Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 11.855
Filtrar
1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(6): e0009876, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666764

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is among the most important zoonotic diseases in (sub-)tropical countries. The research objective was to evaluate the accuracy of the Serion IgM ELISA EST125M against the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT = imperfect reference test); to assess its ability to diagnose acute leptospirosis infections and to detect previous exposure to leptospires in an endemic setting. In addition, to estimate the overall Leptospira spp. seroprevalence in the Wiwa indigenous population in North-East Colombia. We analysed serum samples from confirmed leptospirosis patients from the Netherlands (N = 14), blood donor sera from Switzerland (N = 20), and sera from a cross-sectional study in Colombia (N = 321). All leptospirosis ELISA-positive, and a random of negative samples from Colombia were tested by the MAT for confirmation. The ELISA performed with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI 77% - 100%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI 83% - 100%) based on MAT confirmed Leptospira spp. positive and negative samples. In the cross-sectional study in Colombia, the ELISA performed with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI 2-100%) and a specificity of 21% (95% CI 15-28%). Assuming a 5% Leptospira spp. seroprevalence in this population, the positive predictive value was 6% and the negative predictive value 100%. The Leptospira spp. seroprevalence in the Wiwas tested by the ELISA was 39%; however, by MAT only 0.3%. The ELISA is suitable to diagnose leptospirosis in acutely ill patients in Europe several days after onset of disease. For cross-sectional studies it is not recommended due to its low specificity. Despite the evidence of a high leptospirosis prevalence in other study areas and populations in Colombia, the Wiwa do not seem to be highly exposed to Leptospira spp.. Nevertheless, leptospirosis should be considered and tested in patients presenting with febrile illness.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Testes de Aglutinação , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M , Povos Indígenas , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10426, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729270

RESUMO

Mediterranean type of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic parasitic infection. Some provinces of Iran are endemic for VL while other parts are considered as sporadic areas. This study aimed to assess a combination of recombinant K26 and rK39 antigens as well as crude antigen (CA), derived from an Iranian strain of L. infantum, compared to direct agglutination test (DAT) for the detection of VL in humans and domestic dogs as animal reservoir hosts of the disease. A combination of rK26 and rK39 antigens and also CA was evaluated using indirect ELISA on serum samples of 171 VL confirmed humans (n = 84) and domestic dogs (n = 87) as well as 176 healthy humans (n = 86) and domestic dogs (n = 90). Moreover, 36 serum samples of humans (n = 20) and canines (n = 16) with other potentially infectious diseases were collected and tested for finding cross- reactivity. The results of ELISA were compared to DAT, currently considered as gold standard for the serodiagnosis of VL. The sensitivity and specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values were calculated compared to DAT. The positive sera had previously shown a positive DAT titer ≥ 1:800 for humans and ≥ 1:80 for dogs. Analysis was done by MedCalc and SPSS softwares. Using the combination of rK26 and rK39 in ELISA, a sensitivity of 95.2% and a specificity of 93.0% % were found in human sera at a 1:800 (cut-off) titer when DAT-confirmed cases were compared with healthy controls; a sensitivity of 98.9% and specificity of 96.7%% were found at a 1:80 (cut-off) titer compared with DAT. A good degree of agreement was found between the combined rK39 and rK26-ELISA with DAT in human (0.882) and dog serum samples (0.955) by kappa analysis (p < 0.05). The ELISA using the CA test showed 75% sensitivity in human and 93.1% in dog serum samples as well as 53.5% specificity in human and 83.3% in dog,s sera, respectively. The combination of rK26 and rK39 recombinant antigen prepared from Iranian strain of Leishmania infantum showed high accuracy for the serodiagnosis of VL in human and domestic dogs. Further extended field trial with a larger sample size is recommended.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral , Testes de Aglutinação/métodos , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Zoonoses
3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(7): 1460-1465, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731038

RESUMO

Serum agglutination test plus exposure history were used to diagnose most cases of human brucellosis in 2 China provinces. After appropriate treatment, 13.3% of acute brucellosis cases progressed to chronic disease; arthritis was an early predictor. Seropositivity can persist after symptoms disappear, which might cause physicians to subjectively extend therapeutic regimens.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Testes de Aglutinação , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/tratamento farmacológico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Testes Hematológicos , Humanos
4.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(4): 608-615, 2022 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544621

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonotic disease, affecting mainly poor and vulnerable populations. METHODOLOGY: A cross sectional-study was carried out in 557 subjects from Olavarría county (Argentina) to estimate the seroprevalence of leptospirosis and the factors associated with seropositivity. A survey was carried out to obtain clinical and epidemiological data. Serum was tested for anti-leptospiral antibodies by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Chi-square or Fisher Exact tests were used to assess association between the MAT results and the exploratory variables. For the variables statistically associated, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Individuals from Olavarría city were georeferenced to describe the spatial distribution and to detect clusters of seropositivity for leptospiral antibodies. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of leptospirosis infection was 7.00%, higher in rural (19.66%) than in urban populations (3.64%) (p < 0.001). Sejroe was the most predominant serogroup in rural communities while Icterohaemorrhagiae was the most prevalent in urban populations. The factors associated with Leptospira infection were the presence of rodents inside households (OR = 3.9) in rural populations, while contact with cats (OR = 4.97) and male gender (OR = 7.75) represented higher risk of infection for the urban ones. Cases with positive serology have been found near Tapalqué stream or in the peripheral areas of Olavarría city. CONCLUSIONS: The results from data obtained during the study period were similar to other reports and demonstrate the importance of continuous epidemiological surveillance system and specific community educational campaigns to prevent the leptospirosis infection in Olavarría county and other communities with similar characteristics especially in rural areas.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Testes de Aglutinação , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Argentina/epidemiologia , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Masculino , População Rural , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
5.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 34(4): 612-621, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603565

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a life-threatening, zoonotic disease with various clinical presentations, including renal injury, hepatic injury, pancreatitis, and pulmonary hemorrhage. With prompt recognition of the disease and treatment, 90% of infected dogs have a positive outcome. Therefore, rapid, early diagnosis of leptospirosis is crucial. Testing for Leptospira-specific serum antibodies using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) lacks sensitivity early in the disease process, and diagnosis can take >2 wk because of the need to demonstrate a rise in titer. We applied machine-learning algorithms to clinical variables from the first day of hospitalization to create machine-learning prediction models (MLMs). The models incorporated patient signalment, clinicopathologic data (CBC, serum chemistry profile, and urinalysis = blood work [BW] model), with or without a MAT titer obtained at patient intake (=BW + MAT model). The models were trained with data from 91 dogs with confirmed leptospirosis and 322 dogs without leptospirosis. Once trained, the models were tested with a cohort of dogs not included in the model training (9 leptospirosis-positive and 44 leptospirosis-negative dogs), and performance was assessed. Both models predicted leptospirosis in the test set with 100% sensitivity (95% CI: 70.1-100%). Specificity was 90.9% (95% CI: 78.8-96.4%) and 93.2% (95% CI: 81.8-97.7%) for the BW and BW + MAT models, respectively. Our MLMs outperformed traditional acute serologic screening and can provide accurate early screening for the probable diagnosis of leptospirosis in dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Testes de Aglutinação/veterinária , Algoritmos , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Cães , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/veterinária , Aprendizado de Máquina
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(4): e0010331, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis has globally significant human mortality and morbidity, yet estimating the clinical and public health burden of leptospirosis is challenging because timely diagnosis remains limited. The goal of the present study was to evaluate leptospirosis undercounting by current standard methods in both clinical and epidemiological study settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A prospective hospital-based study was conducted in multiple hospitals in Sri Lanka from 2016 to 2019. Culture, whole blood, and urine samples were collected from clinically suspected leptospirosis cases and patients with undifferentiated fever. Analysis of biological samples from 1,734 subjects confirmed 591 (34.1%) cases as leptospirosis and 297 (17.1%) were classified as "probable" leptospirosis cases. Whole blood quantitative PCR (qPCR) did identify the most cases (322/540(60%)) but missed 40%. Cases missed by each method include; urine qPCR, 70% (153/220); acute sample microscopic agglutination test (MAT), 80% (409/510); paired serum sample MAT, 58% (98/170); and surveillance clinical case definition, 53% (265/496). qPCR of negative culture samples after six months of observation was of diagnostic value retrospectively with but missed 58% of positives (109/353). CONCLUSION: Leptospirosis disease burden estimates should consider the limitations of standard diagnostic tests. qPCR of multiple sample types should be used as a leading standard test for diagnosing acute leptospirosis.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Testes de Aglutinação/métodos , Humanos , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Acta Trop ; 231: 106429, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35346668

RESUMO

Glanders and brucellosis are zoonotic infectious diseases that affect equids in several countries worldwide. On Marajó Island (Amazon region of Brazil), Marajoara and Puruca horses, which are well adapted to the climatic and territorial adversities of the region, play a fundamental role in the local economy and in the sociocultural lives of the population. However, these animals have undergone a drastic reduction in number, markedly due to precarious veterinary care, unknown causes of morbidity and mortality, and disordered crossing with other breeds introduced to the island. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the occurrence of glanders and brucellosis in equids on a property located in the municipality of Soure, Marajó Island (Brazil). Serum samples were collected from 388 animals (357 horses and 31 mules), maintained in an extensive breeding system, in a property that was also extensively breeding buffaloes, goats, and sheep, with contact among species. The sera were tested for glanders using an indirect ELISA (ELISAi), and the results were confirmed by immunoblotting. The diagnosis of brucellosis was made using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and confirmed through the Serum Agglutination test (SAT) and 2-mercaptoethanol test. In the case of glanders, 2.31% (9/388) of animals were positive in ELISAi test, of which eight had results confirmed by immunoblotting, representing 2.06% seropositivity in the entire herd. For brucellosis, serum samples from 6.7% (26/388) horses were reactive in the RBT, of which 4.12% (18/388) had a titer ≥50 and 2.06% (8/388) had a titer ≥100 in the SAT. This is the first study to report the occurrence of glanders and equine brucellosis in the municipality of Soure/Marajó Island. Monitoring the occurrence of such diseases is extremely important since they affect the herds economically and zootechnically, in addition to their high zoonotic potential. The number of animals sampled in this study, as well as the way they are raised and managed, is representative of the total equid population of the island. These results, combined with previous studies on buffaloes, indicate that these diseases are endemic in the Marajo Island.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Mormo , Testes de Aglutinação/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Búfalos , Mormo/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Rosa Bengala , Ovinos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
9.
Prev Vet Med ; 201: 105606, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35286870

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs is commonly diagnosed using serological tests that detect IgG antibodies targeted against the parasite. Such tests include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), modified agglutination test (MAT), and western blot (WB), which are commercially available as rapid test kits. In this study, we evaluated the manufacturer recommended cut-off of ELISA-PrioCHECK test kit and determined a new optimal cut-off for identifying T. gondii infections in pigs. Assessment of the commercial ELISA kit was done by including data from two additional serological tests, MAT, and WB, applied to seven pig population categories with varying prevalences. A total of 233 plasma samples that were previously used in other studies for investigating T. gondii seroprevalence in pigs in Denmark were randomly selected for inclusion, including 95 samples that had previously been analysed with all three tests and an additional 138 samples that were analysed using the three serological tests for this study. In the absence of a gold standard test, a latent class model was fit to the data to obtain estimates of sensitivity and specificity for each of the tests along with prevalence in each of the populations. A cut-off that maximized the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA test was then selected. The optimal cut-off value for percent of positive control (PP) in ELISA-PrioCHECK was estimated to be 27.7 PP, which is higher than the cut-off value of 20 PP that is recommended by the manufacturer. At this cut-off, the estimated sensitivities of ELISA, MAT and WB were 99.2% (96.3-100.0%), 96.3% (88.0-100.0%), and 89.8% (80.0-98.0%), respectively. The estimated specificities of ELISA, MAT and WB were 95.2% (92.5-97.6%), 99.6% (97.5-100.0%), and 98.2% (95.9-100.0%), respectively. Our findings have broad relevance to the use of the ELISA-PrioCHECK test kit for detecting Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Testes de Aglutinação/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Teorema de Bayes , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
10.
J Microbiol Methods ; 195: 106448, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35283263

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is an emerging public health problem affecting people mainly from tropical and subtropical regions. Therefore, there is a need for rapid and sensitive tests for proper and prompt treatment. Recently we have demonstrated Carbo-Lip probe, which was fabricated through immuno recognition method with fluorescent dye functionalized LipL32 monoclonal antibodies, secondary antibody and Leptospira for rapid and accurate diagnosis. In an effort to validate Carbo-Lip, we collected clinical samples from a cohort of 104, consisting of 26 positive, 40 negative and 38 unconfirmed cases of Leptospirosis. Subsequently, the test was also compared and validated with the gold standard method microscopic agglutination test (MAT), IgM ELISA, IgM spot test, and culture. Carbo-Lip exhibited a sensitivity of 75% with specificity of 92.3% for Leptospirosis in comparison with MAT. The fabricated Carbo-Lip sensor could be used as a potential diagnostic tool for early detection of Leptospirosis in patients from endemic areas.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Nanotubos de Carbono , Testes de Aglutinação/métodos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Carvão Vegetal , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Imunofluorescência , Hospitais , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Lábio , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(3): e24205, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The laboratory test results and serum-specific antibodies of patients with acute brucellosis initial infection were followed up and analyzed. METHODS: 70 patients in Hohhot City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, with acute brucellosis were followed up for 360 days. Serum samples were collected at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, 180, and 360 days after diagnosis and analyzed by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), colloidal gold test paper (GICA), and test tube agglutination test (SAT). The serum-specific antibodies IgG and IgM were detected. RESULTS: RBPT results: False negative (-) gradually increased with the extension of the course of disease, with the largest change in 30-60 days after diagnosis, and the constituent ratio increased by 12.9%. GICA results: The false negative increased with the course of disease, and the constituent ratio of false negative was 20.0% after 180 days of diagnosis. SAT results: 1:100 positive showed a ladder like decrease with the increase in the course of disease, and the largest decrease was 90-180 days, with a decrease of 34.3% in the constituent ratio. 360 days after diagnosis, the constituent ratio of positive was only 14.3%. During the follow-up period, the IgG average value fluctuated and the average IgM value decreased. CONCLUSION: The false-negative results of RBPT, GICA, and SAT increased with the course of disease, and the false-negative rates were higher than 20% after half a year. IgM level is beneficial to the early diagnosis of brucellosis, while IgG level is helpful to the judgment of brucellosis stage.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Brucelose , Testes de Aglutinação/métodos , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Seguimentos , Humanos , Rosa Bengala
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(2): e0010241, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196321

RESUMO

The laborious microscopic agglutination test (MAT) is the gold standard serologic test for laboratory diagnosis of leptospirosis. We developed EIA based serologic assays using recombinant proteins (rLigA, rLigB, rLipL32) and whole-cell extracts from eight Leptospira serovars as antigen and assessed the diagnostic performance of the new assay within each class, against MAT positive (MAT+) human sera panels from Portugal/PT (n = 143) and Angola/AO (n = 100). We found that a combination of recombinant proteins rLigA, rLigB and rLipL32 correctly identified antigen-specific IgG from patients with clinical and laboratory confirmed leptospirosis (MAT+) with 92% sensitivity and ~ 97% specificity (AUC 0.974) in serum from the provinces of Luanda (LDA) and Huambo (HBO) in Angola. A combination of whole cell extracts of L. interrogans sv Copenhageni (LiC), L. kirschneri Mozdok (LkM), L. borgpetersenii Arborea (LbA) and L. biflexa Patoc (LbP) accurately identified patients with clinical and laboratory confirmed leptospirosis (MAT+) with 100% sensitivity and ~ 98% specificity for all provinces of Angola and Portugal (AUC: 0.997 for AO/LDA/HBO, 1.000 for AO/HLA, 0.999 for PT/AZ and 1.000 for PT/LIS). Interestingly, we found that MAT+ IgG+ serum from Angola had a significantly higher presence of IgD and that IgG3/IgG1 isotypes were significantly increased in the MAT+ IgG+ serum from Portugal. Given that IgM/IgD class and IgG3/IgG1 specific isotypes are produced in the earliest course of infection, immunoglobulin G isotyping may be used to inform diagnosis of acute leptospirosis. The speed, ease of use and accuracy of EIA tests make them excellent alternatives to the laborious and expensive MAT for screening acute infection in areas where circulating serovars of pathogenic Leptospira are well defined.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Doença Aguda , Testes de Aglutinação , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Antígenos de Bactérias , Extratos Celulares , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Imunoglobulina D , Imunoglobulina G , Proteínas Recombinantes , Testes Sorológicos
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2148, 2022 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35140240

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a common global zoonotic disease of man and all farm animals. Although most leptospiral infections in sheep and goats are asymptomatic, they may play a role in the epidemiology of the disease by the spread of Leptospira through the urine. This study was carried out to evaluate the role of sheep and goats in the epidemiology of leptospirosis. Blood and urine samples were taken from 210 goats and 246 sheep. To detect antibodies, sera samples were tested with 8 live serovars of L. interrogans (Hardjo, Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Canicola, Ballum, Icterhemorrhagiae, Tarasovi, and Australis) by MAT. Then, urine samples were tested by Nested PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene for detection of pathogenic Leptospira. Results of MAT showed that 10.95% of goats and 8.53% of sheep had antibodies against at least one examined serovars. In both species, the highest reacting was L. i. Pomona with a rate of 68.18% and 56% in sheep and goats, respectively. Moreover, in PCR, 2 (0.95%) urine samples of goat and 12 (4.87%) urine samples of sheep were positive. All of the MAT positive studied animals were PCR negative and, statistical analysis showed that there was no relationship and agreement between the results of PCR and MAT in sheep (kappa = - 0.07, p > 0.05) and goats (kappa = - 0.02, p > 0.05). Finally, it is concluded that sheep and goats can excrete L. interrogans in the urine and thus transmit them to other animals and humans.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Bacteriúria/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Leptospira interrogans , Leptospirose/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Testes de Aglutinação , Animais , Zoonoses Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Bacteriúria/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/transmissão , Cabras , Leptospira interrogans/imunologia , Leptospira interrogans/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Leptospirose/transmissão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Urina/microbiologia
14.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 69(4): 295-311, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35129882

RESUMO

Despite public concern on the role of free-roaming cats as reservoirs of zoonotic agents, little is known about the influence of urban and peri-urban landscapes on the exposure risk. We evaluated the seroprevalence of three zoonotic agents (Chlamydia felis, Coxiella burnetii and Toxoplasma gondii) in domestic cats (Felis catus). Two hundred and ninety-one free-roaming cats were trapped in Murcia municipality (Southeast Spain), and their sera were tested for specific antibodies against T. gondii using a modified agglutination test (MAT), and for C. felis, C. burnetii and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies with ELISA technique. Pathogen seroprevalence at 95% CI was calculated for each sex and age category (up to and over 12 months) and compared with a chi-squared test. The role of human population density and urban landscape characteristics on the risk of pathogen exposure in the cat population was explored using generalized linear models. Seropositivity against a single pathogen was found in 60% of the cats, while 19% was seropositive for two or three pathogens. Seroprevalence of C. felis was 8% (CI95% : 5-11), 37% (CI95% : 31-42) for C. burnetii and 42% (CI95% : 36-47) for T. gondii. In addition to these three pathogens, FIV seropositivity was low (1%, CI95% : -0.1 to 2) and adult cats were more likely to be seropositive to C. burnetii than young individuals (OR: 2.3, CI95% : 1.2-4.2). No sex or age class differences in seroprevalence were observed for the rest of the pathogens. Seropositivity was correlated with water surface areas for C. felis, and not with crop areas. Coxiella burnetii seropositivity was correlated with the percentage of urban areas (continuous with only buildings and discontinuous, that include buildings, parks, and pedestrian and urban green areas), human population size and peri-urban areas with shrubs, and not correlated with other agricultural landscapes (orchards and crop areas). However, the seroprevalence of T. gondii was only associated with agricultural landscapes such as orchards. The detection of hotspot areas of high pathogen exposure risk is the basis for municipal services to implement surveillance and risk factor control campaigns in specific-risk areas, including (a) efficient health management of urban cat colonies by geographical location, population census and health status monitoring of the components of each cat colony, (b) improvement of hygiene and sanitary conditions at the feeding points of the cat colony and (c) free-roaming cat trapping for health monitoring and, in the long term, to know the evolution of the health status of their populations.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Testes de Aglutinação/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Chlamydia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
15.
Prev Vet Med ; 200: 105567, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35016132

RESUMO

Cervical bursitis is a suggestive lesion of bovine brucellosis. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of two brucellosis serological tests, Rose Bengal (RB) and serum agglutination test with 2-mercaptoethanol (SAT/2-ME), and of isolation and identification (bacteriology) were evaluated through Bayesian latent class analysis (BLCA). A total of 165 paired serum and cervical bursitis samples detected at inspection by Brazilian federal meat inspection services were analyzed. The best model fit to the data occurred when accounting for the conditional dependence between serological tests. According to this model, RB and SAT/2-ME had almost the same sensitivity, 0.960 [0.903 - 0.992] and 0.963 [0.906 - 0.994] with 95 % Credible Interval (95 %CrI), respectively. Specificities were 0.9068 [0.562 - 0.997] and 0.875 [0.546 - 0.990] for RB and SAT/2-ME, respectively, also with 95 %CrI. Bacteriology had lower sensitivity than serological tests, 0.594 (95 %CrI: [0.525 - 0.794]) and the highest specificity of all evaluated tests, 0.992 (95 %CrI: [0.961-1.00]). Prevalence of infected animals was 0.829 (95 %CrI: [0.700-0.900]). BLCA showed that both RB and SAT/2-ME fitted to the purpose of initial screening the brucellosis suspect in carcasses with cervical bursitis in a reliable way. The results of RB or SAT/2-ME can guide the sanitary actions for brucellosis control and help the implementation of a risk-based surveillance system in the meat production chain. This strategy is especially true in remote areas with large beef cattle herds, raised extensively, where in vivo tests are rarely performed due to logistic and management constraints, as in the Northern region of Brazil.


Assuntos
Brucelose Bovina , Brucelose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Testes de Aglutinação/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Brucelose Bovina/diagnóstico , Brucelose Bovina/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Carne , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Acta Parasitol ; 67(2): 592-605, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038109

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Many marine animals are infected and susceptible to toxoplasmosis, which is considered as a potential transmission source of Toxoplasma gondii to other hosts, especially humans. The current systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection among sea animal species worldwide and highlight the existing gaps. METHODS: Data collection was systematically done through searching databases, including PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science from 1997 to July 2020. RESULTS: Our search strategy resulted in the retrieval of 55 eligible studies reporting the prevalence of marine T. gondii infection. The highest prevalence belonged to mustelids (sea otter) with 54.8% (95% CI 34.21-74.57) and cetaceans (whale, dolphin, and porpoise) with 30.92% (95% CI 17.85-45.76). The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) with 41 records and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with 30 records were the most applied diagnostic techniques for T. gondii detection in marine species. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated the geographic distribution and spectrum of infected marine species with T. gondii in different parts of the world. The spread of T. gondii among marine animals can affect the health of humans and other animals; in addition, it is possible that marine mammals act as sentinels of environmental contamination, especially the parasites by consuming water or prey species.


Assuntos
Lontras , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Testes de Aglutinação , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Contaminação de Alimentos , Lontras/parasitologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
17.
Aust Vet J ; 100(5): 190-200, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35076093

RESUMO

Canine leptospirosis has not been reported in the Sydney dog population since 1976. However, between 2017 and 2020, leptospirosis was confirmed in 17 dogs, five of which were known to hunt rodents. Dogs infected between 2017 and 2019 lived within a 3 km radius in the Inner City of Sydney (n = 11). In 2020, cases emerged across a broader area of Sydney; Inner City (n = 1), Inner West (n = 3), Lower North Shore (n = 1) and Upper North Shore (n = 1). The disease was characterised by severe hepatorenal involvement resulting in an unusually high case fatality rate (88%). In conjunction with supportive clinical signs, diagnosis was confirmed by real-time PCR on whole blood (n = 1), kidney (n = 1), urine (n = 4), whole blood and urine (n = 9) or by seroconversion (n = 3). Antibody titres determined by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) to Leptospira serovars were measured in 12 dogs: seven were positive for serovar Copenhageni, one was positive for serovar Hardjo, three were negative for all serovars, likely due to insufficient time for seroconversion before death and one had a low positive titre (1/50) for serovars Australis and Robinsoni. This sudden emergence of a highly fatal disease in pet dogs in Sydney has led to the introduction of Leptospira vaccination protocols for dogs living in inner Sydney using a monovalent vaccine containing serovar Copenhageni. The success of this vaccination program will require ongoing research to understand the emergence of leptospirosis in this region and the serovars involved.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Testes de Aglutinação/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Vacinação/veterinária
18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(2): 2501-2509, 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990107

RESUMO

Rapid serology platforms are essential in disease pandemics for a variety of applications, including epidemiological surveillance, contact tracing, vaccination monitoring, and primary diagnosis in resource-limited areas. Laboratory-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) platforms are inherently multistep processes that require trained personnel and are of relatively limited throughput. As an alternative, agglutination-based systems have been developed; however, they rely on donor red blood cells and are not yet available for high-throughput screening. Column agglutination tests are a mainstay of pretransfusion blood typing and can be performed at a range of scales, ranging from manual through to fully automated testing. Here, we describe a column agglutination test using colored microbeads coated with recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein that agglutinates when incubated with serum samples collected from patients recently infected with SARS-CoV-2. After confirming specific agglutination, we optimized centrifugal force and time to distinguish samples from uninfected vs SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals and then showed concordant results against ELISA for 22 clinical samples, and also a set of serial bleeds from one donor at days 6-10 postinfection. Our study demonstrates the use of a simple, scalable, and rapid diagnostic platform that can be tailored to detect antibodies raised against SARS-CoV-2 and can be easily integrated with established laboratory frameworks worldwide.


Assuntos
Testes de Aglutinação/métodos , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/métodos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Avian Pathol ; 51(1): 19-25, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633242

RESUMO

In Europe, monitoring of breeding stock for Salmonella Pullorum (SP) or Salmonella Gallinarum (SG) infections is compulsory at the point of lay. Vaccinations against Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) are increasingly administered in Europe. These vaccines might induce cross-reactions in the rapid plate agglutination (RPA) SP/SG test due to shared O-antigens, possibly resulting in a lower test specificity. The extent to which the specificity of SP/SG serological tests is influenced by SE and/or ST vaccinations in the field has not been reported. In this paper, we report the diagnostic and flock specificity of the commercially available RPA SP/SG test using 1:2-1:16 serum dilutions on four panels of sera: SPF sera, field sera from flocks of varying age and SE/ST vaccination status, and reference sera from an international proficiency testing scheme. The results showed that the use of live SE/ST vaccines did not influence the specificity of the RPA SP/SG test. Inactivated vaccines showed a drop of the diagnostic specificity to 96.54% and a flock specificity of 34.1% when the 1:2 serum dilution was used. The 1:8 serum dilution showed a diagnostic specificity of 99.41% and a flock specificity of 86.4%. In conclusion, the use of SE/ST vaccines has either no effect or a modest effect on the specificity of the RPA SP/SG test used to monitor flocks. The main factors are the type of vaccine, and the serum dilution used for testing and a cut-off.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Salmonelose Animal , Testes de Aglutinação/veterinária , Animais , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Salmonelose Animal/diagnóstico , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle , Salmonella enteritidis , Salmonella typhimurium , Vacinação/veterinária
20.
Parasitol Int ; 87: 102514, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781014

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are closely related cyst-forming parasites identified as important causes of reproductive failures in ruminants. While these parasites have been reported worldwide, seroprevalence and associated risk factors for cattle infections have not been determined in India. A total of 576 serum samples of cattle were analyzed for antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), modified/Neospora agglutination test (MAT/NAT), and an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT-tachyzoite and bradyzoite). Additionally, general information about cattle, movement of cats and dogs, the menace of rodents, management, and reproductive disorders were assessed to identify the potential risk factors. Overall, 32.9% (190/576) serum samples reacted positively to T. gondii and 24.8% (143/576) to N. caninum. The performance of the diagnostic tests showed excellent agreement between IFAT and ELISA (kappa [κ] = 0.98) and between MAT/NAT and ELISA (κ = 0.97). Combining both infections on avidity test, 94% sera had high-IgG avidity, and 3% had low-IgG avidity antibodies, indicating chronic infection in the majority of the cases. The identified risk factors (p < 0.05) for exposure to T. gondii were: increasing age (Odds Ratio [OR]: 2.02), movement of cat (OR: 4.8) and rodents (OR: 1.57) in the farm; and for N. caninum: increasing age (OR: 1.6), movement of dogs in the farm (OR: 2.07), drinking pond water (OR: 1.64) and abortion (OR: 1.82). These findings revealed that T. gondii and N. caninum infections are widespread in the study area and suggest conducting nationwide epidemiological studies owing to their economic importance.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Testes de Aglutinação , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Gatos , Bovinos , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Índia/epidemiologia , Neospora/imunologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toxoplasma/imunologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...