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1.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(10): e1009474, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662342

RESUMO

The role of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is unclear. To address this gap, we simulated the release of SARS-CoV-2 in a multistory office building and three social gathering settings (bar/restaurant, nightclub, wedding venue) using a well-mixed, multi-zone building model similar to those used by Wells, Riley, and others. We varied key factors of HVAC systems, such as the Air Changes Per Hour rate (ACH), Fraction of Outside Air (FOA), and Minimum Efficiency Reporting Values (MERV) to examine their effect on viral transmission, and additionally simulated the protective effects of in-unit ultraviolet light decontamination (UVC) and separate in-room air filtration. In all building types, increasing the ACH reduced simulated infections, and the effects were seen even with low aerosol emission rates. However, the benefits of increasing the fraction of outside air and filter efficiency rating were greatest when the aerosol emission rate was high. UVC filtration improved the performance of typical HVAC systems. In-room filtration in an office setting similarly reduced overall infections but worked better when placed in every room. Overall, we found little evidence that HVAC systems facilitate SARS-CoV-2 transmission; most infections in the simulated office occurred near the emission source, with some infections in individuals temporarily visiting the release zone. HVAC systems only increased infections in one scenario involving a marginal increase in airflow in a poorly ventilated space, which slightly increased the likelihood of transmission outside the release zone. We found that improving air circulation rates, increasing filter MERV rating, increasing the fraction of outside air, and applying UVC radiation and in-room filtration may reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission indoors. However, these mitigation measures are unlikely to provide a protective benefit unless SARS-CoV-2 aerosol emission rates are high (>1,000 Plaque-forming units (PFU) / min).


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado , COVID-19/transmissão , Calefação , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilação , Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , Movimentos do Ar , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos da radiação , Interação Social , Raios Ultravioleta , Local de Trabalho
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15797, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349136

RESUMO

There is a long-lasting debate about the possible functions of zebra stripes. According to one hypothesis, periodical convective air eddies form over sunlit zebra stripes which cool the body. However, the formation of such eddies has not been experimentally studied. Using schlieren imaging in the laboratory, we found: downwelling air streams do not form above the white stripes of light-heated smooth or hairy striped surfaces. The influence of stripes on the air stream formation (facilitating upwelling streams and hindering horizontal stream drift) is negligible higher than 1-2 cm above the surface. In calm weather, upwelling air streams might form above sunlit zebra stripes, however they are blown off by the weakest wind, or even by the slowest movement of the zebra. These results forcefully contradict the thermoregulation hypothesis involving air eddies.


Assuntos
Movimentos do Ar , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Equidae/fisiologia , Cor de Cabelo/fisiologia , Cabelo/fisiologia , Luz Solar , Animais
3.
Indoor Air ; 31(6): 1798-1814, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121229

RESUMO

The spread of breathing air when playing wind instruments and singing was investigated and visualized using two methods: (1) schlieren imaging with a schlieren mirror and (2) background-oriented schlieren (BOS). These methods visualize airflow by visualizing density gradients in transparent media. The playing of professional woodwind and brass instrument players, as well as professional classical trained singers were investigated to estimate the spread distances of the breathing air. For a better comparison and consistent measurement series, a single high note, a single low note, and an extract of a musical piece were investigated. Additionally, anemometry was used to determine the velocity of the spreading breathing air and the extent to which it was quantifiable. The results showed that the ejected airflow from the examined instruments and singers did not exceed a spreading range of 1.2 m into the room. However, differences in the various instruments have to be considered to assess properly the spread of the breathing air. The findings discussed below help to estimate the risk of cross-infection for wind instrument players and singers and to develop efficacious safety precautions, which is essential during critical health periods such as the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Movimentos do Ar , Canto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , COVID-19 , Humanos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069419

RESUMO

Due to airborne transmission of the coronavirus, the question arose as to how high the risk of spreading infectious particles can be while playing a wind instrument. To examine this question and to help clarify the possible risk, we analyzed 14 wind instruments, first qualitatively by making airflows visible while playing, and second quantitatively by measuring air velocity at three distances (1, 1.5, 2 m) in the direction of the instruments' bells. Measurements took place with wind instrumentalists of the Bamberg Symphony in their concert hall. Our findings highlight that while playing, no airflows escaping from any of the wind instruments-from the bell with brass instruments or from the mouthpiece, keyholes or bell with woodwinds-were measurable beyond a distance of 1.5 m, regardless of volume, pitch or what was played. With that, air velocity while playing corresponded to the usual value of 1 m/s in hall-like rooms. For air-jet woodwinds, alto flute and piccolo, significant air movements were seen close to the mouthpiece, which escaped directly into the room.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Movimentos do Ar , Humanos , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Environ Res ; 198: 111229, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932477

RESUMO

We aimed to develop a model to quantitatively assess the potential effectiveness of face shield (visor) in reducing airborne transmission risk of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 during the current COVID-19 pandemic using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. The studies with and without face shield in both an infected and healthy person have been considered in indoor environment simulation. In addition to the influence of the face shield and the synchronization of the breathing process while using the device, we also simulated the effect of small air movements on the SARS-CoV-2 infection rate (outdoor environment simulation). The contact with infectious particles in the case without a face shield was 12-20 s (s), in the presence of at least one person who was positive for SARS-CoV-2. If the infected person wore a face shield, no contact with contaminated air was observed during the entire simulation time (80 s). The time of contact with contaminated air (infection time) decreases to about 11 s when the surrounding air is still and begins to move at a low speed. Qualitative differences between simulations performed on the patients with and without the face shield are clearly visible. The maximum prevention of contagion is probably a consequence of wearing a face shield by an infected person. Our results suggest that it is possible to determine contact with air contaminated by SARS-CoV-2 using the CFD method under realistic conditions for virtually any situation and configuration. The proposed method is probably the fastest and most reliable among those based on CFD-based techniques.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Movimentos do Ar , Humanos , Pandemias , Tomografia
7.
Radiat Environ Biophys ; 60(2): 309-316, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689025

RESUMO

A model that describes the pollutant sources/sinks and inlet-outlet can help to assess the indoor exposure. Short half-life of radioactive thoron (220Rn) makes it vital and an interesting element to study its dispersion behavior. This work presents an extensive depiction of the influence of indoor environment thoron dispersion under fixed boundary conditions within the volume domain of 90 m3 using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. For the desirable air flow, inlet and outlet are considered in the room and the k-ɛ model is used. The thoron distribution is studied at different locations and different heights to cover the whole room. Obtained dispersion patterns vary at different locations and indicate non-uniformity of thoron level with elevated values in the room corners. Mean concentration was found to be 11 Bq/m3 with the exhalation rate of 0.102 Bqm-2 s-1. Some stagnant zones were found especially at the corners where the concentration is almost 5 times the average concentration. Such varying thoron level results in the overestimation and underestimation of the dose. The inhomogeneous behavior of thoron may cause variation in equilibrium factor. A simulated model is beneficial in understanding the radioactive gas behavior and has its importance in planning to find the correct dose estimation and, therefore, the best mitigation techniques.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Produtos de Decaimento de Radônio/análise , Movimentos do Ar , Simulação por Computador , Hidrodinâmica , Modelos Teóricos , Doses de Radiação , Monitoramento de Radiação
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6992, 2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772058

RESUMO

Flapping flight is one of the most costly forms of locomotion in animals. To limit energetic expenditures, flying insects thus developed multiple strategies. An effective mechanism to reduce flight power expenditures is the harvesting of kinetic energy from motion of the surrounding air. We here show an unusual mechanism of energy harvesting in an insect that recaptures the rotational energy of air vortices. The mechanism requires pronounced chordwise wing bending during which the wing surface momentary traps the vortex and transfers its kinetic energy to the wing within less than a millisecond. Numerical and robotic controls show that the decrease in vortex strength is minimal without the nearby wing surface. The measured energy recycling might slightly reduce the power requirements needed for body weight support in flight, lowering the flight costs in animals flying at elevated power demands. An increase in flight efficiency improves flight during aversive manoeuvring in response to predation and long-distance migration, and thus factors that determine the worldwide abundance and distribution of insect populations.


Assuntos
Movimentos do Ar , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Asas de Animais/fisiologia , Animais , Drosophila/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos
9.
J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs ; 48(2): 115-123, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690245

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We studied pressure injury (PI) stage II-IV cumulative incidence and the change of PI status in the sacral area of nursing home residents associated with the use of a fully automated pulsating support system air mattress in use for 30 days. We also assessed caregivers', residents', and their family members' experiences and perceptions of mattress comfort and other factors such as pain. DESIGN: Multicenter cohort study. SUBJECT AND SETTING: A convenience sample of 40 residents residing in 10 Belgian nursing homes was recruited. METHODS: Pressure injury classification was confirmed using the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel classification system. The Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) tool was used to assess and measure PI status change. A comfort assessment was performed at end of the study. Cumulative PI incidence of stages II-IV was calculated, and frequencies and percentages were used to describe the results of the comfort assessments. RESULTS: Residents were allocated to the prevention group (n = 22) and to the treatment group (n = 18). The cumulative PI incidence was 4.5% (n = 1/22) in the prevention group. In the treatment group, the mean score on the PUSH tool decreased from 9.36 to 7.70 during the observation period, indicating an overall improvement. Four of the existing PIs healed, 17 PIs remained stable, and 1 PI deteriorated. The comfort questionnaires were completed by 76 nursing home caregivers, 21 family members, and 11 residents in the 10 participating nursing homes; the mattress comfort was perceived as very good, and pain was noted to decrease. CONCLUSIONS: Low cumulative PI incidence findings were observed with use of the mattress for the prevention of PIs and resulted in improvements in existing PIs, results which are consistent with several existing studies. The majority of the caregivers, residents, and family members evaluated the mattress as comfortable. Future research is needed to corroborate findings in larger randomized clinical trials.


Assuntos
Movimentos do Ar , Leitos , Lesão por Pressão/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bélgica , Estudos de Coortes , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Casas de Saúde , Fatores de Risco
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(29): 39322-39332, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755892

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to understand the effect of indoor air stability on personal exposure to infectious contaminant in the breathing zone. Numerical simulations are carried out in a test chamber with a source of infectious contaminant and a manikin (Manikin A). To give a good visual illustration of the breathing zone, the contaminant source is visualized by the mouth of another manikin. Manikin A is regarded as a vulnerable individual to infectious contaminant. Exposure index and exposure intensity are used as indicators of the exposure level in the breathing zone. The results show that in the stable condition, the infectious contaminant proceeds straightly towards the breathing zone of the vulnerable individual, leading to a relatively high exposure level. In the unstable condition, the indoor air experiences a strong mixing due to the heat exchange between the hot bottom air and the cool top air, so the infectious contaminant disperses effectively from the breathing zone. The unstable air can greatly reduce personal exposure to the infectious contaminant in the breathing zone. This study demonstrates the importance of indoor air stability on personal exposure in the indoor environment and provides a new direction for future study of personal exposure reduction in the indoor environment.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Ventilação , Movimentos do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Manequins
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(24): 30642-30663, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587275

RESUMO

The traditional mixing ventilation is not an energy effective approach to remove indoor air pollutants, maintain breath zone air quality, and control the airborne transmission. This study investigated the potential of a localized laminar airflow ventilation system to alleviate human exposure to pollutants. Breathing thermal manikins with sitting posture and supine posture were used to simulate the human. N2O was used as the tracer gas to simulate the indoor pollutant emission. The contaminant exposure index (εexp) and intake fraction index (IF) were used to assess the risk of human pollutant exposure for various supply air velocities given different emission source positions. Enhanced pollutant removal efficiency (Eff) (from the result) showed the qualification and desirability of the localized laminar airflow ventilation system in improving the breath zone air quality. The results showed that the CFD results could fit well with the experimental data and found out the interaction between thermal plume and supply air. The results also indicated a low εexp and IF, with over 90%, all of which were highly correlated with the supply velocity. Human's different breathing methods have little influence on the pollutant exposure so as to the location of the pollution source. This study found that localized laminar airflow ventilation system could efficiently provide fresh air to the breathing zone without sacrificing the thermal environment around human. It can be used for small region air quality control such as that in the bedroom and living room where desired air quality is favored.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Movimentos do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Humanos , Manequins , Ventilação
12.
A A Pract ; 15(2): e01398, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625120

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic prompted the creation of novel techniques to protect patients and health care providers. Simulations showed that disposable oxygen face tents act as a physical barrier and can be repurposed as a negative airflow tent. This case study presents a pediatric patient requiring dental surgery, ineligible for preoperative testing for COVID-19 due to developmental delay and aggression. Precautionary measures were taken by means of full personal protective equipment (PPE) and negative airflow tent. The tent added additional protection and is a promising new technique that is disposable, widely available, and offers full access to proceduralists.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Extração Dentária , Agressão/psicologia , Movimentos do Ar , Anestesia Geral , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste para COVID-19 , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(3): 034502, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543958

RESUMO

To quantify the fate of respiratory droplets under different ambient relative humidities, direct numerical simulations of a typical respiratory event are performed. We found that, because small droplets (with initial diameter of 10 µm) are swept by turbulent eddies in the expelled humid puff, their lifetime gets extended by a factor of more than 30 times as compared to what is suggested by the classical picture by Wells, for 50% relative humidity. With increasing ambient relative humidity the extension of the lifetimes of the small droplets further increases and goes up to around 150 times for 90% relative humidity, implying more than 2 m advection range of the respiratory droplets within 1 sec. Employing Lagrangian statistics, we demonstrate that the turbulent humid respiratory puff engulfs the small droplets, leading to many orders of magnitude increase in their lifetimes, implying that they can be transported much further during the respiratory events than the large ones. Our findings provide the starting points for larger parameter studies and may be instructive for developing strategies on optimizing ventilation and indoor humidity control. Such strategies are key in mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic in the present autumn and upcoming winter.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/química , Líquidos Corporais/virologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Aerossóis/química , Microbiologia do Ar , Movimentos do Ar , COVID-19/virologia , Simulação por Computador , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Expiração , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/química , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
16.
Air Med J ; 40(1): 54-59, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aeromedical transport of coronavirus patients presents risks to clinicians and aircrew. Patient positioning and physical barriers may provide additional protection during flight. This paper describes airflow testing undertaken on fixed wing and rotary wing aeromedical aircraft. METHODS: Airflow testing was undertaken on a stationary Hawker Beechcraft B200C and Leonardo Augusta Westland 139. Airflow was simulated using a Trainer 101 (MSS Professional A/S, Odense Sø, Syddanmark, Denmark) Smoke machine. Different cabin configurations were used along with variations in heating, cooling, and ventilation systems. RESULTS: For the Hawker Beechcraft B200C, smoke generated within the forward section of the cabin was observed to fill the cabin to a fluid boundary located in-line with the forward edge of the cargo door. With the curtain closed, smoke was only observed to enter the cockpit in very small quantities. For the Leonardo AW139, smoke generated within the cabin was observed to expand to fill the cabin evenly before dissipating. With the curtain closed, smoke was observed to enter the cockpit only in small quantities CONCLUSION: The use of physical barriers in fixed wing and rotary wing aeromedical aircraft provides some protection to aircrew. Optimal positioning of the patient is on the aft stretcher on the Beechcraft B200C and on a laterally orientated stretcher on the AW139. The results provide a baseline for further investigation into methods to protect aircrew during the coronavirus pandemic.


Assuntos
Resgate Aéreo , Ar Condicionado/métodos , Movimentos do Ar , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Ventilação/métodos , Ar Condicionado/instrumentação , COVID-19/transmissão , Humanos , Ventilação/instrumentação
17.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 174(4): 839-845, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nasal passages adjust the temperature of inhaled air to reach the required body temperature for the lungs. The nasal regions of primates including humans are believed to have experienced anatomical modifications that are adaptive to effective conditioning of the atmospheric air in the habitat for a given species. Measurements of the nasal temperature are required to understand the air-conditioning performance for a given species. Unfortunately, repeated direct measurements within the nasal passage have been technically precluded in most nonhuman primates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is a potential approach for examining the temperature profile in the nasal passage without any direct measurements. The CFD simulation model mainly comprises a computational model to simulate physiological mechanisms and a wall model to simulate the nasal passage's anatomical and physical properties. We used a computational model developed for humans and examined corrections for the developed wall model based on human properties for predicting its performance in Japanese macaques. RESULTS: This study confirmed that the epithelium layer thickness of the wall model affects the accuracy of the predictions for macaques. A convenient correction of the thickness based on body mass allows us to simulate the actual air temperature profile in macaques' nasal passage. DISCUSSION: The CFD simulations of the wall model corrected with body mass can be applied to other nonhuman primates and mammals. This convenient corrective approach allows us to examine the functional contributions of a specific morphology to the air-conditioning performance without any direct measurements to improve our understanding of primates' functional morphology and physical adaptations to the temperature environment in their habitat.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Cavidade Nasal/fisiologia , Temperatura , Movimentos do Ar , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Macaca fuscata , Cavidade Nasal/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
Indoor Air ; 31(1): 206-219, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659851

RESUMO

Unlike general ventilation, personalized ventilation can improve thermal comfort and conserve energy based on individual differences. It can also provide every individual the ability to control fresh air exposure and ensure good indoor air quality. However, determining how to improve air supply efficiency while avoiding a draft sensation is still a difficult question. This paper introduces a body movement-based personalized targeted air supply device. Two indices, size target value T s and velocity target value T r , are introduced to evaluate the degree to which the created flow field reaches the desired level. Additionally, the air supply effect of the device is compared with that of other devices. This research shows that the personalized targeted air supply device can successfully deliver air to the target area and improve air supply accessibility in the target area. The multinozzle coupling air supply mode produces a flow field air velocity of approximately 0.3 m/s, thus effectively avoiding a draft sensation. Compared with that of other personalized nozzles, the energy consumption is reduced significantly, by 88.2%, while the air supply accessibility can be increased by 48% with equivalent energy consumption.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Ventilação/métodos , Ar Condicionado , Movimentos do Ar , Humanos , Movimento , Temperatura
19.
Int J Environ Health Res ; 31(4): 374-388, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455092

RESUMO

Spreading and distribution of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released as point source emissions in a hospital environment were investigated in two office rooms and two patient rooms. Six tracer compounds were released from six locations and their concentrations were measured in five sampling sites during two consecutive days. The air flow rates, velocity and flow direction, air temperature, pressure differences between adjacent rooms, and relative humidity and concentrations of the tracer compounds were measured. The results revealed that the size of the examined space and ventilation rates, the monitoring point should be either close to the exhaust terminal device or in the middle of the occupied zone the way that supply air flows do not interfere the measurements. Depending on the inlet terminal device and its location, the air is either delivered parallel to the ceiling or it can be directed to a desired spot into the occupied zone. The tracer compounds did spread evenly within the room and their concentrations decreased inversely with the distance. In rooms with a good ventilation, the concentrations at the exhaust air terminal units were close to those measured near the source point. The results obtained from modeling were consistent with the measurements.


Assuntos
Movimentos do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Hospitais , Ventilação/estatística & dados numéricos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Modelos Teóricos
20.
Indoor Air ; 31(1): 99-111, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681676

RESUMO

This study investigates the performance of two systems: personalized ventilation (PV) and ductless personalized ventilation (DPV). Even though the literature indicates a compelling performance of PV, it is not often used in practice due to its impracticality. Therefore, the present study assesses the possibility of replacing the inflexible PV with DPV in office rooms equipped with displacement ventilation (DV) in the summer season. Numerical simulations were utilized to evaluate the inhaled concentration of pollutants when PV and DPV are used. The systems were compared in a simulated office with two occupants: a susceptible occupant and a source occupant. Three types of pollution were simulated: exhaled infectious air, dermally emitted contamination, and room contamination from a passive source. Results indicated that PV improved the inhaled air quality regardless of the location of the pollution source; a higher PV supply flow rate positively impacted the inhaled air quality. Contrarily, the performance of DPV was highly sensitive to the source location and the personalized flow rate. A higher DPV flow rate tends to decrease the inhaled air quality due to increased mixing of pollutants in the room. Moreover, both systems achieved better results when the personalized system of the source occupant was switched off.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Ventilação/métodos , Movimentos do Ar , Poluição do Ar , Expiração , Humanos , Respiração
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