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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130667, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339981

RESUMO

The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of different fertilizers on the physicochemical properties, multi-element and volatile composition of cucumbers. All samples were divided into five groups according to different combinations and amounts of chicken manure, NPK 17-17-17 fertilizer and microbial fertilizer. The co-application of chicken manure (120,000 kg/ha) and NPK 17-17-17 fertilizer (750 kg/ha) achieved the best texture properties, whereas the addition of the microbial fertilizer at 6000 kg/ha significantly improved the color quality of cucumbers. Similarly, the co-application of chicken manure, NPK 17-17-17 fertilizer and microbial fertilizer at 6000 kg/ha enhanced the number and abundance of volatile components detected in the cucumbers. Cucumbers from the control group contained the highest levels of most of the determined elements. Overall, a combination of chicken manure, NPK 17-17-17 fertilizer and 6000 kg/ha microbial fertilizer is recommended as a relatively efficient fertilizer utilization for cucumbers.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Fertilizantes , Agricultura , Fertilizantes/análise , Esterco , Solo
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640649

RESUMO

Plants are primary resources for oxygen and foods whose production is fundamental for our life. However, diseases and pests may interfere with plant growth and cause a significant reduction of both the quality and quantity of agriculture products. Increasing agricultural productivity is crucial for poverty reduction and food security improvements. For this reason, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development gives a central role to agriculture by promoting a strong technological innovation for advancing sustainable practices at the plant level. To accomplish this aim, recently, wearable sensors and flexible electronics have been extended from humans to plants for measuring elongation, microclimate, and stressing factors that may affect the plant's healthy growth. Unexpectedly, fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), which are very popular in health monitoring applications ranging from civil infrastructures to the human body, are still overlooked for the agriculture sector. In this work, for the first time, plant wearables based on FBG technology are proposed for the continuous and simultaneous monitoring of plant growth and environmental parameters (i.e., temperature and humidity) in real settings. The promising results demonstrated the feasibility of FBG-based sensors to work in real situations by holding the promise to advance continuous and accurate plant health growth monitoring techniques.


Assuntos
Microclima , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Agricultura , Humanos , Plantas , Tecnologia
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640702

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI), together with robotics, sensors, sensor networks, internet of things (IoT) and machine/deep learning modeling, has reached the forefront towards the goal of increased efficiency in a multitude of application and purpose [...].


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Internet das Coisas , Agricultura , Agricultura Florestal , Aprendizado de Máquina
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640977

RESUMO

We present an end-to-end smart harvesting solution for precision agriculture. Our proposed pipeline begins with yield estimation that is done through the use of object detection and tracking to count fruit within a video. We use and train You Only Look Once model (YOLO) on video clips of apples, oranges and pumpkins. The bounding boxes obtained through objection detection are used as an input to our selected tracking model, DeepSORT. The original version of DeepSORT is unusable with fruit data, as the appearance feature extractor only works with people. We implement ResNet as DeepSORT's new feature extractor, which is lightweight, accurate and generically works on different fruits. Our yield estimation module shows accuracy between 91-95% on real footage of apple trees. Our modification successfully works for counting oranges and pumpkins, with an accuracy of 79% and 93.9% with no need for training. Our framework additionally includes a visualization of the yield. This is done through the incorporation of geospatial data. We also propose a mechanism to annotate a set of frames with a respective GPS coordinate. During counting, the count within the set of frames and the matching GPS coordinate are recorded, which we then visualize on a map. We leverage this information to propose an optimal container placement solution. Our proposed solution involves minimizing the number of containers to place across the field before harvest, based on a set of constraints. This acts as a decision support system for the farmer to make efficient plans for logistics, such as labor, equipment and gathering paths before harvest. Our work serves as a blueprint for future agriculture decision support systems that can aid in many other aspects of farming.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Algoritmos , Frutas , Humanos
5.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(9): 3071-3087, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622618

RESUMO

In recent years, the genome editing technologies based on the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) have developed rapidly. The system can use homologous directed recombination (HDR) to achieve precise editing that it medicated, but the efficiency is extremely low, which limits its application in agriculture and biomedical fields. As an emerging genome editing technology, the CRISPR/Cas-mediated DNA base editing technologies can achieve targeted mutations of bases without generating double-strand breaks, and has higher editing efficiency and specificity compared with CRISPR/Cas-mediated HDR editing. At present, cytidine base editors (CBEs) that can mutate C to T, adenine base editors (ABEs) that can mutate A to G, and prime editors (PEs) that enable arbitrary base conversion and precise insertion and deletion of small fragments, have been developed. In addition, glycosylase base editors (GBEs) capable of transitioning from C to G and double base editors capable of editing both A and C simultaneously, have been developed. This review summarizes the development, advances, advantages and limitations of several DNA base editors. The successful applications of DNA base editing technology in biomedicine and agriculture, together with the prospects for further optimization and selection of DNA base editors, are discussed.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes , Agricultura , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , DNA/genética , Tecnologia
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248420, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495163

RESUMO

Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. A total of 417 shells were collected from three sites: Kokarai, Kanju Township, and Deolai. Based on conchological features, three families: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae, and Zonitidae were identified using different terrestrial snail keys. In Kokarai and Deolai, shells of members of all the above-mentioned families were found from agricultural fields. In Kanju Township, shells of members of the family Bradybaenidae and Zonitidae were found. From these findings, it was concluded that district Swat possesses a significant malacofauna which was unexplored before and aided more to the existing literature on malacofauna. It also supports the idea that the agroecosystem is rich in species diversity. Further in-depth and extensive study is recommended to be carried out for a detailed taxonomy of the described terrestrial gastropod families.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Ecossistema , Animais , Humanos , Paquistão , Caramujos
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125954, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492872

RESUMO

Biodegradable (Bio) plastic films are widely viewed as promising alternative products of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films to minimize plastic debris accumulation and pollution in agroecosystems. Yet, this speculation indeed lacks of sufficient evidences. We conducted a landfill investigation on the aging characteristics of Bio and LDPE plastic films in maize field, and the effects on soil aggregate composition and carbon & nitrogen stocks. The degradation rate of Bio film was up to 41.1% while that of LDPE film was zero. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the crack formation of Bio film had a pronounced domino effect, and FTIR showed that old Bio film displayed an extra wide peak threshold ranging from 3000 to 3500 cm-1. Particularly, the abundance of microplastics was elevated with the increased plastic residues, and the increment mostly resulted from Bio residues. Critically, plastic residues significantly lowered the soil macro-aggregates (>0.25 mm) proportion, while increasing that of micro-aggregates (0.1-0.25 mm) in LDPE, and silt/clay fraction (<0.1 mm) in Bio respectively. They significantly promoted total nitrogen content of the aggregates with the same size, but decreased the organic carbon content, dramatically lowering the C/N. Therefore, we first identified the fate of plastic film residues in agroecosystems and revealed the serious deficiencies of Bio plastic film.


Assuntos
Plásticos Biodegradáveis , Solo , Agricultura , Carbono , Ecossistema , Nitrogênio , Plásticos
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502725

RESUMO

In response to one of the most important challenges of the century, i.e., the estimation of the food demands of a growing population, advanced technologies have been employed in agriculture. The potato has the main contribution to people's diet worldwide. Therefore, its different aspects are worth studying. The large number of potato varieties, lack of awareness about its new cultivars among farmers to cultivate, time-consuming and inaccurate process of identifying different potato cultivars, and the significance of identifying potato cultivars and other agricultural products (in every food industry process) all necessitate new, fast, and accurate methods. The aim of this study was to use an electronic nose, along with chemometrics methods, including PCA, LDA, and ANN as fast, inexpensive, and non-destructive methods for detecting different potato cultivars. In the present study, nine sensors with the best response to VOCs were adopted. VOCs sensors were used at various VOCs concentrations (1 to 10,000 ppm) to detect different gases. The results showed that a PCA with two main components, PC1 and PC2, described 92% of the total samples' dataset variance. In addition, the accuracy of the LDA and ANN methods were 100 and 96%, respectively.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Agricultura , Nariz Eletrônico , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502813

RESUMO

Cloud Computing is a well-established paradigm for building service-centric systems. However, ultra-low latency, high bandwidth, security, and real-time analytics are limitations in Cloud Computing when analysing and providing results for a large amount of data. Fog and Edge Computing offer solutions to the limitations of Cloud Computing. The number of agricultural domain applications that use the combination of Cloud, Fog, and Edge is increasing in the last few decades. This article aims to provide a systematic literature review of current works that have been done in Cloud, Fog, and Edge Computing applications in the smart agriculture domain between 2015 and up-to-date. The key objective of this review is to identify all relevant research on new computing paradigms with smart agriculture and propose a new architecture model with the combinations of Cloud-Fog-Edge. Furthermore, it also analyses and examines the agricultural application domains, research approaches, and the application of used combinations. Moreover, this survey discusses the components used in the architecture models and briefly explores the communication protocols used to interact from one layer to another. Finally, the challenges of smart agriculture and future research directions are briefly pointed out in this article.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Computação em Nuvem
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502823

RESUMO

Crop geometry plays a vital role in ensuring proper plant growth and yield. Check row planting allows adequate space for weeding in both direction and allowing sunlight down to the bottom of the crop. Therefore, a light detection and ranging (LiDAR) navigated electronic seed metering system for check row planting of maize seeds was developed. The system is comprised of a LiDAR-based distance measurement unit, electronic seed metering mechanism and a wireless communication system. The electronic seed metering mechanism was evaluated in the laboratory for five different cell sizes (8.80, 9.73, 10.82, 11.90 and 12.83 mm) and linear cell speed (89.15, 99.46, 111.44, 123.41 and 133.72 mm·s-1). The research shows the optimised values for the cell size and linear speed of cell were found to be 11.90 mm and 99.46 mm·s-1 respectively. A light dependent resistor (LDR) and light emitting diode (LED)-based seed flow sensing system was developed to measure the lag time of seed flow from seed metering box to bottom of seed tube. The average lag time of seed fall was observed as 251.2 ± 5.39 ms at an optimised linear speed of cell of 99.46 mm·s-1 and forward speed of 2 km·h-1. This lag time was minimized by advancing the seed drop on the basis of forward speed of tractor, lag time and targeted position. A check row quality index (ICRQ) was developed to evaluate check row planter. While evaluating the developed system at different forward speeds (i.e., 2, 3 and 5 km·h-1), higher standard deviation (14.14%) of check row quality index was observed at forward speed of 5 km·h-1.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Zea mays , Eletrônica , Sementes
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502840

RESUMO

With the growing adoption of the Internet of Things (IoT) technology in the agricultural sector, smart devices are becoming more prevalent. The availability of new, timely, and precise data offers a great opportunity to develop advanced analytical models. Therefore, the platform used to deliver new developments to the final user is a key enabler for adopting IoT technology. This work presents a generic design of a software platform based on the cloud and implemented using microservices to facilitate the use of predictive or prescriptive analytics under different IoT scenarios. Several technologies are combined to comply with the essential features-scalability, portability, interoperability, and usability-that the platform must consider to assist decision-making in agricultural 4.0 contexts. The platform is prepared to integrate new sensor devices, perform data operations, integrate several data sources, transfer complex statistical model developments seamlessly, and provide a user-friendly graphical interface. The proposed software architecture is implemented with open-source technologies and validated in a smart farming scenario. The growth of a batch of pigs at the fattening stage is estimated from the data provided by a level sensor installed in the silo that stores the feed from which the animals are fed. With this application, we demonstrate how farmers can monitor the weight distribution and receive alarms when high deviations happen.


Assuntos
Internet das Coisas , Agricultura , Animais , Fazendas , Gado , Software , Suínos
12.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(10): 3644-3655, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480627

RESUMO

Continuously increasing human population demands increased food production, which needs greater fertilizer's input in agricultural lands to enhance crop yield. In this respect, different fertilization practices gained acceptance among farmers. We reviewed effect of three main fertilization practices (Conventional-, Organic-, and Bio-fertilization) on soil microbial diversity, activity, and community composition. Studies reported that over application of inorganic fertilizers decline soil pH, change soil osmolarity, cause soil degradation, disturb taxonomic diversity and metabolism of soil microbes and cause accumulation of extra nutrients into the soil such as phosphorous (P) accumulation. On the contrary, organic fertilizers increase organic carbon (OC) input in the soil, which strongly encourage growth of heterotrophic microbes. Organic fertilizer vermicompost application provides readily available nutrients to both plants as well as microbes and encourage overall microbial number in the soil. Most recently, role of beneficial bacteria in long-term sustainable agriculture attracted attention of scientists towards their use as biofertilizer in the soil. Studies documented favorable effect of biofertilization on microbial Shannon, Chao and ACE diversity indices in the soil. It is concluded from intensive review of literature that all the three fertilization practices have their own way to benefit the soil with nutrients, but biofertilization provides long-term sustainability to crop lands. When it is used in integration with organic fertilizers, it makes the soil best for microbial growth and activity and increase microbial diversity, providing nutrients to soil for a longer time, thus improving crop productivity.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Agricultura , Fertilização , Fertilizantes/análise , Humanos
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 639, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505936

RESUMO

Lower Shiwalik foothill ranges (Kandi regions) are dominated by different land use systems, varying in fertility status due to soil erosion owing to undulating topographical features. For assessment of soil nutrient status of study area, the soil sampling was conducted to investigate the variation in micronutrient status and physicochemical characteristics of soil. Long-range basis soil sampling was carried out in 11 blocks falling in the entire Shiwalik ranges of lower Himalaya under different land use systems (LUSs), viz., agriculture (AG), horticulture (HR), agri-horticulture (AH), grassland (GL), and agroforestry (AF) systems. A total of 440 soil samples were collected from two depths (0-15, 15-30 cm) for analysis. The results had reported that the soils were slightly acidic to slightly alkaline (6.61 to 8.10) in the whole range. Soil organic carbon (SOC) was found to be varying from very low to very high (2.43 to 10.43 g kg-1). DTPA-extractable Fe and Mn were found to be in dominant concentrations in the soils whereas, the deficiency of Zn was found under all existing land uses. Interestingly, Fe (r = 0.62*), Cu (r = 0.44), and Mn (r = 0.35) micronutrients were positively correlated with clay content whereas Zn (r = - 0.02) was negatively correlated. Soil quality based on principal component analysis (SQI-PCA) reported clay, SOC, and Zn are major dominating parameters to be considered of soil in Shiwalik ranges.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Agricultura , Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Índia , Micronutrientes
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 621, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476631

RESUMO

Global acreage of forested lands has increased in some countries. At least some of this increase is due to the natural conversion of abandoned agricultural lands into forests. However, little is known about how these new stands develop on abandoned agricultural lands in comparison with natural regeneration of existing forests. Specifically, knowledge of how black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) naturally establishes and develops on abandoned agricultural lands is limited. In this study, we examined the density and growth of black pine saplings as well as some morphological and anatomical characteristics on an abandoned agricultural land (AAS). These data were compared with those observed in a naturally regenerated stand (NRS), and in a forest opening (FOS). The greatest sapling density was observed in the NRS site, while sapling growth and stem biomass were higher in AAS followed by NRS and FOS. Moreover, each study site exhibited site-specific morphological and anatomical traits in their saplings. Our findings showed that site treatments and overstory openness would both play crucial role for establishment and development of black pine.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Pinus , Agricultura , Biomassa , Florestas , Árvores
15.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249847, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524374

RESUMO

The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a vertebrate pest of agricultural lands and forest. The study was aimed to report the damage to local crops by the Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in the Muzaffarabad District. A survey was conducted to identify the porcupine-affected areas and assess the crop damage to the local farmers in district Muzaffarabad Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) from May 2017 to October 2017. Around 19 villages were surveyed, and a sum of 191 semi-structured questionnaires was distributed among farmers. Crop damage was found highest in village Dhanni where a porcupine destroyed 175 Kg/Kanal of the crops. Regarding the total magnitude of crop loss, village Danna and Koomi kot were the most affected areas. More than half (51.8%) of the respondents in the study area suffered the economic loss within the range of 101-200$, and (29.8%) of the people suffered losses in the range of 201-300$ annually. Among all crops, maize (Zea mays) was found to be the most damaged crop ranging between 1-300 Kg annually. In the study area, porcupine also inflicted a lot of damages to some important vegetables, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and onion (Allium cepa). It was estimated that, on average, 511Kg of vegetables are destroyed by porcupine every year in the agricultural land of Muzaffarabad. It was concluded that the Indian crested porcupine has a devastating effect on agriculture which is an important source of income and food for the local community. Developing an effective pest control strategy with the help of the local government and the Wildlife department could help the farmers to overcome this problem.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Agricultura , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Produtos Agrícolas , Humanos , Paquistão
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(40): 11825-11834, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582220

RESUMO

Microcystins (MCs) are hepatotoxic heptapeptides identified in cyanobacterial bloom-impacted waters and soils. However, their environmental fate in soils is poorly understood, preventing reliable site assessment. This study aims to clarify the variant-specific adsorption, desorption, and dissipation of MC-LR and MC-RR in agricultural soils. Results revealed that their adsorption isotherms followed the Freundlich model (R2 ≥ 0.96), exhibiting a higher nonlinear trend and lower adsorption capacity for MC-LR than for MC-RR. The soils had low desorption rates of 8.14-21.06% and 3.06-34.04%, respectively, following a 24 h desorption cycle. Pairwise comparison indicated that soil pH and clay played key roles in MC-LR adsorption and desorption, while organic matter and cation exchange capacity played key roles in those of MC-RR. MC-LR dissipation half-lives in soils were 27.18-42.52 days, compared with 35.19-43.87 days for MC-RR. Specifically, an appreciable decrease in MC concentration in sterile soils suggested the significant role of abiotic degradation. This study demonstrates that the minor structural changes in MCs might have major effects on their environmental fates in agricultural soil and indicates that the toxic effects of MCs should be of high concern due to high adsorption, low desorption, and slow dissipation.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Microcistinas , Adsorção , Agricultura , Solo
17.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113706, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521001

RESUMO

Rural problems are becoming increasingly prominent in sustainable development in China. Landscape services (LSs) are an emerging concept associated with ecosystem services and play an important role in promoting sustainable development. However, a comprehensive framework of rural LS and empirical research are still lacking. Here, we proposed a rural LSs system based on its multiple functions of "ecological maintenance, agricultural production and human living", including 9 LS types. Combined with the impact of landscape pattern on LSs, we optimized the assessment method of LS, and the LS capabilities were assessed at the village scale in Hangzhou city. Furthermore, we identified the spatial differentiation of rural LSs capabilities and trade-offs/synergies along urban-rural and terrain gradients. The results showed that the LSs capabilities of the rural landscape were greatly affected by the urban radiation and terrain, and we found that the turning point of LSs capabilities was 35 km from the urban fringe and the terrain gradient T5. The LSs in most villages (77%) revealed trade-offs, and the villages with LS synergies largely occurred in the middle and eastern regions of the study area. This study could improve our current understanding of LSs in regard to sustainable rural development, and identifying the trade-offs/synergies of LSs in a spatially explicit way can provide suggestions for the differentiated management of rural landscape sustainability.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Agricultura , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos , Planejamento Social
18.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113739, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536740

RESUMO

Nitrate (NO3-) leaching has negative human and environmental health consequences that can be attributed to and mitigated by agricultural decision making. The purpose of this study is to examine the economic and environmental nitrogen (N) leaching reduction from 4R (Right Rate, Right Source, Right Time, Right Placement) agricultural management practices, including application methods, timing and rates, and the use of nitrification and urease inhibitors, for Ontario corn production. This study employed an integrated biophysical and economic GIS-based simulation model considering corn yields, prices, and production costs, and environmental losses, under historical weather scenarios, with NO3- leaching constraints. Reducing N application from historical to model optimized agronomic rates sharply lowered corn NO3- leaching from 75.3 to 24.9 kt N per year. Increasing model restrictions on corn NO3- leaching increased the use of broadcast and sidedress application methods compared to injection and lower overall production. They also increased the use of nitrification and urease inhibitors, which increased N use efficiency, because they allowed lower leaching from corn production, for a price. Leaching decreases from restrictions trade-off with ammonia (NH3) volatilization increases, but there was no trade-off with nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. This highlighted the importance of considering net N losses and production trade-offs by policy decision-makers when developing N loss reduction strategies.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Zea mays , Agricultura , Fertilizantes/análise , Humanos , Nitratos/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Ontário , Solo
19.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113732, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537560

RESUMO

Direct-seeded-cotton (DSC) leads to low crop and water productivity and energy-output with higher carbon-footprints besides impairing system-intensification under conventional cotton-wheat cropping system (CWCS). Hence, we evaluated two methods of Bt-cotton establishment [transplanted cotton (TPC) & DSC)] at three planting geometries/densities in four Bt-cotton based cropping-systems [DSC-wheat (DSC-W), TPC-wheat-mungbean (TPC-W-M), DSC-onion (DSC-O), TPC-onion-fodder cowpea + fodder maize (TPC-O-FC + FM)] in semi-arid region of south Asia. Poly-glass nursery-raised TPC exhibited significantly higher germination (96.5%), seedling-survival (96.1%) and 14.1% higher plant-stand owing to lower seedling-mortality (3.2%). TPC used ∼60% less irrigation-water but exhibited significantly higher seed-cotton, seed and lint yield, net-returns, radiation-use-efficiency and water-productivity by 11.4, 9.9, 14.3, 17.3, 10.7 and 260.6%, respectively over DSC. Planting geometry/density of 60 × 45 cm (37,037 plants ha-1) exhibited significantly higher crop and water productivity and economic-returns. Bt-cotton transplanting led system-intensification enhanced the system-productivity (26.1%), profitability (30.5%), water-productivity (19.3%) and land-use-efficiency (8.5%) over the DSC-based systems with significantly higher values under TPC-O-FC + FM. Energy-use pattern reveled that farm inputs viz. Fertilizers (54-60%), water (15-25%) and diesel (6-10%) consumed bulk of the input-energy in different cropping systems with greatest values under TPC-O-FC + FM. TPC-W-M exhibited highest system energy-output (604.6 × 103 MJ ha-1) and energy-returns (566.2 × 103 MJ ha-1). TPC-O-FC + FM exhibited significantly higher carbon-consumption (668.9 kg CE ha-1) and carbon-output (21431.3 kg CE ha-1) while maintaining significantly higher carbon-efficiency (32.0) and carbon sustainability index (31.0). TPC-O-FC + FM had least carbon-footprints (0.07 kg CE kg-1 SCEY) while conventional-CWCS exhibited 2-folds higher carbon-footprints. Legume-imbedded TPC-based cropping systems markedly increased the soil physical (bulk-density, water-stable-aggregates), chemical (SOC, available-NPK) and biological properties (soil-microbial-biomass-carbon, dehydrogenase and ergosterol activity) over the conventional CWCS and DCS-O systems. Overall, Bt-cotton transplanting led system-intensification upholds great importance in enhancing the system crop and water-productivity, profitability, energy-productivity, resource-use-efficiency and soil-health with minimal carbon-footprints in semi-arid agro-ecosystems of south Asia.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono , Solo , Agricultura , Carbono , Produtos Agrícolas , Ecossistema , Água
20.
J Environ Manage ; 300: 113748, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543962

RESUMO

Land-use/cover change is the major cause of terrestrial ecosystem degradation. However, its impacts will be exacerbated due to climate change and population growth, driving agricultural expansion because of higher demand of food and lower agricultural yields in some tropical areas. International strategies aimed to mitigate impacts of climate change and land use-cover change are challenging in developing regions. This study aims to evaluate alternatives to minimize the impacts of these threats under socioeconomic trajectories, in one of the biologically richest regions in Guatemala and Mexico. This study is located at the Usumacinta watershed, a transboundary region that shares a common history, with similar biophysical properties and economic constraints which have led to large land use/cover changes. To understand the impacts on deforestation and carbon emissions of different land-management practices, we developed three scenarios (1): business as usual (BAU), (2) a reducing emissions scenario aimed to reduce deforestation and degradation (REDD+), and (3) zero-deforestation from 2030 onwards based on the international commitments. Our results suggest that by 2050, natural land cover might reduce 22.3 and 12.2% of its extent under the BAU and REDD + scenarios, respectively in comparison with 2012. However, the zero-deforestation scenario shows that by 2050, it would be possible to avoid losing 22.4% of the forested watershed (1.7 million ha) and recover 5.9% (0.4 million hectares) of it. In terms of carbon sequestration, REDD + projects can reduce the carbon losses in natural vegetation, but a zero-deforestation policy can double the carbon sequestration produced by REDD + projects only. This study shows that to reduce the pressures on ecosystems, particularly in regions highly marginalized with significant migration, it is necessary to implement transboundary land-management policies that also integrate poverty alleviation strategies.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Agricultura , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas
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