased risk of COPD. Conversely, being overweight (OR=0.636, 95% CI: 0.489-0.828), and residing in high-altitude counties (OR=0.445, 95% CI: 0.263-0.754) were negatively correlated with the risk of COPD. Conclusion: There is significant prevalence of COPD (27.18%) among high-risk population aged 20 and above in Yunnan Province, China. Apart from male, smoking, BMI and other known risk factors for COPD. We found that high-altitude residence had a lower prevalence of COPD. There is no significant difference in COPD prevalence between Han and ethnic minority populations.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Fumar , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , China/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Fatores Sexuais , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários
6.
MMWR Surveill Summ ; 73(5): 1-44, 2024 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980822

RESUMO

Problem/Condition: In 2021, approximately 75,000 persons died of violence-related injuries in the United States. This report summarizes data from CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) on violent deaths that occurred in 48 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico in 2021. Results are reported by sex, age group, race and ethnicity, method of injury, type of location where the injury occurred, circumstances of injury, and other selected characteristics. This report introduces additional incident and circumstance variables, which now include child victim-specific circumstance information. This report also incorporates new U.S. Census Bureau race and ethnicity categories, which now account for more than one race and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander categories and include updated denominators to calculate rates for these populations. Period Covered: 2021. Description of System: NVDRS collects data regarding violent deaths from death certificates, coroner and medical examiner records, and law enforcement reports. This report includes data collected for violent deaths that occurred in 2021. Data were collected from 48 states (all states with exception of Florida and Hawaii), the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Forty-six states had statewide data, two additional states had data from counties representing a subset of their population (31 California counties, representing 64% of its population, and 13 Texas counties, representing 63% of its population), and the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico had jurisdiction-wide data. NVDRS collates information for each violent death and links deaths that are related (e.g., multiple homicides, homicide followed by suicide, or multiple suicides) into a single incident. Results: For 2021, NVDRS collected information on 68,866 fatal incidents involving 70,688 deaths that occurred in 48 states (46 states collecting statewide data, 31 California counties, and 13 Texas counties), and the District of Columbia. The deaths captured in NVDRS accounted for 86.5% of all homicides, legal intervention deaths, suicides, unintentional firearm injury deaths, and deaths of undetermined intent in the United States in 2021. In addition, information was collected for 816 fatal incidents involving 880 deaths in Puerto Rico. Data for Puerto Rico were analyzed separately. Of the 70,688 deaths, the majority (58.2%) were suicides, followed by homicides (31.5%), deaths of undetermined intent that might be due to violence (8.2%), legal intervention deaths (1.3%) (i.e., deaths caused by law enforcement and other persons with legal authority to use deadly force acting in the line of duty, excluding legal executions), and unintentional firearm injury deaths (<1.0%). The term "legal intervention" is a classification incorporated into the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, and does not denote the lawfulness or legality of the circumstances surrounding a death caused by law enforcement.Demographic patterns and circumstances varied by manner of death. The suicide rate was higher for males than for females. Across all age groups, the suicide rate was highest among adults aged ≥85 years. In addition, non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons had the highest suicide rates among all racial and ethnic groups. Among both males and females, the most common method of injury for suicide was a firearm. Among all suicide victims, when circumstances were known (84.4%), suicide was most often preceded by a mental health, intimate partner, or physical health problem or by a recent or impending crisis during the previous or upcoming 2 weeks. The homicide rate was higher for males than for females. Among all homicide victims, the homicide rate was highest among persons aged 20-24 years compared with other age groups. Non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) males experienced the highest homicide rate of any racial or ethnic group. Among all homicide victims, the most common method of injury was a firearm. When the relationship between a homicide victim and a suspect was known, the suspect was most frequently an acquaintance or friend for male victims and a current or former intimate partner for female victims. Homicide most often was precipitated by an argument or conflict, occurred in conjunction with another crime, or, for female victims, was related to intimate partner violence. Nearly all victims of legal intervention deaths were male, and the legal intervention death rate was highest among men aged 30-34 years. The legal intervention death rate was highest among AI/AN males, followed by Black males. A firearm was used in the majority of legal intervention deaths. When circumstances were known, the most frequent circumstances reported for legal intervention deaths were as follows: the victim used a weapon in the incident and the victim had a substance use problem (other than alcohol use). Other causes of death included unintentional firearm injury deaths and deaths of undetermined intent. Unintentional firearm injury deaths were most frequently experienced by males, non-Hispanic White (White) persons, and persons aged 15-24 years. These deaths most frequently occurred while the shooter was playing with a firearm and were precipitated by a person unintentionally pulling the trigger. The rate of deaths of undetermined intent was highest among males, particularly among AI/AN and Black males, and among adults aged 30-54 years. Poisoning was the most common method of injury in deaths of undetermined intent, and opioids were detected in nearly 80% of decedents tested for those substances. Interpretation: This report provides a detailed summary of data from NVDRS on violent deaths that occurred in 2021. The suicide rate was highest among AI/AN and White males, whereas the homicide rate was highest among Black males. Intimate partner violence precipitated a large proportion of homicides for females. Mental health problems, intimate partner problems, interpersonal conflicts, and acute life stressors were primary precipitating circumstances for multiple types of deaths examined. Public Health Action: Violence is preventable, and data can guide public health action. NVDRS data are used to monitor the occurrence of violence-related fatal injuries and assist public health authorities in developing, implementing, and evaluating programs, policies, and practices to reduce and prevent violent deaths. NVDRS data can be used to enhance prevention efforts into actionable strategies. States or jurisdictions have used their Violent Death Reporting System (VDRS) data to guide suicide prevention efforts and highlight where additional focus is needed. For example, North Carolina VDRS program data have played a significant role in expanding activities related to firearm safety and injury prevention. The program served as a primary data source for partners, which led to the creation of the Office of Violence Prevention in the state, focusing on combatting firearm-related deaths. In Maine, the VDRS provided data on law enforcement officer suicides that were used to help support a bill mandating mental health resiliency and awareness training in the state's law enforcement training academy, along with plans for similar training addressing mental health, substance use, and alcohol problems among corrections officers. In addition, states and jurisdictions have also used their VDRS data to examine factors related to homicide in their state or jurisdiction. For example, Georgia VDRS collaborated with the City of Atlanta Mayor's Office of Violence Reduction to develop two public dashboards that not only offer comprehensive data on violent deaths but also present data on the geographic distribution of populations disproportionately affected by violence to help inform violence prevention interventions.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Homicídio , Vigilância da População , Suicídio , Violência , Humanos , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Porto Rico/etnologia , Criança , Feminino , Adolescente , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio/etnologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/etnologia , District of Columbia/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/etnologia , Distribuição por Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Etnicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
7.
Euro Surveill ; 29(27)2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38967015

RESUMO

BackgroundQ fever is a bacterial zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Spain has the highest number of notified human cases in Europe. Small ruminants are a key reservoir for the pathogen, transmission from animals to humans is usually airborne.AimWe aimed at exploring temporal and spatial epidemiological patterns of sporadic and outbreak cases of Q fever in four Spanish regions with the highest number of notified cases.MethodsWe extracted data on Q fever cases in the Canary Islands, Basque Country, La Rioja and Navarre between 2016 and 2022 from the Spanish National Epidemiological Surveillance Network. We calculated standardised incidence ratios (SIR), spatial relative risks (sRR) and posterior probabilities (PP) utilising Besag-York-Mollié models.ResultsThere were 1,059 notifications, with a predominance of males aged 30-60 years. In Basque Country, La Rioja and Navarre area, 11 outbreaks were reported, while no in the Canary Islands. A seasonal increase in incidence rates was observed between March and June. In the Canary Islands, elevated sRR was seen in La Palma, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. In Basque Country, La Rioja and Navarre area, the highest sRR was identified in the south of Biscay province.ConclusionGoats were the main source for humans in outbreaks reported in the literature. Seasonal increase may be related to the parturition season of small ruminants and specific environmental conditions. Local variations in sRR within these regions likely result from diverse environmental factors. Future One Health-oriented studies are essential to deepen our understanding of Q fever epidemiology.


Assuntos
Coxiella burnetii , Surtos de Doenças , Febre Q , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Febre Q/transmissão , Humanos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Animais , Adulto , Feminino , Idoso , Adolescente , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Vigilância da População , Estações do Ano , Distribuição por Idade , Pré-Escolar , Cabras , Distribuição por Sexo
8.
Viruses ; 16(6)2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38932186

RESUMO

Hepatitis A (HAV) presents a significant global health concern with diverse clinical manifestations primarily transmitted through fecal-oral routes, emphasizing the critical role of sanitation and water cleanliness in transmission dynamics. Age-related variations, notably asymptomatic presentation in children, add complexity. The World Health Organization's (WHO) endemicity classification aids in understanding prevalence and control strategies. This study examines 2023 South African epidemiological data on HAV cases, evaluating age distribution, incidence rates, and provincial disparities. Data from the national surveillance system and weather services were analyzed. Findings reveal distinct age-related trends, with the highest seroprevalence observed in the 5-9 age group with the most burdened areas located in the Western Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, and Gauteng provinces. Furthermore, seasonal rainfall variations correlate with increased incidence in Western Cape and KZN. The amalgamation of results suggest a potential epidemiological shift, emphasizing the need for updated immunization strategies. Noteworthy patterns, like the rise in 5-9-year-olds, may be influenced by factors such as school clustering and migration. Provincial disparities and the impact of climatic events underscore the necessity for dynamic vaccination strategies and surveillance network enhancements. This study highlights the urgency for improved understanding and response to HAV in South Africa.


Assuntos
Hepatite A , Humanos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Masculino , Incidência , Feminino , Adulto , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem , Lactente , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Idoso , Recém-Nascido , Estações do Ano , Distribuição por Idade
9.
Braz Oral Res ; 38: e050, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38922210

RESUMO

Accurate determination of the prevalence of erosive tooth wear (ETW) and associated risk factors in adolescents can inform clinical management guidelines. The aim of this analytical cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence, severity, and risk factors of ETW in adolescents aged 12-15 years in the municipality of Usaquén in Bogotá, Colombia. Two calibrated examiners clinically assessed ETW using Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) Index (range: 0-3). All tooth surfaces (excluding proximal) were scored to allow estimation of the Highest (0-3) and Total BEWE (sum of Highest BEWE score per sextant: 0-18) scores per patient. Sociodemographic characteristics, ETW risk factors, and caries severity (ICDAS-epi-merged) were evaluated, and their association with the presence of ETW (indicated by a Highest BEWE score of 2-3) was examined using preliminary analyses and logistic regression models. The study sample included 454 adolescents (mean age: 13.5±1.1 years; female: 61.7%), and the prevalence of ETW was 71.6%. The majority of participants exhibited a Highest BEWE score of 3 (58.0%) and a Total BEWE score ≤8 (84.3%). The preliminary analysis showed an association between the presence of ETW and age, caries, and brushing teeth before eating (p-value < 0.05). Risk factors for ETW included always brushing teeth before eating [adjusted Prevalence Ratio (PRa) 1.31, p-value=0.014], presence of extensive carious lesions (PRa 1.23, p-value = 0.024), male gender (PRa 1.14, p-value = 0.028), and age > 14 years (PRa 1.17, p-value = 0.009). Although ETW was highly prevalent, most Colombian adolescents exhibited low Total BEWE scores. ETW was associated with frequent fruit intake, age, toothbrushing habits, caries lesions, and sex.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Erosão Dentária , Humanos , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Erosão Dentária/epidemiologia , Erosão Dentária/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Prevalência , Criança , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Etários , Distribuição por Sexo , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Modelos Logísticos
11.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 27: e240035, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38922201

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine spatiotemporal variability and identify clustering patterns of hospitalization rates for diarrhea in children younger than five years in Mato Grosso, Brazil, from 2011 to 2020. METHODS: An ecological study was conducted using hospitalization records associated with diarrhea from the Brazilian Hospital Information System/Unified Health System. The relative risk of hospitalization for diarrhea in each municipality was calculated using SaTScan software considering a statistical significance level of 5% and 999 Monte Carlo replications. RESULTS: A total of 13,315 diarrhea-associated hospitalizations for 5-year-old children were recorded. From 2011 to 2020, the annual rates for hospitalizations related to diarrhea decreased from 8.50 to 3.45/1,000 live births among children younger than one year and from 4.99 to 1.57 for children aged 1-4 years. Clusters of municipalities with high relative risk for hospitalizations due to diarrhea, statistically significant, predominated in the North, Northeast, and Southwest health administrative macro-regions of Mato Grosso for both age groups until 2016. From 2016 to 2020, clusters of the lowest relative risk were identified in the North and Center South health administrative macro-regions for children younger than five years. CONCLUSION: Results showed that hospitalization rates for diarrhea in children younger than five years reduced with the presence of low-risk clusters in Mato Grosso in the final years of the study. Public health surveillance should incorporate spatial analysis to investigate the diarrhea-related morbidity.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Hospitalização , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/tendências , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Fatores de Tempo , Recém-Nascido , Análise por Conglomerados , Distribuição por Idade
12.
BMJ ; 385: e078523, 2024 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38925788

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) overall and by age, sex, and socioeconomic status, and its variation over time, in the UK during 2000-19. DESIGN: Population based study. SETTING: UK. PARTICIPANTS: 1 650 052 individuals registered with a general practice contributing to Clinical Practice Research Datalink and newly diagnosed with at least one CVD from 1 January 2000 to 30 June 2019. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was incident diagnosis of CVD, comprising acute coronary syndrome, aortic aneurysm, aortic stenosis, atrial fibrillation or flutter, chronic ischaemic heart disease, heart failure, peripheral artery disease, second or third degree heart block, stroke (ischaemic, haemorrhagic, and unspecified), and venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism). Disease incidence rates were calculated individually and as a composite outcome of all 10 CVDs combined and were standardised for age and sex using the 2013 European standard population. Negative binomial regression models investigated temporal trends and variation by age, sex, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The mean age of the population was 70.5 years and 47.6% (n=784 904) were women. The age and sex standardised incidence of all 10 prespecified CVDs declined by 19% during 2000-19 (incidence rate ratio 2017-19 v 2000-02: 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.73 to 0.88). The incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke decreased by about 30% (incidence rate ratios for acute coronary syndrome, chronic ischaemic heart disease, and stroke were 0.70 (0.69 to 0.70), 0.67 (0.66 to 0.67), and 0.75 (0.67 to 0.83), respectively). In parallel, an increasing number of diagnoses of cardiac arrhythmias, valve disease, and thromboembolic diseases were observed. As a result, the overall incidence of CVDs across the 10 conditions remained relatively stable from the mid-2000s. Age stratified analyses further showed that the observed decline in coronary heart disease incidence was largely restricted to age groups older than 60 years, with little or no improvement in younger age groups. Trends were generally similar between men and women. A socioeconomic gradient was observed for almost every CVD investigated. The gradient did not decrease over time and was most noticeable for peripheral artery disease (incidence rate ratio most deprived v least deprived: 1.98 (1.87 to 2.09)), acute coronary syndrome (1.55 (1.54 to 1.57)), and heart failure (1.50 (1.41 to 1.59)). CONCLUSIONS: Despite substantial improvements in the prevention of atherosclerotic diseases in the UK, the overall burden of CVDs remained high during 2000-19. For CVDs to decrease further, future prevention strategies might need to consider a broader spectrum of conditions, including arrhythmias, valve diseases, and thromboembolism, and examine the specific needs of younger age groups and socioeconomically deprived populations.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Incidência , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Classe Social , Distribuição por Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 45(6): 852-856, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38889986

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics and spatiotemporal distribution of viral encephalitis in children and adolescents in Henan Province from 2012 to 2023. Methods: The information about viral encephalitis cases from October 1, 2012 to July 26, 2023 were collected from Zhengzhou Children's Hospital (National Children's Regional Medical Center),Henan Provincial Children's Hospital for the analyses on temporal distribution the cases, the severe illness rate, age distribution, pathogen type and imaging findings of the cases. Results: A total of 6 276 cases of viral encephalitis were included in this study after excluding cases with incomplete information. The cases mainly originated from Zhengzhou (38.96%), followed by Zhoukou (9.93%), Xuchang (8.68%), Zhumadian (7.90%) and Pingdingshan (7.39%). The cases in boys accounted for 62.13% and the cases in girls accounted for 37.87%. Most cases (72.45%) occurred in age group 7-13 years. The overall rate of severe illness cases was 4.51% from 2012 to 2023. There were significant differences in severe illness cases among different areas and years (χ2=5.33,P=0.021; χ2=48.14,P<0.001). Enteroviruses were mainly detected (31.57%), in which Coxsackie virus was predominant (58.37%). Imaging findings showed that cerebral hemisphere damage was most common in children and adolescents with viral encephalitis (54.93%). Conclusions: From 2012 to 2023, more cases of viral encephalitis occurred in boys in Henan. Children and adolescents aged 7-13 years were the main affected group. The prevention of enteroviruses infection, especially Coxsackie virus, needs to be strengthened. Special attention should be paid to the prevention of cerebral hemisphere damage after viral encephalitis diagnosis.


Assuntos
Encefalite Viral , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Encefalite Viral/epidemiologia , Encefalite Viral/virologia , Masculino , Feminino , China/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Distribuição por Idade
14.
Int Ophthalmol ; 44(1): 234, 2024 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38896279

RESUMO

PURPOSE: As the epidemiological and burden trends of glaucoma are changing, it is extremely necessary to re-investigate geographical differences and trends. Here we use data from the 2019 Global burden of Disease, which aims to report the prevalence and disability-adjusted life years of glaucoma injury to assess the latest epidemiological models and trends from 1990 to 2019. METHOD: Annual case numbers, age-standardized rates of prevalence, DALYs, and their estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) for glaucoma between 1990 and 2019 were derived from the GBD 2019 study. The relationship between glaucoma disease burden and social demographic index (SDI) was also investigated in this study. RESULTS: In 2019, there were 7.47 million prevalent cases and 0.75 million DALYs cases, which increased by 92.53% and 69.23% compared with 1990 respectively. The global age-standardized rate of prevalence (ASPR) and age-standardized rate of DALYs (ASDR) decreased during 1990-2019 (EAPC = - 0.55 and - 1, respectively). In 2019, the highest ASPR and ASDR of Glaucoma were all observed in Mali, whereas the lowest occurred in Taiwan (Province of China). In terms of gender, males were more likely to suffer from glaucoma than females, especially the elderly. CONCLUSIONS: The global prevalence and DALYs of glaucoma had an absolute increase during the past 30 years. The disease burden caused by glaucoma is closely related to socioeconomic level, age, gender, and other factors, and these findings provide a basis for policymakers from the perspective of social management.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Carga Global da Doença , Saúde Global , Humanos , Glaucoma/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Deficiência , Distribuição por Sexo , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Cegueira/epidemiologia , Cegueira/etiologia
15.
P R Health Sci J ; 43(2): 93-95, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38860963

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vitiligo is a dermatological autoimmune condition characterized by areas of progressive skin depigmentation. Vitiligo lesions are cosmetically disfiguring and associated with significant psychological conditions such as depression and anxiety and comorbidities such as thyroid disease and diabetes. All races, ethnicities, ages, and regions of the world are impacted by vitiligo, with a global prevalence of about 0.5-2%. Currently, there is no published information available on the prevalence of vitiligo in Puerto Rico. Our study's aim was to estimate the prevalence of vitiligo among patients attending the specialized clinic of dermatology at UPR School of Medicine in Puerto Rico and describe the distribution of cases by age and sex. METHODS: We performed a descriptive study to evaluate the patients attending the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine Clinics from January 2017 to May 2022. Using ICD-10 code L80 and medical records, we identified 581 patients with vitiligo and their respective demographic data distributed by sex and age. RESULTS: Of the 581 vitiligo patients, 350 (60.2%) were women, and 231 (39.8%) were men. The median age in the vitiligo population was 33.5 years. Out of the studied sample, 30.2% were under the age of 18. Overall, there was an estimated prevalence of 5.2%. CONCLUSION: We report a vitiligo prevalence of 5.2% in a specialized clinic in Puerto Rico, suggesting further studies are necessary to discover possible underlying factors contributing to this increased prevalence.


Assuntos
Vitiligo , Humanos , Vitiligo/epidemiologia , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Criança , Idoso , Pré-Escolar , Distribuição por Sexo , Distribuição por Idade , Lactente
16.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 27: e240030, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38896650

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the trend and spatial pattern of intimate partner rape reports against women in Northeast Brazil. METHODS: Ecological time-series study and spatial analysis with secondary data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System between 2013 and 2022. Gross rape rates were calculated by type of intimate partner and by age group of the victim. Prais-Winsten regression was used to calculate the trend, and the global and local Moran indices were used for spatial analysis. RESULTS: A total of 5,542 cases of intimate partner rape were reported. Spousal rates ranged from 0.34/100,000 women in 2013 to 0.51/100,000 in 2017, with greater increases between 2018 (1.04/100 thousand) and 2022 (1.28/100 thousand). There was an upward trend in the Northeast as a whole (APC=19.47; 95%CI 15.88-23.22) and in almost all states, except Paraíba and Sergipe. Cases perpetrated by boyfriends (APC=23.90; 95%CI 12.80-36.09) and among women aged 15 to 19 years (APC=22.63; 95%CI 4.18-44.35) showed the highest annual variation. A concentration of high rates was observed in several municipalities in the northwest of Ceará and southeast of Pernambuco. CONCLUSION: The trend in intimate partner rape rates against women increased in the Northeast, especially among younger women and by boyfriends, with a greater agglomeration of notifications in Ceará and Pernambuco.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Estupro , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Análise Espacial , Fatores de Tempo , Parceiros Sexuais , Distribuição por Idade
17.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 27: e240031, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38896651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the spatiotemporal epidemiological dynamics of meningitis in Brazil, between 2010 and 2019. METHODS: Descriptive ecological study with cases and deaths due to meningitis in Brazil (2010-2019) in the National Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informações de Agravos de Notificação - SINAN). The following analyses were performed: (I) frequency analyses of cases and deaths, prevalence rates, mortality, lethality, Fisher's exact test, and chi-square test; (II) Prais-Winstein regression; and (III) Global, Local Moran's index, and Kernel density. RESULTS: 182,126 cases of meningitis were reported in Brazil, of which 16,866 (9.26%) resulted in death, with prevalence rates of 9.03/100,000 inhabitants, mortality of 0.84/100,000 inhabitants, and lethality of 9.26%. There was a noted trend of decreasing prevalence rates (-9.5%, 95% confidence interval - 95%CI -13.92; -4.96, p<0.01) and mortality (-11.74%, 95%CI -13.92; -9.48, p<0.01), while lethality remained stable (-2.08%, 95%CI -4.9; 0.8; p<0.1941). The majority of cases were viral meningitis (45.7%), among 1-9 years old (32.2%), while the highest proportion of deaths was due to bacterial meningitis (68%), among 40-59 years old (26.3%). In the Moran and Kernel maps of prevalence and mortality rates, municipalities in the South, Southeast, and the capital of Pernambuco in the Northeast stood out with high rates; as for lethality, the North, Northeast, and Southeast coastal areas were highlighted. CONCLUSION: A decrease in meningitis cases and deaths was found in this study; however, the lethality rate was higher in areas with lower prevalence, emphasizing the need to enhance actions for identifying, monitoring, and providing health care for cases, as well as expanding vaccination coverage.


Assuntos
Meningite , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Adulto , Criança , Lactente , Meningite/epidemiologia , Meningite/mortalidade , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Escolar , Adulto Jovem , Masculino , Feminino , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Saúde Pública , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Recém-Nascido , Meningites Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Meningites Bacterianas/mortalidade
18.
Arch Iran Med ; 27(6): 289-297, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38855798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the significant occurrence of skin cancer in the Middle East and the existing research gap concerning its incidence and trends, this research aimed to study the epidemiology and trend changes of skin cancer in the Golestan province, Northeastern Iran. METHODS: The Golestan Population-based Cancer Registry's (GPCR's) data bank was utilized to gather information on confirmed skin cancer cases in the province during 2005-2018. We used Poisson regression analysis for comparing incidence rates between groups. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of 1690 patients (mean age: 62.05±15.83 years), most were male (60.1%) and resided in urban areas (61.5%). The age-standardized rate (ASR) of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer was 8.49 and 0.56 per 100000 persons-year, respectively. A notably higher ASR for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) was observed in men (ASR: 10.60; 95% CI: 9.91-11.29) (P<0.01) and urban residents (ASR: 10.19; 95% CI: 9.52-10.82) (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the ASR of melanoma skin cancer based on gender (P=0.24) and place of residence (P=0.48). The incidence trend of melanoma (estimated annual percent change [EAPC]: -3.28; 95% CI: -18.54 to 14.83) and NMSC (EAPC: 0.39; 95% CI: -3.99 to 4.97) did not differ significantly. CONCLUSION: During the 14-year study period, the ASR of both types of skin cancer exhibited a consistent pattern, except for NMSC, which showed higher rates among men and urban residents. This should be taken into consideration when formulating preventive and control strategies in the study area.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Sistema de Registros , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Incidência , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Adulto , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Distribuição por Sexo , Distribuição por Idade , Adulto Jovem , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Carcinoma Basocelular/epidemiologia
19.
Euro Surveill ; 29(24)2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38873794

RESUMO

We describe a pertussis outbreak in the Vallès region of Catalonia, from September 2023 to April 2024. Incidence was high in children aged 10-14 years compared with previous outbreaks. Limited impact in newborns could be explained by the high vaccination coverage during pregnancy and at 11 months of age in 2022, at 85% and 94.1 %, respectively. A third booster vaccine dose during preadolescence should be considered and vaccination coverage in pregnant women be improved to control future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Vacina contra Coqueluche , Coqueluche , Humanos , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Coqueluche/diagnóstico , Espanha/epidemiologia , Feminino , Adolescente , Criança , Incidência , Lactente , Vacina contra Coqueluche/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Recém-Nascido , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Imunização Secundária , Adulto Jovem , Bordetella pertussis/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição por Idade , Vigilância da População
20.
Laeknabladid ; 110(7): 354-359, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Islandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38934717

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A large increase in new cancer cases is predicted worldwide, due to population growth, ageing and increased cancer risk. The age distribution of the Icelandic population is different from the other Nordic countries. The purpose of this study was to predict the number of new cancer cases in Iceland and other Nordic countries, and cancer survivors in Iceland, up to the year 2040. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information on cancer diagnoses was retrieved from The Icelandic Cancer Registry and information on population projections from Statistics Iceland. Well known methods for population projection were used to predict the number of new cancer cases in 2040, but adjusted to consider Icelandic circumstances. It is also based on more recent data than is accessible elsewhere. Three different methods were used to estimate the number of survivors in 2040 and are presented here for the first time. RESULTS: In 2040 the predicted yearly average number of new cancer cases in Iceland will be up to 2,903 [95% CI 2.841-2.956], a 57% increase compared with 2022. The increase is higher in Iceland than in other Nordic countries (Norway 41%, Sweden 24%, Denmark 23%, Finland 21%). In 2022, the number of cancer survivors was around 17,500 and is predicted to be between 24,500 and 31,000 in 2040. CONCLUSION: The main reason for the predicted increase of cancer cases and survivors is population trends, especially the ageing of the population. This expected increase in the number of cancer patients and improved survival will increase the demand for healthcare.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias , Sistema de Registros , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Prevalência , Incidência , Distribuição por Idade , Previsões , Fatores de Risco , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Idoso , Feminino , Fatores Etários , Adulto
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