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1.
Cutis ; 109(6): 336-338, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35960968

RESUMO

Airbags can be lifesaving during a motor vehicle accident (MVA), but airbag deployment has been the cause of dermatologic injuries including irritant dermatitis, as well as thermal, friction, and chemical burns. A highly corrosive alkaline aerosol composed of sodium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate, and metallic oxides is released during airbag deployment. We present the case of a 35-year-old man who developed a bullous reaction to released by-products from airbag deployment during an MVA.


Assuntos
Air Bags , Queimaduras Químicas , Acidentes de Trânsito , Adulto , Air Bags/efeitos adversos , Queimaduras Químicas/etiologia , Fricção , Humanos , Masculino , Veículos Automotores
2.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 19(1): 60, 2022 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35715823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Falls are a common complication experienced after a stroke and can cause serious detriments to physical health and social mobility, necessitating a dire need for intervention. Among recent advancements, wearable airbag technology has been designed to detect and mitigate fall impact. However, these devices have not been designed nor validated for the stroke population and thus, may inadequately detect falls in individuals with stroke-related motor impairments. To address this gap, we investigated whether population-specific training data and modeling parameters are required to pre-detect falls in a chronic stroke population. METHODS: We collected data from a wearable airbag's inertial measurement units (IMUs) from individuals with (n = 20 stroke) and without (n = 15 control) history of stroke while performing a series of falls (842 falls total) and non-falls (961 non-falls total) in a laboratory setting. A leave-one-subject-out crossvalidation was used to compare the performance of two identical machine learned models (adaptive boosting classifier) trained on cohort-dependent data (control or stroke) to pre-detect falls in the stroke cohort. RESULTS: The average performance of the model trained on stroke data (recall = 0.905, precision = 0.900) had statistically significantly better recall (P = 0.0035) than the model trained on control data (recall = 0.800, precision = 0.944), while precision was not statistically significantly different. Stratifying models trained on specific fall types revealed differences in pre-detecting anterior-posterior (AP) falls (stroke-trained model's F1-score was 35% higher, P = 0.019). Using activities of daily living as non-falls training data (compared to near-falls) significantly increased the AUC (Area under the receiver operating characteristic) for classifying AP falls for both models (P < 0.04). Preliminary analysis suggests that users with more severe stroke impairments benefit further from a stroke-trained model. The optimal lead time (time interval pre-impact to detect falls) differed between control- and stroke-trained models. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the importance of population sensitivity, non-falls data, and optimal lead time for machine learned pre-impact fall detection specific to stroke. Existing fall mitigation technologies should be challenged to include data of neurologically impaired individuals in model development to adequately detect falls in other high fall risk populations. Trial registration https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05076565 ; Unique Identifier: NCT05076565. Retrospectively registered on 13 October 2021.


Assuntos
Air Bags , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Atividades Cotidianas , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Tecnologia
3.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 547, 2022 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35773627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hip and pelvic fractures do commonly occur among older adults. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effect of introduction of the WOLK hip airbag on the incidence of hip fractures. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed among 969 participants residing within 11 long-term care facilities for older patients, belonging to one large healthcare organization in The Netherlands. The intervention concerned application of 45 WOLK hip-airbags, distributed among selected residents of the long-term care facilities. Inclusion criteria; physically active participants with a pelvic circumference between 90-125 cm able to wear the hip airbag. Exclusion criteria; participants who continuously removed the hip airbag themselves or participants who depended on a wheelchair for mobility. Main outcome measures were the occurrence of falls and hip, pelvic and other fractures. RESULTS: The incidence of hip and pelvic fractures declined from 3.3/100 person years to 1.8/100 person years during the study for an Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) of 0.55 (95% confidence interval (95%CI) 0.34-0.87) in the entire study population. The incidence of other fractures did not decline during the study period (IRR 0.72;95%CI 0.37-1.40). The incidence of falls declined to some extent during the study (IRR 0.88; 95%CI 0.83-0.93). CONCLUSIONS: After introduction of the WOLK hip airbag a reduction of the incidence of hip and pelvic fractures by almost half was observed in older patients residing in long-term care facilities, even though only 45 hip airbags were distributed among the 969 residents. As selection bias cannot be ruled out in this study, the results of this pilot study warrant replication by a future clinical trial to determine true effectiveness of this intervention.


Assuntos
Air Bags , Fraturas do Quadril , Idoso , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
J Radiat Res ; 63(4): 699-705, 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35575580

RESUMO

This study used cine-magnetic resonance imaging (cine-MRI) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel airbag system combined with a shell-type body fixation system in reducing respiratory motion in normal volunteers. The airbag system consists of a six-sided polygon inflatable airbag, a same shape plate, a stiff air supply tube, an air-supply pump and a digital pressure load cell monitor. Piezoelectric sensors were installed in the plate to detect compression pressure load changes; pressure load data were transferred to the digital pressure load cell monitor through Bluetooth. Five volunteers underwent cine-MRI with and without airbag compression to detect differences in the respiratory motion of the organs. The volunteers' physiologic signs were stable during the experiment. The maximum inspiration pressure load was 4.48 ± 0.86 kgf (range, 4.00-6.00 kgf), while the minimum expiration pressure load was 3.69 ± 0.95 kgf (range, 2.8-5.3 kgf). Under airbag compression, the right diaphragm movement was reduced from 19.50 ± 6.43 mm to 9.60 ± 3.61 mm (P < 0.05) in the coronal plane and 23.12 ± 6.30 mm to 11.00 ± 3.69 mm (P < 0.05) in the sagittal plane. The left diaphragm, pancreas and liver in the coronal plane and the right kidney and liver in the sagittal plane also showed significant movement reduction. This novel airbag abdominal compression system was found to be safe during the experiment and successful in the reduction of internal organ respiratory motion and promises to be a convenient and efficient tool for clinical radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Air Bags , Respiração , Abdome , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Movimento (Física)
5.
Injury ; 53(9): 3047-3051, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613968

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Protective devices such as seat belts and airbags have improved the safety of motor vehicle occupants, but limited data suggest they may be associated with increased blunt bowel (small bowel or colon) injuries (BI). Unfortunately, this risk is unquantified. METHODS: We analyzed the National Trauma Data Bank (2017-2019) using ICD-10 codes to identify adult motor vehicle occupants with BI who underwent surgical repair. We used logistic regression modeling to compare the risk of undergoing surgical repair for BI after using a protective device. RESULTS: Of 2,848,592 injured patients, 475,546 (16.7%) were motor vehicle occupants. Only 1.2% (n = 5627/475,546) of patients underwent a bowel repair or resection. Using a seat belt only was associated with an adjusted OR of 2.09 (95% CI 1.91, 2.28) for undergoing a bowel repair/resection when adjusting for Injury Severity Score (ISS) and age. Airbag deployment without a seat belt had an adjusted OR of 1.46 (95% CI 1.31, 1.62), while both devices combined conferred an OR of 3.27 (95% CI 3.02, 3.54). However, using a seat belt was protective against death with an OR of 0.50 (95% CI 0.48, 0.53), adjusted for age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Score, and ISS. CONCLUSION: Seat belts and airbags are essential public health safety interventions and protect against death in motor vehicle-associated injuries. However, patients involved in MVCs with airbag deployment or while wearing a seat belt are at an increased risk of bowel injury requiring surgery compared to unrestrained patients, despite these events being relatively uncommon.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais , Air Bags , Traumatismos Abdominais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Abdominais/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Humanos , Equipamentos de Proteção , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cintos de Segurança
6.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 23(4): 198-202, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35319318

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) side crash test has led to crashworthiness improvements, and both overall and component ratings have been shown to be associated with real-world death risk. The objective of the current study was to investigate how crash test measurements, on which component ratings are based, are associated with real-world death risk. METHODS: Driver deaths and police-reported crash involvements were extracted from national crash databases for left-impact crashes of passenger vehicles with standard-feature, head-protecting side airbags for calendar years 2000-2016. Risk of driver death in left-impact crashes was estimated as the number of driver deaths divided by the number of driver police-reported crash involvements. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between crash test measurements and death risk, controlling for driver and vehicle information. RESULTS: All crash test measurements investigated were associated with driver death risk. For instance, a 10 cm reduction in B-pillar intrusion, a measure of post-crash occupant survival space, was associated with 30% lower driver death risk. For most measures, at least 75% of study vehicles were within the good rating boundary for that measure, and still these measures were associated with driver death risk. Fewer than half of study vehicles earned a good rating for B-pillar intrusion. CONCLUSION: Because performance in measures collected in the IIHS side crash test are strongly associated with real-world driver death risk, one of the ways the crash test program could continue to encourage crashworthiness improvements is by requiring stronger performance on these measures.


Assuntos
Air Bags , Seguro , Acidentes de Trânsito , Automóveis , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos
7.
Palliat Med ; 36(2): 365-374, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35049399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on the benefits to parents of spending time with their child in the hours after their death means this is now routine practice. UK children's hospices offer parents the opportunity to extend this period by using cooling facilities (i.e. cooled 'bedrooms'; cooling blankets/mattresses) to slow deterioration. AIM: To explore parents' experiences of using cooling facilities and beliefs about how it shaped experiences of the very early days of bereavement, and on-going grieving processes. METHODS: Multi-site study involving in-depth interviews with parents bereaved in the previous 3 years. Grief theories informed data analysis, which employed narrative and thematic approaches. Eight hospices supported recruitment. RESULTS: Twenty-two mothers and eight fathers were recruited, representing 25% of families approached. Duration of use of a cooling facility varied, as did the amount of time spent with the child. All parents treasured this period, valuing the way it eased separation from their child and gave some control over when this happened. They believed all bereaved parents should have the opportunity to use a cooling facility. Using a cooling facility supported parents' engagement with grief tasks including acceptance of loss, processing emotional pain and facing changes to their lives brought about by their child's death. Memories and mementoes created during this period served to support on-going connections with the child. Parents who used a cooling facility at a hospice reported benefits of the setting itself. CONCLUSIONS: As well as easing the very early days of loss, use of cooling facilities may influence longer-term bereavement outcomes.


Assuntos
Air Bags , Luto , Pesar , Humanos , Pais/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
8.
World Neurosurg ; 157: e271-e275, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637938

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High-speed motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) are an important cause of brachial plexus injury (BPI). Some case reports have demonstrated shoulder seat belt use resulting in traction injuries to the brachial plexus. We used a national trauma registry to determine the association between seat belt use and brachial plexus injury in MVAs. METHODS: The authors queried the National Trauma Databank between 2016 and 2017 for patients with a hospital admission following an MVA. Cases with BPI were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition, Clinical Modification, diagnosis codes. Case-control matching by age and sex was performed to identify 2 non-BPI controls for every case of BPI. Multivariable conditional logistic regression adjusting for body mass index, alcohol use, and drug use was then performed to determine the adjusted association between safety equipment use (seat belt use and airbag deployment) and BPI. RESULTS: A total of 526,007 cases of MVAs were identified, of which 704 (0.13%) sustained a BPI. The incidences of BPI in patients were the following without any protective device (0.16%), with airbag deployment alone (0.08%), with seat belt use alone (0.08%), and with combined airbag deployment and seat belt use (0.07%). Following 1:2 case-control matching by age and sex and multivariable conditional logistic regression, seat belt use (odds ratio [OR] 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42-0.71; P < 0.001) and airbag deployment (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.33-0.82; P = 0.004) were found to be associated with decreased odds for BPI, with the least odds observed with combined seat belt use and airbag deployment (OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.33-0.74; P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Despite anecdotal evidence suggesting increased likelihood of BPI with shoulder seat belt use, case-control analysis from a national trauma registry demonstrated that both seat belt use and airbag deployment are associated with lower odds of sustaining BPIs in MVAs, with the greatest protective effect observed with combined use. Future studies adjusting for rider location (passenger vs. driver) and other potential confounders such as make, type and speed of vehicle may help further characterize this association.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/tendências , Air Bags/tendências , Plexo Braquial/lesões , Bases de Dados Factuais/tendências , Cintos de Segurança/tendências , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Air Bags/normas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cintos de Segurança/normas , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 45(6): 645-649, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34862778

RESUMO

In order to solve the problem of continuous monitoring and automatic regulation of patient airbag pressure in intensive care unit, the study designed an intelligent management system of artificial airway airbag pressure. It can realize real-time monitoring and automatic control of airbag pressure. Its pressure data was sent to the PC in real time by the serial port. It can realize the display, store, review and analysis of pressure data. Its clinical application effect was discussed. Experiments showed that the system can monitor airbag pressure in real time and control the pressure to stabilize at 25~30 cmH2O. Compared with the control group, the experimental group had a statistically significant difference in the operation time of monitoring patients' airbag pressure, changes in airbag pressure, the instantaneous maximum value during nursing operation, and the number of aspiration and reflux cases. The clinical application of the system can reduce the workload of medical staff greatly, effectively reduce the number of patients with aspiration and reflux, reduce the incidence of ventilator pneumonia.


Assuntos
Air Bags , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Monitorização Fisiológica
10.
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 39(11): 876-877, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886655

RESUMO

At present, the gastric lavage tube used in clinical practice only has a few liquid orifices at the distal end of the lumen, and its structure has defects such as residual liquid reflux and aspiration in clinical practice. This article aims to solve the shortcomings of the existing technology and design a gastric lavage tube with built-in airbag with reasonable structure and high safety, in order to optimize the design and apply it to the actual clinical work, and further reduce the complications caused by the gastric lavage tube.


Assuntos
Air Bags , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Lavagem Gástrica , Humanos , Irrigação Terapêutica
11.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2021: 6783-6786, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34892665

RESUMO

Wearable hip-protection airbags can effectively protect hip joints when elderly people fall. This has been studied all over the world, but similar products need to use special gas cylinders and replacement of new gas cylinders needs to return to the factory; The team previously designed a mechanical puncture protection system based on standard gas cylinders and standard threaded interfaces, but the airbag still has shortcomings such as the small protective area caused by a single gas cylinder. To solve the above problems, a set of wearable hip automatic protection systems based on micromechanical double gas cylinder rapid puncture (MDGCRP) is now designed. Through a large number of experiments, it was found that the response time of MDGCRP was 92ms and the execution time was 177.5ms. Compared with the single gas cylinder approach, the airbag provides greater protection to the hip while the filling time and module weight remain essentially unchanged. The system is triggered by physical and mechanical methods. Compared with chemical blasting or hot-melt methods, the system has the characteristics of low cost and consumables that can be safely and easily replaced by themselves.


Assuntos
Air Bags , Biônica , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Humanos , Punções
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640864

RESUMO

The traffic accident occurrence rate is increasing relative to the increase in the number of people using personal mobility device (PM). This paper proposes an airbag system with a more efficient algorithm to decide the deployment of a wearable bike airbag in case of an accident. The existing wearable airbags are operated by judging the accident situations using the thresholds of sensors. However, in this case, the judgment accuracy can drop against various motions. This study used the long short-term memory (LSTM) model using the sensor values of the inertial measurement unit (IMU) as input values to judge accident occurrences, which obtains data in real time from the three acceleration-axis and three angular velocity-axis sensors on the driver motion states and judges whether or not an accident has occurred using the obtained data. The existing neural network (NN) or convolutional neural network (CNN) model judges only the input data. This study confirmed that this model has a higher judgment accuracy than the existing NN or CNN by giving strong points even in "past information" through LSTM by regarding the driver motion as time-series data.


Assuntos
Air Bags , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Acidentes de Trânsito , Ciclismo , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação
13.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257292, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543333

RESUMO

Current highly automated vehicle concepts include reclined seat layouts that could allow occupants to relax during the drive. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of seat pan and pelvis angles on the kinematics and injury risk of a reclined occupant by numerical simulation of a frontal sled test. The occupant, represented by a detailed 50th percentile male human body model, was positioned on a semi-rigid seat. Three seat pan angles (5, 15, and 25 degrees from the horizontal) were used, all with a seatback angle of 40 degrees from the vertical. Three pelvis angles (60, 70, and 80 degrees from the vertical), representing a nominal and two relaxed sitting positions, were used for each seat pan angle. The model was restrained using a pre-inflated airbag and a three-point seatbelt equipped with a pretensioner and a load limiter before being subjected to two frontal crash pulses. Both model kinematic response and predicted injury risk were affected by the seat pan and the pelvis angles in a reclined seatback position. Submarining occurrence and injury risk increased with lower seat pan angle, higher pelvis angle, and acceleration pulse severity. In some cases (in particular for a 15 degrees seat pan), a small variation in seat pan or pelvis angle resulted in large differences in terms of kinematics and predicted injury. This study highlights the potential effects of the seat pan and pelvis angles for reclined occupant protection. These parameters should be assessed experimentally with volunteers to determine which combinations are most likely to be adopted for comfort and with post mortem human surrogates to confirm their significance during impact and to provide data for model validation. The sled and restraint models used in this study are provided under an open-source license to facilitate further comparisons.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Pelve/fisiologia , Postura Sentada , Aceleração , Air Bags , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Simulação por Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Masculino , Homens , Cintos de Segurança
14.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 22(8): 623-628, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To optimize the components of restraint systems for protecting obese (BMI = 35 kg/m2) and normal BMI (BMI = 25) human body models (HBMs) in frontal crash simulations, and to compare the two optimized designs. METHODS: The Life Years Lost metric, which incorporates the risk of injury and long-term disability to different body regions, was used as the optimization objective function. Parametric simulations, sampled from a 15-parameter design space using the Latin Hypercube technique, were performed and metamodels of the HBM responses were developed. A genetic algorithm was applied to the metamodels to identify the optimized designs. RESULTS: While most of the restraint parameters between the optimized design for obese and normal BMI HBMs were similar, the main difference was that the restraint for the obese HBM included an under-the-seat airbag, which mitigated its lower extremity excursion, improved its torso kinematics, and decreased its lower extremity and lumbar spine injury risks. The optimized designs for both HBMs included an inflatable seat belt, which reduced the risk of thoracic injury. CONCLUSIONS: The design recommendations from this study should be considered to improve safety of occupants with obesity.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Air Bags , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Obesidade , Cintos de Segurança
15.
Comput Biol Med ; 137: 104840, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508972

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Finite element (FE) mechanics models of the heart are becoming more sophisticated. However, there is lack of consensus about optimal element type and coupling of FE models to the circulation. We describe biventricular (left (LV) and right (RV) ventricles) FE mechanics model creation using hexahedral elements, airbags and a functional mockup interface (FMI) to lumped-parameter models of the circulation. METHODS: Cardiac MRI (CMR) was performed in two healthy volunteers and a single patient with ischemic heart disease (IHD). CMR images were segmented and surfaced, meshing with hexahedral elements was performed with a "thin butterfly with septum" topology. LV and RV inflow and outflow airbags were coupled to lumped-parameter circulation models with an FMI interface. Pulmonary constriction (PAC) and vena cava occlusion (VCO) were simulated and end-systolic pressure-volume relations (ESPVR) were calculated. RESULTS: Mesh construction was prompt with representative contouring and mesh adjustment requiring 32 and 26 min Respectively. The numbers of elements ranged from 4104 to 5184 with a representative Jacobian of 1.0026 ± 0.4531. Agreement between CMR-based surfaces and mesh was excellent with root-mean-squared error of 0.589 ± 0.321 mm. The LV ESPVR slope was 3.37 ± 0.09 in volunteers but 2.74 in the IHD patient. The effect of PAC and VCO on LV ESPVR was consistent with ventricular interaction (p = 0.0286). CONCLUSION: Successful co-simulation using a biventricular FE mechanics model with hexahedral elements, airbags and an FMI interface to lumped-parameter model of the circulation was demonstrated. Future studies will include comparison of element type and study of cardiovascular pathologies and device therapies.


Assuntos
Air Bags , Ventrículos do Coração , Simulação por Computador , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos
16.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 22(7): 582-587, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) introduced its side impact ratings test in 2003. Despite manufacturers' improvements to airbags and vehicle structures, 45% of 2018 side crash fatalities on U.S. roadways were in good-rated vehicles, suggesting that more crashworthiness improvements are necessary. Crash trends indicate that the most promising avenue to address the remaining real-world injuries is a higher severity vehicle-to-vehicle test using a barrier to represent a striking sport-utility vehicle (SUV). Laboratory tests comparing striking SUVs with the current IIHS moving deformable barrier (MDB) showed discrepancies in damage patterns and injury measures. The current study outlines the characteristics of a multi-stiffness aluminum honeycomb barrier to represent a modern SUV-striking vehicle in side impact crash tests. METHODS: Barrier size and shape were determined from a series of measurements taken from 21 modern SUVs. Barrier honeycomb stiffness characteristics were derived by comparing the damage profile of six different barrier prototypes against a baseline profile obtained from a high-severity SUV crash into a midsize car. Tests were conducted at 60 km/h with a 1,900 kg MDB. The best honeycomb design was tested against four additional vehicles to ensure it was representative of striking SUVs of different sizes and types. RESULTS: The final barrier has a 1,700-mm width by 600-mm height and 500-mm depth multi-stiffness design, with less stiffness on the top and more stiffness in the lower outside sections compared with the original IIHS barrier. For three struck vehicles, the redesigned barrier matched all performance criteria set by the striking-SUV tests. For two additional struck vehicles, there were some differences in intrusion patterns but overall, these matched the test trends of the striking SUVs. The new barrier in a higher severity test mode resulted in a range of performance for these good-rated vehicles. CONCLUSION: A multi-stiffness aluminum honeycomb barrier was developed to represent the characteristics of striking SUVs in 60 km/h perpendicular side impact crash tests focusing on the occupant compartment. The redesigned barrier differentiates between currently good-rated vehicles, which will promote structural and restraint system improvements to the fleet relevant to the remaining real-world injuries.


Assuntos
Air Bags , Seguro , Ferimentos e Lesões , Acidentes de Trânsito , Alumínio , Humanos , Veículos Automotores
17.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 22(sup1): S128-S133, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Self-driving technology will bring novelty in vehicle interior design and allow for a wide variety of occupant seating choices. Previous studies have shown that the increased risk of submarining exhibited by reclined occupants cannot be fully mitigated by changes in the seat configuration alone. This study aims to investigate the effects of three restraint countermeasures on cases with marginal submarining events and estimate their effect on submarining risk and injury prediction metrics. METHODS: Vehicle environment frontal crash Finite Element (FE) simulations were performed with the two simplified Global Human Body Model Consortium (GHBMC) occupant models: small female and midsize male. The baseline occupant restraints consisted of a frontal airbag, a seatback-integrated 3-point belt with a lap belt anchor pre-tensioner, and a retractor-mounted pre-tensioner and load limiter. Based on submarining thresholds identified in previous studies, three baseline configurations were identified for each occupant size. For each baseline case three restraint system modifications were evaluated. The modifications consisted of the introduction of a pelvis restraint cushion airbag (PRC), the use of a knee airbag (KAB) and the modification of the of the passenger airbag location (PAB). Simulations were performed using the USNCAP 56 km/h frontal crash pulse. Occupant kinematic data was extracted from each simulation to investigate how changes in the restraint system configuration affects submarining. RESULTS: Overall, in only one of the investigated cases did the proposed restraint modification prevent submarining occurrence, however each of the restraint modifications reduced the pelvis excursion over the baseline scenario. The presence of the PRC airbag showed the highest reduction in pelvis forward excursion for the female model. The presence of the KAB and the modified location of the PAB also contributed to reductions in excursion to a smaller degree. For the male surrogate, the KAB showed the highest reduction in pelvis forward excursion. The presence of the PRC led to a reduction in the lumbar spine shear force. CONCLUSIONS: Submarining may be a major challenge to overcome for reclined occupants in autonomous driving systems. This suggests that there may not be a single generalizable currently-existing countermeasure able to effectively prevent marginal submarining cases in reclined positions.


Assuntos
Air Bags , Condução de Veículo , Acidentes de Trânsito , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pelve
18.
Accid Anal Prev ; 159: 106280, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329850

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the nationwide response to passenger airbag (PA) related deaths of children. The response was implemented in 1996 and focused on moving children to rear seats. This study determined the change in seating position of children from 1989 to 2019. METHODS: Field accident data on exposed occupants in towaway crashes was determined using 1989-2015 NASS-CDS in five groups (1989-1995, 1996-99, 2000-04, 2005-09 and 2010-15) and 2017-19 CISS in one group. Children were grouped as 0-2 yo (years old), 3-7 yo and 8-12 yo. Occupants 13 + were included for completeness. Seat position was defined as left-front (LF), right-front (RF), 2nd row and 3rd row. The weighted data provided an estimate for the change in seating position over time by occupant age with standard errors. RESULTS: For 0-2 yo, 27.9% were in the RF seat in 1989-95. The fraction decreased to 0.40% in the 2017-19 (p < 0.001). For 3-7 yo, 32.1% were in the RF seat in 1989-95 and 3.2% in 2017-19 (p < 0.001). There has been a steady decrease in 0-7 yo using the RF seat. For 8-12 yo, there was a step decline in use of the RF seat from 39.5% in 1989-95 to 23.2% in the 2017-19 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The immediate reduction in front-seat use among younger children was associated with the nationwide public information efforts implemented in 1996 to move children to rear seats. Children up to 7 yo are no longer riding in the RF seat of vehicles in towaway crashes, unless there is no other option. Children 8-12 yo are still using the RF seat, but at a lower rate. The change in use of the RF seat for children 0-7 yo provides evidence that safety campaigns on placing young children in rear seats were successful in the US.


Assuntos
Air Bags , Ferimentos e Lesões , Acidentes de Trânsito , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
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