Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 36.500
Filtrar
1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 519, 2022 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bullying, being a victim of violent behaviors, life satisfaction (LS) and self-rated health (SRH) in children and adolescents, all have consistently been recognized as vital factors in school performance and future individual life. METHODS: This cross-sectional data secondary study was a part of the fifth Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non-communicable disease (CASPIAN-V) in 2015. A total of 14,400 students 7-18 years and their parents living in 30 provinces in Iran were studied. A validated questionnaire of the World Health Organization on Global School-based Health Survey (WHO-GSHS) was used to measure the outcomes and socioeconomic variables. Family's socioeconomic status (SES) was determined using principal component analysis (PCA). The crude and adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval (CI)) were estimated using multiple logistic regressions for each outcome. RESULTS: A total of 14,274 students completed the study, of whom 50.6% were boys. Overall, the prevalence of bullying, being a victim, life dissatisfaction (LDS), and poor SRH among students was 35.6, 21.4, 21.1, and 19.0%, respectively. In multiple-logistic regression analysis (Adjusted OR, (95%CI), students with an illiterate father and mother (1.60, (1.25-2.04), 1.28, (1.03-1.61), unemployed father (1.58, (1.29-1.81)), and one-parent family (1.32, (1.05 - 1.64) had a higher odd of Poor-SRH. Besides, a family size larger than four members (1.14, (1.03-1.25), and low-SES (1.35, (1.15-1.56), and illiteracy of the mother (1.64, (1.30-2.08) had a direct association with LDS. Mother illiteracy also increased the odds of bullying (1.77, (1.45-2.16) and being a victim (1.58, (1.26-1.98). CONCLUSIONS: Some socioeconomic variables can be proposed as the statistically significant attribution of bullying and being a victim, LDS, and Poor-SRH in children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Agressão , Bullying , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Classe Social , Estudantes
2.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(8): e38776, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a critical public health crisis worldwide, and policymakers are using lockdowns to control the virus. However, there has been a noticeable increase in aggressive social behaviors that threaten social stability. Lockdown measures might negatively affect mental health and lead to an increase in aggressive emotions. Discovering the relationship between lockdown and increased aggression is crucial for formulating appropriate policies that address these adverse societal effects. We applied natural language processing (NLP) technology to internet data, so as to investigate the social and emotional impacts of lockdowns. OBJECTIVE: This research aimed to understand the relationship between lockdown and increased aggression using NLP technology to analyze the following 3 kinds of aggressive emotions: anger, offensive language, and hate speech, in spatiotemporal ranges of tweets in the United States. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal internet study of 11,455 Twitter users by analyzing aggressive emotions in 1,281,362 tweets they posted from 2019 to 2020. We selected 3 common aggressive emotions (anger, offensive language, and hate speech) on the internet as the subject of analysis. To detect the emotions in the tweets, we trained a Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) model to analyze the percentage of aggressive tweets in every state and every week. Then, we used the difference-in-differences estimation to measure the impact of lockdown status on increasing aggressive tweets. Since most other independent factors that might affect the results, such as seasonal and regional factors, have been ruled out by time and state fixed effects, a significant result in this difference-in-differences analysis can not only indicate a concrete positive correlation but also point to a causal relationship. RESULTS: In the first 6 months of lockdown in 2020, aggression levels in all users increased compared to the same period in 2019. Notably, users under lockdown demonstrated greater levels of aggression than those not under lockdown. Our difference-in-differences estimation discovered a statistically significant positive correlation between lockdown and increased aggression (anger: P=.002, offensive language: P<.001, hate speech: P=.005). It can be inferred from such results that there exist causal relations. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the relationship between lockdown and aggression can help policymakers address the personal and societal impacts of lockdown. Applying NLP technology and using big data on social media can provide crucial and timely information for this effort.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Mídias Sociais , Agressão , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1860): 20210310, 2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934966

RESUMO

Compared to other animals, humans supposedly excel at voluntarily controlling and strategically displaying emotional signals. Yet, new data shows that nonhuman great apes' emotion expressions may also be subject to voluntary control. A key context to further explore this is during post-conflict (PC) periods, where signalling by distressed victims may influence bystander responses, including the offering of consolation. To address this, our study investigates the signalling behaviour of sanctuary-living bonobo victims following aggression and its relation to audience composition and PC interactions. Results show that the production of paedomorphic signals by victims (regardless of age) increased their chances of receiving consolation. In adults, the production of such signals additionally reduced the risk of renewed aggression from opponents. Signal production also increased with audience size, yet strategies differed by age: while immatures reduced signalling in proximity of close-social partners, adults did so especially after receiving consolation. These results suggest that bonobos can flexibly adjust their emotion signalling to influence the outcome of PC events, and that this tendency has a developmental trajectory. Overall, these findings highlight the potential role that flexible emotion communication played in the sociality of our last common ancestor with Pan. This article is part of the theme issue 'Cognition, communication and social bonds in primates'.


Assuntos
Empatia , Pan paniscus , Agressão/psicologia , Animais , Emoções , Humanos , Pan paniscus/psicologia , Comportamento Social
4.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272615, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944038

RESUMO

Early adolescents frequently use mobile messaging apps to communicate with peers. The popularity of such messaging apps has a critical drawback because it increases conformity to cyber aggression. Cyber aggression includes aggressive peer behaviors such as nasty comments, nonconsensual image sharing, and social exclusion, to which adolescents subsequently conform. Recent empirical research points to peer group norms and reduced accountability as two essential determinants of conformity to cyber aggression. Therefore, the current study aimed to counteract these two determinants in a 2 (peer group norms counteracted: yes, no) x 2 (reduced accountability counteracted: yes, no) design. We created four intervention conditions that addressed adolescents' deficits in information, motivation, and behavioral skills. Depending on the condition (peer group norms, reduced accountability, combination, or control), we first informed participants about the influence of the relevant determinant (e.g., peer group norms). Subsequently, participants performed a self-persuasion task and formulated implementation-intentions to increase their motivation and behavioral skills not to conform to cyber aggression. Effectiveness was tested with a messaging app paradigm and self-report among a sample of 377 adolescents (Mage = 12.99, SDage = 0.84; 53.6% boys). Factorial ANCOVAs revealed that none of the intervention conditions reduced conformity to cyber aggression. Moreover, individual differences in susceptibility to peer pressure or inhibitory control among adolescents did not moderate the expected relations. Therefore, there is no evidence that our intervention effectively reduces conformity to cyber aggression. The findings from this first intervention effort point to the complex relationship between theory and practice. Our findings warrant future research to develop potential intervention tools that could effectively reduce conformity to cyber aggression.


Assuntos
Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Adolescente , Agressão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Grupo Associado , Comportamento Social
5.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 20(1): 41-46, 2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly disrupted the regular school-going activities of the students, predominantly increasing internet gaming activities to endure significant stress. Excessive involvement in internet gaming brings deviant behaviour, especially aggression among the students. Hence, this study aimed to assess the internet gaming disorder and aggression among the students on school closure during COVID-19 pandemic in Chitwan, Nepal. METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 417 students from secondary and higher secondary level who studied in two private schools of Chitwan district. Sample were selected using simple random sampling technique and structured questionnaire, i.e. Internet gaming disorder scale- short form (IGDS9-SF) and Aggression questionnaire (Buss and Perry, 1992) were used to collect the data via web-based through Google Form. Obtained data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: Out of 417 students, the mean age was 17 (±1.411) years, 278 (66.7%) were male and 150 (36.0%) were studying in twelve standard. Majority of students 405 (97.1%) were non-disordered gamers whereas only 12 (2.9%) students were disordered gamers. Students' overall aggression score was 57.79% where the verbal aggression score was higher (66.33%) followed by hostility (61.41%) and anger (56.80%). Further significant positive relationship was found between scores on online gaming disorders and aggression (r=0.239). CONCLUSIONS: Internet gaming disorder and aggression are common among the students during COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, educational institutions and concern authorities need to organize awareness programs and effective psychosocial intervention approaches for students to enhance the knowledge regarding harmful use of internet game, IGD, to cope with stress and aggression as well as to enhance the adoptive behaviour.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , COVID-19 , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia
6.
Physiol Biochem Zool ; 95(5): 416-429, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939618

RESUMO

AbstractLiving in social groups may exacerbate interindividual competition for territory, food, and mates, leading to stress and possible health consequences. Unfavorable social contexts have been shown to elevate glucocorticoid levels (often used as biomarkers of individual stress), but the downstream consequences of socially stressful environments are rarely explored. Our study experimentally tests the mechanistic links between social aggression, oxidative stress, and somatic maintenance in captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Over 64 d, we measured the effects of aggression (received or emitted) on the individual oxidative status, body condition, and changes in relative telomere length (rTL) of birds living in high- and low-social-density conditions. Using path analyses, we found that birds living at high social density increased their aggressive behavior. Birds receiving the highest number of aggressions exhibited the strongest activation of antioxidant defenses and highest plasmatic levels of reactive oxygen metabolites. In turn, this prevented birds from maintaining or restoring telomere length between the beginning and the end of the experiment. Received aggression also had a direct negative effect on changes in rTL, unrelated to oxidative stress. In contrast, emitted aggression had no significant effect on individual oxidative stress or changes in rTL. Body condition did not appear to affect the physiological response to aggression or oxidative stress. At low density, we found trends that were similar to those at high density but nonsignificant. Our study sheds light on the causal chain linking the social environment and aggressive behavior to individual oxidative stress and telomere length. The long-term consequences of socially induced stress on fitness remain to be characterized.


Assuntos
Tentilhões , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais , Tentilhões/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Telômero
7.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272422, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914007

RESUMO

Aggressive driving is a significant road safety problem and is likely to get worse as the situations that provoke aggression become more prevalent in the road network (e.g. as traffic volumes and density increase and the grey fleet expands). In addition, driver frustration and stress, also recognised as triggers for aggression, are likely to stay high because of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated burdens, leading to increased aggression. However, although drivers report that other drivers are becoming more aggressive, self-report data suggests that the prevalence of aggression has not changed over time. This may be due to the methods used to define and measure aggression. This study sought to clarify whether self-reported aggression has increased over a five-year period and across three different types of aggression: verbal aggression, aggressive use of the vehicle and personal physical aggression. The influence of COVID-19 lockdowns on own and others' driving styles was also investigated. A total of 774 drivers (males = 66.5%, mean age = 48.7; SD = 13.9) who had been licensed for at least five years (M = 30.6, SD = 14.3), responded to an online survey and provided retrospective frequencies for their current aggression (considered pre-COVID-19 lockdowns) and five years prior. Two open ended questions were included to understand perceived changes in driving styles (own and others) during the COVID-19 pandemic. One third (33%) of drivers believed they were more aggressive now than five years ago but 61% of the sample believed other drivers were more aggressive now than five years ago. Logistic regression analyses on changes in self-reported aggression (same or decreased vs increased) showed the main factor associated with increases in aggressive driving was the perception that other drivers' aggression had increased. Further, almost half the sample (47%) reported that other drivers had become riskier and more dangerous during, and soon after, the COVID-19 lockdowns. These results show that the driving environment is seen as becoming more aggressive, both gradually and as a direct result of COVID-19 lockdowns. The data indicate that this perceived increase in aggression is likely to provoke higher levels of aggression in some drivers. Campaigns to reduce aggression on the roads need to focus on changing road culture and improving interactions, or perceived interactions, among road users.


Assuntos
Direção Agressiva , Condução de Veículo , COVID-19 , Acidentes de Trânsito , Agressão , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato
8.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272402, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917294

RESUMO

Behaviors and vocalizations associated with aggression are essential for animals to survive, reproduce, and organize social hierarchy. Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) are highly aggressive and frequently emit calls. We took advantage of these features to study the relationship between vocalizations and aggressive behaviors in virgin and sexually experienced male and female Mongolian gerbils through the same-sex resident-intruder test. Both sexes of resident gerbils exhibited aggressive responses toward intruders. Multiparous females exhibited the most aggressive responses among the four groups. We also confirmed two groups of vocalizations during the encounters: high-frequency (>24.6 kHz) and low-frequency (<24.6 kHz). At the timing of high-frequency vocalizations observed during the tests, the vast majority (96.2%) of the behavioral interactions were non-agonistic. While, at the timing of low-frequency vocalizations observed during the tests, around half (45%) of the behavioral interactions were agonistic. Low-frequency vocalizations were observed mainly during encounters in which multiparous females were involved. These results suggest that high- and low-frequency vocalizations relate to non-agonistic and agonistic interactions, respectively. In addition to affecting aggressive behavior, sexual experience also affects vocalization during encounters. These findings provide new insights into the modulatory effects of sex and sexual experience on vocalizations during agonistic encounters.


Assuntos
Agressão , Vocalização Animal , Agressão/fisiologia , Comportamento Agonístico/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Gerbillinae/fisiologia , Masculino , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia
9.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4039, 2022 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35864121

RESUMO

The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is known to control aggressive behavior in mice. Here, we found that glutamatergic projections from the lateral habenula (LHb) to the DRN were activated in male mice that experienced pre-exposure to a rival male mouse ("social instigation") resulting in heightened intermale aggression. Both chemogenetic and optogenetic suppression of the LHb-DRN projection blocked heightened aggression after social instigation in male mice. In contrast, inhibition of this pathway did not affect basal levels of aggressive behavior, suggesting that the activity of the LHb-DRN projection is not necessary for the expression of species-typical aggressive behavior, but required for the increase of aggressive behavior resulting from social instigation. Anatomical analysis showed that LHb neurons synapse on non-serotonergic DRN neurons that project to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and optogenetic activation of the DRN-VTA projection increased aggressive behaviors. Our results demonstrate that the LHb glutamatergic inputs to the DRN promote aggressive arousal induced by social instigation, which contributes to aggressive behavior by activating VTA-projecting non-serotonergic DRN neurons as one of its potential targets.


Assuntos
Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe , Habenula , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais , Nível de Alerta , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/fisiologia , Habenula/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo
10.
Primates ; 63(4): 307-312, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35776278
11.
Int Emerg Nurs ; 63: 101193, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35809483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Workplace violence against emergency department (ED) personnel, especially nurses, is a growing global challenge, and it can have serious adverse impacts on the personnel's life and patient care. Investigating the experience of ED personnel can help healthcare authorities find the underlying factors causing violence and use proper strategies to prevent it. METHODS: In this qualitative exploratory study, data were collected using in-depth, face to face and semi-structured interviews with 20 ED personnel working in five hospitals in west Azerbaijan of Iran. The interviews were transcribed and transferred to MaxQda10 software for coding. Then, six steps conventional content analysis process proposed by Graneheim and Lundman (2004) was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Two overarching categories of "perceived violence" and "predisposing factors of violence" were extracted from the data analysis. Perceived violence was supported by "verbal violence," "physical violence," "ethnic violence," and "sexual violence." The sub-categories of the "predisposing factors of violence included "inefficient management," "low professional competence of personnel," and " violent atmosphere." CONCLUSION: Concerning the high perceived experiences of violence in the ED, health care systems should take fundamental measures such as supporting the ED personnel, improving management, developing and implementing standard guidelines for triaging patients, conducting continuous educational courses on clinical knowledge and skills, and how to interact and communicate with clients would help prevent violence.


Assuntos
Violência no Trabalho , Agressão , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Local de Trabalho , Violência no Trabalho/prevenção & controle
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(30): e2202224119, 2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858455

RESUMO

Does the return of large carnivores affect voting behavior? We study this question through the lens of wolf attacks on livestock. Sustained environmental conservation has allowed the wolf (Canis lupus) to make an impressive and unforeseen comeback across Central Europe in recent years. While lauded by conservationists, local residents often see the wolf as a threat to economic livelihoods, particularly those of farmers. As populists appear to exploit such sentiments, the wolf's reemergence is a plausible source for far-right voting behavior. To test this hypothesis, we collect fine-grained spatial data on wolf attacks and construct a municipality-level panel in Germany. Using difference-in-differences models, we find that wolf attacks are accompanied by a significant rise in far-right voting behavior, while the Green party, if anything, suffers electoral losses. We buttress this finding using local-level survey data, which confirms a link between wolf attacks and negative sentiment toward environmental protection. To explore potential mechanisms, we analyze Twitter posts, election manifestos, and Facebook ads to show that far-right politicians frame the wolf as a threat to economic livelihoods.


Assuntos
Agressão , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Lobos , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Alemanha , Humanos , Gado
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(7): e2220382, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793091

Assuntos
Agressão , Morte , Humanos
14.
Am Nat ; 200(2): E77-E92, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35905399

RESUMO

AbstractMany animals use signals to recognize familiar individuals but risk making mistakes because the signal properties of different individuals often overlap. Furthermore, outcomes of correct and incorrect decisions yield different fitness payoffs, and animals incur these payoffs at different frequencies depending on interaction rates. To understand how signal variation, payoffs, and interaction rates shape recognition decision rules, we studied male golden rocket frogs, which recognize the calls of territory neighbors and are less aggressive to neighbors than to strangers. We first quantified patterns of individual variation in call properties and predicted optimal discrimination thresholds using signal variation. We then measured thresholds for discriminating between neighbors and strangers using a habituation-discrimination field playback experiment. Territorial males discriminated between calls differing by 9%-12% in temporal properties, slightly higher than the predicted thresholds (5%-10%). Finally, we used a signal detection theory model to explore payoff and interaction rate parameters and found that the empirical threshold matched those predicted under ecologically realistic assumptions of infrequent encounters with strangers and relatively costly missed detections of strangers. We demonstrate that receivers group continuous variation in vocalizations into discrete social categories and that signal detection theory can be applied to understand evolved decision rules.


Assuntos
Territorialidade , Vocalização Animal , Agressão , Animais , Anuros , Masculino , Reconhecimento Psicológico
15.
J Youth Adolesc ; 51(10): 1914-1925, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35776230

RESUMO

Awareness that high-status adolescents can be targets of aggression has grown in recent years. However, questions remain about the associations of the confluence of victimization and popularity with adjustment. The current study fills this gap by examining the joint and unique effects of victimization and popularity on aggression and alcohol use. Participants were 804 Dutch adolescents (50.2% boys, Mage = 13.65) who were followed for one year. High-status victims were more aggressive and drank more alcohol than lower-status victims. High-status victims were also more proactively and indirectly aggressive and self-reported more bullying than high-status non-victims. Thus, the findings demonstrated a conjoined risk of victimization and popularity for some types of aggression.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Agressão , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897479

RESUMO

The article discusses issues associated with the manifestations of aggressive behavior in an individual diagnosed with moderate intellectual disability and behavioral disorders (according to ICD-10; F7; F711-moderate intellectual disability, significant impairment of behavior requiring attention or treatment). In the research survey, we focused on a client corresponding with relevant features. The research was carried out at the beginning of hospitalization, ongoing hospitalization, and the end of hospitalization, followed by a recommendation to limit the legal capacity of the client and his placement in a residential care home. The case study points out individual approaches to special education and psychology and outlines the key steps in the cooperation of selected helping professions suggesting conclusions and recommendations for practice regarding these selected issues. Upon the termination of our investigation, there was a rapid deterioration of the client being admitted to the intensive care unit with a follow-up treatment in a long-term intensive care unit.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Agressão , Hospitalização , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
18.
Behav Brain Res ; 433: 113986, 2022 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35798208

RESUMO

Social and environmental factors influence behavior via modulation of brain physiological functions. Environmental enrichment (EE) is an animal housing technique that provides complex sensory, motor, and social stimulation, leading to modifications in the innate aggressiveness in group-housed laboratory mice. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is encoded by multiple splice variants and plays a critical role in controlling aggressive behavior in a transcript variant-specific manner. BDNF mediates the beneficial effects of EE on a variety of pathophysiological conditions. These findings led to the hypothesis that EE reduces aggressive behavior by altering the expression of Bdnf mRNA in a transcript variant-specific manner. To test this hypothesis, 3-4-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly group-housed (5 mice per cage) under standard or EE conditions for 6-8 weeks. Aggressive behavior was monitored and levels of Bdnf mRNA variants in aggression-related brain regions were measured. Mice housed in EE cages displayed a significantly lower frequency of aggressive interactions compared to control mice. EE increased levels of Bdnf mRNA variant I (Bdnf I) in the amygdala while it reduced levels of Bdnf I in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, parietal cortex, and brainstem. Meanwhile, EE did not significantly alter levels of Bdnf mRNA variants IIc, IV, and VI in all brain regions examined. These findings support the hypothesis that EE diminishes inter-male aggression by altering Bdnf mRNA expression in a transcript variant-specific and brain region-specific manner. Specifically, brain region-specific alterations in Bdnf I expression may partly mediate EE-induced suppression of inter-male aggression.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Meio Ambiente , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
19.
Subst Use Misuse ; 57(10): 1618-1625, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35869663

RESUMO

Background: The goal of this study was to test the interactive effects of negative urgency, state negative affect, and alcohol intoxication on intimate partner aggression (IPA) perpetration. Methods: Heavy drinkers who recently perpetrated IPA completed self-report measures of impulsivity, were administered an alcohol or control beverage, and completed a laboratory aggression task. State negative affect was assessed unobtrusively via the Facial Action Coding System. Results: Consistent with our prediction, negative urgency was significantly and positively related to IPA when state negative affect was also high, but this relation was not significant when state negative affect was low. Conclusions: These results have implications for understanding the role of negative affect and impulsivity in IPA perpetration and for understanding trait models of impulsivity in general.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alcoólica , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Agressão/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Intoxicação Alcoólica/psicologia , Etanol , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais
20.
Aggress Behav ; 48(5): 512-523, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35819254

RESUMO

Aloneliness is the negative psychological state characterized by dissatisfaction with one's lack of solitude, which is connected to well-being deficits (e.g., depression, stress). From an I3 theory perspective, we expected that aloneliness could predict anger and partner-directed aggression among persons in romantic relationships, who must, by nature of their partnership, dedicate time to their romantic partners. In Studies 1a and 1b (N = 554), trait aloneliness positively correlated with trait anger, aggression, and violence, but more strongly among persons in relationships (vs. single persons). In Study 2, aloneliness was experimentally primed among 93 undergraduates in relationships. When aloneliness was salient (vs. a control), participants reported higher anger and used more pins in a partner-representative voodoo doll. These results suggest that solitude is an inhibiting factor against anger and, potentially, the perpetration of partner-directed aggression. Although subsequent work in this area is needed, we add evidence showing the importance of individual differences in the need for solitude.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Parceiros Sexuais , Agressão/psicologia , Ira , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...