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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35269961

RESUMO

Owing to their sessile nature, plants have developed a tapestry of molecular and physiological mechanisms to overcome diverse environmental challenges, including abiotic stresses. Adaptive radiation in certain lineages, such as Aizoaceae, enable their success in colonizing arid regions and is driven by evolutionary selection. Sesuvium verrucosum (commonly known as Western sea-purslane) is a highly salt-tolerant succulent halophyte belonging to the Aizoaceae family; thus, it provides us with the model-platform for studying plant adaptation to salt stress. Various transcriptional and translational mechanisms are employed by plants to cope with salt stress. One of the systems, namely, ubiquitin-mediated post-translational modification, plays a vital role in plant tolerance to abiotic stress and other biological process. E3 ligase plays a central role in target recognition and protein specificity in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. Here, we characterize E3 ligases in Sesuvium verrucosum from transcriptome analysis of roots in response to salinity stress. Our de novo transcriptome assembly results in 131,454 transcripts, and the completeness of transcriptome was confirmed by BUSCO analysis (99.3% of predicted plant-specific ortholog genes). Positive selection analysis shows 101 gene families under selection; these families are enriched for abiotic stress (e.g., osmotic and salt) responses and proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic processes. In total, 433 E3 ligase transcripts were identified in S. verrucosum; among these transcripts, single RING-type classes were more abundant compared to multi-subunit RING-type E3 ligases. Additionally, we compared the number of single RING-finger E3 ligases with ten different plant species, which confirmed the abundance of single RING-type E3 ligases in different plant species. In addition, differential expression analysis showed significant changes in 13 single RING-type E3 ligases (p-value < 0.05) under salinity stress. Furthermore, the functions of the selected E3 ligases genes (12 genes) were confirmed by yeast assay. Among them, nine genes conferred salt tolerance in transgenic yeast. This functional assay supports the possible involvement of these E3 ligase in salinity stress. Our results lay a foundation for translational research in glycophytes to develop stress tolerant crops.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Salinidade , Estresse Salino/genética , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/genética , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gisekia pharnaceoides Linn. (Aizoaceae), traditionally known as baluka saag or sareli is commonly found in the deep Cholistan region of Pakistan. It is used by the native community for the mitigation of a range of diseases, including inflammatory disorders and gastric ulcers. OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to evaluate the defensive impact of G. pharnaceoides in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in mice and to discover the mechanism for anti-inflammatory action. METHODS: The ethanolic crude extract of G. pharnaceoides (Gp.Cr) was prepared and evaluated for phytochemical substances by preliminary screening and HPLC analysis. Anti-inflammatory activity of Gp.Cr (300 and 500 mg/kg) was examined by administration of 200 µl of 7.5% acetic acid intra- rectally to induce ulcerative colitis and colonic mucosal injury, while mucosal homeostasis was evaluated by disease activity index, colonic ulcer score, and hematological parameters. The anti-inflammatory potential was quantified by assessing antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPX-1), lipid peroxides, nitric oxide, and cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α) immunoassays and further analyzed by histological analysis of colon tissues. RESULTS: Phytochemical screening of Gp.Cr revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, steroids, tannins, and saponins, while HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of quercetin, gallic acid, coumaric and sinapic acid. In acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis model, Gp.Cr (300 and 500 mg/kg) along with sulphasalazine (500 mg/kg) decreased disease activity index, ulcer scores, and hematological parameters. Gp.Cr showed a significant anti-inflammatory potential by increasing antioxidant enzymes and decreasing lipid peroxides, nitric oxide, and cytokines levels. Histopathological examination showed a significant decline in ulceration and tissue disruption. CONCLUSION: Hence, the findings confirmed the effectiveness of G. pharnaceoides crude extract in the treatment of ulcerative colitis and might be a promising remedy to manage inflammatory disorders.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae/química , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ácido Acético , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 170: 234-248, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34920320

RESUMO

Sesuvium portulacastrum is a true halophyte and shows an optimal development under moderate salinity with large amounts of salt ions in its leaves. However, the specific proteins in response to salt ions are remained unknown. In this study, comparative physiological and proteomic analyses of different leaves subject to NaCl, KCl, NaNO3 and KNO3 were performed. Chlorophyll content was decreased under the above four kinds of salt treatments. Starch and soluble sugar contents changed differently under different salt treatments. A total of 53 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) were identified by mass spectrometry. Among them, 13, 25, 26 and 25 DAPs were identified after exposure to KCl, NaCl, KNO3, and NaNO3, respectively. These DAPs belong to 47 unique genes, and 37 of them are involved in protein-protein interactions. These DAPs displayed different expression patterns after treating with different salt ions. Functional annotation revealed they are mainly involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Genes and proteins showed different expression profiles under different salt treatments. Enzyme activity analysis indicated P-ATPase was induced by KCl, NaCl and NaNO3, V-ATPase was induced by KCl and NaCl, whereas V-PPase activity was significantly increased after application of KNO3, but sharply inhibited by NaCl. These results might deepen our understanding of responsive mechanisms in the leaves of S. portulacastrum upon different salt ions.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal , Íons , Folhas de Planta , Proteômica , Salinidade , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
4.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 34(4(Supplementary)): 1561-1568, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799333

RESUMO

Trianthema triquetra Rottl. ex Willed is being used as herbal remedy for chronic ulcer, wound healing, diabetes, skin and inflammatory diseases in India and Pakistan. Still, no scientific data is available about the therapeutic potential and phytochemistry of the plant. The aim of the current investigation is to perform GC-MS analysis, antioxidant (total phenolic and flavonoid content, DPPH assay), antimicrobial (disc diffusion assay) and cytotoxic (XTT and RBC's cellular membrane protection assay) studies. Whole plant material was dried and extracted with methanol to get crude methanolic extract and then it was fractionated with n-hexane, ethyl-acetate, chloroform, n-butanol and water. Results showed that n-butanol fraction exhibited a significant (p<0.05) antioxidant potential measured by DPPH assay (IC50=63.35±0.13µg/mL) and also possess highest phenolic content (177±4.36mg/g GAE). Whereas, n-hexane fraction showed highest flavonoid content (14.67±1.53mg/g QE). Two major components (2, 4-Ditert-butyl-6-nitrophenol (26.79%) and Squalene (25.64%) were detected in GC-MS analysis of chloroform fraction, eluted from column chromatography. Moreover, chloroform fraction also exhibited antibacterial activity towards all the tested strains of bacteria and fungi. Significant (p<0.05) dose dependent inhibition response on cell growth against CCRF-CEM cell lines was exhibited by methanolic extract. Furthermore, hemolytic potential of methanolic extract was found to be in safe range (2.23%-6.37%). So, it can be inferred that Trianthema triquetra can be exploited as an alternative remedy for cancer, oxidative stress related disorders and in various skin diseases.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Membrana Eritrocítica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química
5.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 34(4(Supplementary)): 1585-1595, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799336

RESUMO

Sesuvium sesuvioides(Fenzl) Verdc. (Aizoaceae) is commonly known as BarriUlwaiti and used in folklore remedies; i.e. arthritis, gout, epistaxis, hemorrhage, smallpox, chickenpox, cold and flu by the local practitioners in the Cholistan desert. In the current study, fresh and dried plant material was examined macroscopically and microscopically. Transverse sections of plant parts such as leaf, stem, root and flower were also examined. Physico-chemical and fluorescence analysis according to WHO recommendations for standardization of plant material were performed. Phytochemical screening maybe helpful in determining the secondary metabolites responsible for their biological activities. Mineral analysis (Na+, K+, Li+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, Zn2+, Cu2+ and Fe2+), total fat and crude proteins were estimated to evaluate the nutritional value of the plant. In in-vitro cytotoxic activity, n-hexane fraction (50µg) showed significant results against Human T-lymphoblastic Leukemia CCRF-CEM cell lines followed by methanol and chloroform fractions. This study will be worthwhile for the correct identification and for observing any type of adulteration. This observation will be helpful for differentiating this species from closely related species of the same genus or family.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade
6.
Am J Bot ; 108(10): 1902-1916, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636413

RESUMO

PREMISE: Biological invasions and climate change are major threats to biodiversity. It is therefore important to anticipate how the climate changes projected for Southern Europe would affect the ecophysiological performance of the invasive South African plant, Carpobrotus edulis (ice plant or sour fig), and its capacity to undergo rapid adaptive evolution. METHODS: We manipulated the climate conditions in a field plot located on the island of Sálvora (northwest of the Iberian Peninsula) to establish a full factorial experiment with C. edulis plants transplanted from four native (southern African) and four invasive (northwestern Iberian Peninsula) populations. Throughout 14 months we measured growth and functional traits of this species under two temperatures (control vs. increased), and two rainfall levels (control vs. reduced). RESULTS: Temperature increased photochemical efficiency and relative growth rate of C. edulis. Rainfall modulated some of the effects of temperature on C and N isotopic composition, and pigment contents. Invasive populations showed lower root mass allocation and higher survival rates, as well as increased water use efficiency, lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll, and xanthophyll cycle pigment contents than native populations. CONCLUSIONS: The increased growth and physiological performances observed under our experimental conditions suggest that the expected climate changes would further promote the invasion of C. edulis. Differences between native and invasive genotypes in survival and functional traits revealed that populations have diverged during the process of invasion, what gives support to the invasiveness hypothesis. Our findings highlight the importance of analyzing intraspecific variability in functional responses to better predict how invasive species will respond to environmental changes.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae , Mudança Climática , Espécies Introduzidas , Plantas , Temperatura
7.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 34(3(Supplementary)): 1127-1134, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602442

RESUMO

Trianthema triquetra Rottl. ex Willed is being used as a herbal remedy for various diseases in India and Pakistan. Still, no scientific data is available about therapeutic potential and phytochemistry of the plant. The aim of the current investigation is to perform GC-MS analysis, antioxidant (total phenolic and flavonoid content, DPPH assay), antimicrobial (disc diffusion assay) and cytotoxic (XTT and RBC's cellular membrane protection assay) studies. Methanolic extract and its fractions (n-hexane, ethyl-acetate, chloroform, n-butanol and water) were investigated for in vitro studies. Results showed that n-butanol fraction exhibited a significant (p<0.05) antioxidant potential (IC50=63.35±0.13 µg/mL) and also possess highest phenolic content (177±4.36 mg/g GAE). Whereas, n-hexane fraction showed highest flavonoid content (14.67±1.53 mg/g QE). 2, 4-Ditert-butyl-6-nitrophenol (26.79%) and Squalene (25.64%) were detected as major components through GC-MS analysis of chloroform fraction, eluted from column chromatography. Moreover, chloroform fraction also exhibited antimicrobial potential. Significant (p<0.05) dose dependent inhibition response on cell growth against CCRF-CEM cell lines was exhibited by methanolic extract. Furthermore, hemolytic potential of methanolic extract was found to be in safe range (2.23%-6.37%). So, it can be inferred that Trianthema triquetra can be exploited as an alternative remedy for cancer, oxidative stress related disorders and various skin diseases.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Indicadores e Reagentes , Fenóis/análise , Picratos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 173(Pt B): 113029, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673433

RESUMO

Dunal plants may affect the patterns of deposition of beach litter. In this study, we aimed at evaluating if Carpobrotus spp. patches may act as a litter trap in coastal dune systems. To do so, we counted the number of macrolitter occurring in both Carpobrotus and control (embryo dune vegetation) patches classifying each item into categories according to the Marine Strategy. Totally, we observed a significant difference between litter trapped in Carpobrotus (331 items, representing 62.4% of the total beach litter) and control (199, 37.6%). Plastic fragments were the most trapped items by both Carpobrotus (46.2%) and control patches (47.2%). We also calculated the item co-occurrence, obtaining a random aggregated 'litter community'. The main emerging output is that Carpobrotus patches act as filter in respect to different anthropogenic materials (overall plastics), suggesting that alien plant management actions may contribute to solve beach litter issues as well.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae , Ecossistema , Praias , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plantas , Plásticos , Resíduos/análise
9.
J Integr Med ; 19(6): 526-536, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538643

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E.Br. is a succulent perennial plant native to South Africa and grows invasively in the Mediterranean basin. It is commonly used for the treatment of various diseases, including skin wound healing and regeneration, for which experimental validation is lacking. We therefore evaluated the skin healing properties by testing a C. edulis aqueous leaf extract (CAE) on cell cultures and in enzymatic assays. METHODS: Micro-morphological analysis of leaves was carried out using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Phytochemical features and antioxidant activity of CAE were evaluated by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry (RP-LC-DAD-ESI-MS), and in vitro cell-free assays. Biological activities were evaluated using keratinocytes and fibroblasts, as well as elastase, collagenase, and hyaluronidase. RESULTS: CAE showed high carbohydrates (28.59% ± 0.68%), total phenols ([101.9 ± 6.0] g gallic acid equivalents/kg dry extract [DE]), and flavonoids ([545.9 ± 26.0] g rutin equivalents/kg DE). RP-LC-DAD-ESI-MS revealed the predominant presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (51.96%), followed by tannins (14.82%) and flavonols (11.32%). The extract was not cytotoxic, had a strong and dose-dependent antioxidant activity, and inhibited collagenase (> 90% at 500 µg/mL) and hyaluronidase (100% at 1000 µg/mL). In cell culture experiments, CAE increased wound closure and collagen production, which was consistent with its high polyphenol content. CONCLUSION: Our data support the use of the C. edulis for skin care and the treatment of skin problems. Moreover, use of C. edulis for skin care purposes could be an eco-friendly solution to reduce its invasiveness in the environment.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae , Extratos Vegetais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis
10.
J Environ Manage ; 298: 113554, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426220

RESUMO

Carpobrotus edulis is an invasive clonal plant with drastic effects on biodiversity and functioning of coastal ecosystems. In recent years, authorities and land managers have implemented diverse management strategies that usually focus on mechanical removal and chemical control. However, applying mechanical control to remove C. edulis may cause indirect adverse effects since it could increase the probability of spreading new propagules, which do not lose their physiological activity. Therefore, reducing the physiological activity of these plant fragments should be a priority to avoid their spread and re-rooting. Our goal was to assess the plant regeneration capacity after applying mechanical control (i) when placing the plant material on different types of ground surface (on sand, on stones and using rooted plants as control) and (ii) combined with the attack of specialized herbivores (the soft scale Pulvinariella mesembryanthemi). To achieve this, we evaluated how these two factors (ground surface and herbivory) affected the plant physiological activity, its survival and re-rooting, biometric measurements, shoot and root nutrient composition and biochemical parameters (total phenols and tannins). Regardless of the ground surface type, our results indicated that the specialist herbivore greatly affected the C. edulis parameters studied. The attack of P. mesembryanthemi stimulated the plant defence mechanisms, even in those individuals with less photosynthetic activity. Furthermore, P. mesembryanthemi severely reduced the biomass and volume of plant material. Decomposition of C. edulis was accelerated by the combination between the inoculation of P. mesembryanthemi and placing the plants on the stones ground surface. Overall, preventing plant re-rooting by avoiding connection to the soil is an effective method of reducing its viability after the eighth-tenth month. After applying mechanical control, we recommend placing C. edulis fragments over an inert ground surface to avoid re-rooting, which would favour its death. We conclude that the combination of mechanical control and P. mesembryanthemi or even direct inoculation with this specialist herbivore could help authorities and land managers to improve management strategies for C. edulis.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae , Ecossistema , Herbivoria , Humanos , Plantas , Solo
11.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443458

RESUMO

Adverse effects associated with synthetic drugs in diabetes therapy has prompted the search for novel natural lead compounds with little or no side effects. Effects of phenolic compounds from Carpobrotus edulis on carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes through in vitro and in silico methods were assessed. Based on the half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50), the phenolic extract of the plant had significant (p < 0.05) in vitro inhibitory effect on the specific activity of alpha-amylase (0.51 mg/mL), alpha-glucosidase (0.062 mg/mL) and aldose reductase (0.75 mg/mL), compared with the reference standards (0.55, 0.72 and 7.05 mg/mL, respectively). Molecular interactions established between the 11 phenolic compounds identifiable from the HPLC chromatogram of the extract and active site residues of the enzymes revealed higher binding affinity and more structural compactness with procyanidin (-69.834 ± 6.574 kcal/mol) and 1,3-dicaffeoxyl quinic acid (-42.630 ± 4.076 kcal/mol) as potential inhibitors of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase, respectively, while isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (-45.398 ± 4.568 kcal/mol) and luteolin-7-O-beta-d-glucoside (-45.102 ± 4.024 kcal/mol) for aldose reductase relative to respective reference standards. Put together, the findings are suggestive of the compounds as potential constituents of C. edulis phenolic extract responsible for the significant hypoglycemic effect in vitro; hence, they could be exploited in the development of novel therapeutic agents for type-2 diabetes and its retinopathy complication.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Enzimas/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ratos , Suínos , Termodinâmica
12.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(3): 789-800, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061285

RESUMO

Sesuvium sesuvioides (Fenzl) Verdc is traditionally used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and gout The aim of present study was to assess the possible anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic potential of the methanol extract of Sesuvium sesuvioides (SsCr) to prove scientifically its folklore use in the inflammatory diseases and to screen its total antioxidant capacity by multiple methods and phytocompounds by GC-MS. The preliminary phytochemical studies showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, coumarin, terpenoids, saponins, fats and carbohydrates in crude extract. The total phenolic contents (27.31 ± 0.28 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoids (3.58 ± 0.12 mgRE/g) values were observed. The antioxidant capacity of SsCr showed significant DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP, PBD and metal chelating results. GC-MS analysis displayed the phytoconstituents with anti-inflammatory potentials such as 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, vanillin, umbelliferone, methyl ferulate, palmitoleic acid, methyl palmitate and phytol. SsCr presented noteworthy HRBC membrane stability with maximum inhibition of cell hemolysis (47.79%). In carrageenan-induced hind paw edema assay result showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory action. SsCr presented significant (p < 0.05) analgesic activity in hot-plate and tail flicking tests similarly it also showed the noteworthy inhibition in pain latency against formalin induced analgesia at 1st and 2nd phases. SsCr reduced the acetic acid-induced writhes at different doses (250, 500 and 750 mg). Results of antipyretic activity of SsCr extract were significant at 500 and 750 mg. The results of in vitro and in vivo experimental studies verified the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic potential of Sesuvium sesuvioides and supported the folklore uses of this plant.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antipiréticos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antipiréticos/química , Antipiréticos/isolamento & purificação , Carragenina/toxicidade , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/metabolismo , Feminino , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Medição da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 165: 196-199, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051625

RESUMO

Lithops (Aizoaceae) are succulent plants consisting of a pair of opposite succulent leaves inserted on an extremely short stem. The apical meristem produces a new leaf pair that develops between the older pair, recycling water and metabolites. This peculiar anatomy and growth form make ecophysiological studies quite challenging. Lithops are considered to have CAM metabolism, though experimental evidence is scarce. We followed the changes in carbon and nitrogen isotopic values in mature leaves, young leaves and roots, with the aim of investigating how the use of resources is optimized to achieve survival in extremely arid environments. Two-year-old plants of Lithops aucampiae were grown in pots with no irrigation for six months. Plants were sampled periodically, and isotopic values were recorded in relation to the developmental pattern of the leaves. δ13C ranged from -16.4 to -13.1‰ with leaves showing less negative values than roots. δ15N ranged between -0.8 and 3.9‰ with leaves showing higher values than roots. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence of carbon and nitrogen isotope values in Lithops, the former providing evidence for CAM metabolism.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae , Carbono , Isótopos de Carbono , Nitrogênio , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Folhas de Planta
14.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 69, 2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the immediate consequences of biological invasions on ecosystems and conservation have been widely studied, the long-term effects remain unclear. Invaders can either cause the extinction of native species or become integrated in the new ecosystems, thus increasing the diversity of these ecosystems and the services that they provide. The final balance of invasions will depend on how the invaders and native plants co-evolve. For a better understanding of such co-evolution, case studies that consider the changes that occur in both invasive and native species long after the introduction of the invader are especially valuable. In this work, we studied the ecological consequences of the more than one century old invasion of NW Iberia by the African plant Carpobrotus edulis. We conducted a common garden experiment to compare the reciprocal effects of competition between Carpobrotus plants from the invaded area or from the native African range and two native Iberian plant species (Artemisia crithmifolia and Helichrysum picardii) from populations exposed or unexposed to the invader. RESULTS: Exposure of H. picardii populations to C. edulis increased their capacity to repress the growth of Carpobrotus. The repression specifically affected the Carpobrotus from the invader populations, not those from the African native area. No effects of exposition were detected in the case of A. crithmifolia. C. edulis plants from the invader populations had higher growth than plants from the species' African area of origin. CONCLUSIONS: We found that adaptive responses of natives to invaders can occur in the long term, but we only found evidence for adaptive responses in one of the two species studied. This might be explained by known differences between the two species in the structure of genetic variance and gene flow between subpopulations. The overall changes observed in the invader Carpobrotus are consistent with adaptation after invasion.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae , Ecossistema , Aclimatação , Adaptação Fisiológica , Plantas
15.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 35(14): e9116, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928691

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Narcissus cv. Hawera has been found to biosynthesize some Sceletium-type alkaloids with antidepressant and anxiolytic activities. This ornamental plant has been poorly studied as a source of bioactive alkaloids including some contraversive reports on in vitro and intact plants. In this study, a detailed GC-MS characterization of its alkaloid fractions is presented. METHODS: GC-MS was used for the identification of compounds in the alkaloid fractions. Both underivatized and silylated samples were analyzed simultaneously. Elevated plus maze and tail suspension tests were used to assay the anxiolytic and antidepressant activities. Ellman's and MTT-dye reduction assays were used to evaluate the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory and cytotoxicity activities, respectively. RESULTS: Of the 29 alkaloids, 13 of Sceletium-type were detected. Two new alkaloids were identified as 2-oxo-mesembrine and 2-oxo-epi-mesembrenol. Lycorine was found as a major compound (43.5%) in the crude silylated methanol extract. After the elimination of lycorine by pre-crystallization, the major alkaloids were 40.8% 6-epi-mesembranol, 16.2% 6-epi-mesembrenol, and 13.8% sanguinine. This fraction showed anxiolytic and antidepressant-like activities as well as potent AChE inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. CONCLUSIONS: Silylation of the alkaloid fractions from Narcissus cv. Hawera provides better separation, structural information, and improved sensitivity for compounds with two and more hydroxyl groups. The lycorine-free alkaloid fraction shows a great potential for further pharmacological studies.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Narcissus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Aizoaceae , Alcaloides/análise , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Alcaloides/toxicidade , Amaryllidaceae , Animais , Ansiolíticos/análise , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Ansiolíticos/toxicidade , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
16.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924742

RESUMO

Sceletium tortuosum (L.) N.E.Br. (Mesembryanthemaceae), commonly known as kanna or kougoed, is an effective indigenous medicinal plant in South Africa, specifically to the native San and Khoikhoi tribes. Today, the plant has gained strong global attraction and reputation due to its capabilities to promote a sense of well-being by relieving stress with calming effects. Historically, the plant was used by native San hunter-gatherers and Khoi people to quench their thirst, fight fatigue and for healing, social, and spiritual purposes. Various studies have revealed that extracts of the plant have numerous biological properties and isolated alkaloids of Sceletium tortuosum are currently being used as dietary supplements for medicinal purposes and food. Furthermore, current research has focused on the commercialization of the plant because of its treatment in clinical anxiety and depression, psychological and psychiatric disorders, improving mood, promoting relaxation and happiness. In addition, several studies have focused on the isolation and characterization of various beneficial bioactive compounds including alkaloids from the Sceletium tortuosum plant. Sceletium was reviewed more than a decade ago and new evidence has been published since 2008, substantiating an update on this South African botanical asset. Thus, this review provides an extensive overview of the biological and pharmaceutical properties of Sceletium tortuosum as well as the bioactive compounds with an emphasis on antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antidepressant, anxiolytic, and other significant biological effects. There is a need to critically evaluate the bioactivities and responsible bioactive compounds, which might assist in reinforcing and confirming the significant role of kanna in the promotion of healthy well-being in these stressful times.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Aizoaceae/anatomia & histologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/química , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Humanos , Fenótipo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/anatomia & histologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250879, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930061

RESUMO

Carpobrotus species are harmful invaders to coastal areas throughout the world, particularly in Mediterranean habitats. Demographic models are ideally suited to identify and understand population processes and stages in the life cycle of the species that could be most effectively targeted with management. However, parameterizing these models has been limited by the difficulty in accessing the cliff-side locations where its populations are typically found, as well as accurately measuring the growth and spread of individuals, which form large, dense mats. This study uses small unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) to collect demographic data and parameterize an Integral Projection Model of an Israeli Carpobrotus population. We validated our data set with ground targets of known size. Through the analysis of asymptotic growth rates and population sensitivities and elasticities, we demonstrate that the population at the study site is demographically stable, and that reducing the survival and growth of the largest individuals would have the greatest effect on reducing overall population growth rate. Our results provide a first evaluation of the demography of Carpobrotus, a species of conservation and economic concern, and provide the first structured population model of a representative of the Aizoaceae family, thus contributing to our global knowledge on plant population dynamics. In addition, we demonstrate the advantages of using drones for collecting demographic data in understudied habitats such as coastal ecosystems.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae/fisiologia , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Demografia/métodos , Ecossistema , Israel , Dinâmica Populacional , Reprodução
18.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668096

RESUMO

Aizoaceae is a large succulent family characterized by many psychoactive species. Aizoon canariense L., a wild neglected plant traditionally used in gastrointestinal ailments, has been the subject of a limited number of phytochemical and biological studies. Therefore, herein, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxic, antimicrobial, and anticholinesteraseactivity of the aerial parts of A. canariense L. and analyzed the phytochemical compositions of the lipoidal and alkaloidal fractions. Petroleum ether extract showed the presence of behenic and tricosylic acid, while an in-depth investigation of the alkaloidal fraction revealed the identification of new adenine based alkaloids (1-5), which were isolated and identified for the first time from Aizoon canariense L. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses. The alkaloidal extract showed a powerful cytotoxic effect (IC50 14-28 µg/mL), with the best effect against colon carcinoma, followed by liver and breast carcinomas. The alkaloidal extract also had a potent effect against Candida albicans and Escherichia coli, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values of 312.5 and 625 µg/mL. The in vitro anticholinesterase activity was potent, with IC50 < 200 ng/mL for the tested extracts compared with 27.29 ± 0.49 ng/mL for tacrine.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(3): 102, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712901

RESUMO

Sceletium tortuosum is one of the most promising medicinal plant species for treating anxiety and depression. Traditionally, aerial parts are chewed (masticatory herbal medicine) providing fast relief and rendering the masticatory route for delivery, ideal. This study intended formulating novel medicated chewing gum containing S. tortuosum to alleviate depression and anxiety. S. tortuosum extract was formulated into directly compressed medicated chewing gum (MCG) containing different Health-in-Gum® (HIG) bases through process optimization with the SeDeM Diagram Expert System. Physical properties of MCGs were characterized, and specialized drug release studies performed. According to the manufacturer, only HIG-03 was specifically developed for direct compression; however, the SeDeM System was successfully applied to all HIG-bases investigated. HIG-01 and HIG-04 are also considered useful in direct compression as no considerable differences in these MCG formulations' physical properties were recognized. Inclusion of a lubricant, however, is deemed essential, and MCG comprising HIG-01, most suited for direct compression. Dissolution experiments found only two alkaloids used as markers, mesembrine and mesembrenone, were released in quantifiable concentrations regardless formulation constituents. Novel directly compressed MCG-containing S. tortuosum extract was successfully formulated by which the biologically active phytochemicals of S. tortuosum can be scientifically delivered through the traditionally applied mastication method.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae/química , Ansiolíticos/administração & dosagem , Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Goma de Mascar , Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Composição de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Excipientes , Sistemas Especialistas , Lubrificantes , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Pós
20.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 23(12): 1270-1278, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678091

RESUMO

Sodium salt contamination in the fresh water due to industrial effluents, underground rock salts and inland aquaculture is a major concern needs to be remediated, and subsequently recycled as sustainable bioeconomic strategy. Treatment of saline wastewater requires efficient, cost-effective, rapid, and green technologies, so as to mitigate the negative impacts of salinity on agricultural land. Green technology of phytodesalination is proposed to reduce salinity in the wastewater using salt tolerant plant species. present study was designed with an aim to investigate the sodium (Na+) removal capacity of salt tolerant and high biomass producing macrophytes on synthetic saline wastewater. Sesuvium portulacastrum (sea purslane), Pluchea indica (Indian camphorweed), Typha angustifolia (narrow leaf cattail) and Heliconia psittacorum (heliconia) were collected, cultivated in the greenhouse, subsequently treated with 0 (control) and 217 mM NaCl (salt stress) for 4 weeks. Overall growth performance, physiological change and Na+ removal rate in root and leaf tissues of the candidate plant species were measured. Plants were able to maintain their growth and physiological abilities except for shoot height in T. angustifolia (reduced by 13.7%) and chlorophyll content in S. portulacastrum (reduced by 64%). Major accumulation of Na+ was recorded in the shoots of S. portulacastrum and P. indica (halophytic plant species) and the roots of T. angustifolia and H. psittacorum (glycophytic plant species). Since T. angustifolia and H. psittacorum have high plant biomass, they showed higher Na+ removal efficiency at 4.4% and 5.7%, respectively; whereas due to lower plant biomass, S. portulacastrum and P. indica resulted in the removal of only 0.6 and 0.8% Na+ from the batch, respectively. Based on the information from this investigation, the selected candidate plant species can further be studied in the constructed wetland together with the controlled environments including optimized flowrate, vertical or horizontal flow system, plant densities and Na-removal rate in relation to swamp habitat.Novelty statement: T. angustifolia and H. psittacorum have high plant biomass, they showed higher Na+ removal efficiency at 4.4% and 5.7%, respectively; whereas due to lower plant biomass, S. portulacastrum and P. indica resulted in removal of only 0.6 and 0.8% Na+ from the batch. Based on the information from this investigation, the selected candidate plant species can further be studied in the constructed wetland together with the controlled environments including optimized flowrate, vertical or horizontal flow system, plant densities and Na-removal rate in relation to swamp habitat.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae , Biodegradação Ambiental , Salinidade , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal , Sódio
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